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  • gene
  • What's more, ATM, CHK2, and P53 gene could involve in the pathogenic signaling pathways of HL60 cells when GINS2 gene was down-regulated. (medsci.org)
  • On the contrary, after HL60 cells were infected by recombinant adenovirus vector which contained GINS2 gene, we observed that over-expression of GINS2 could promote HL-60 cell proliferation. (medsci.org)
  • 17), which fuses promyelocytic (PML) leukemia gene located on chromosome 15 to retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR α) gene mapped on chromosome 17. (medsci.org)
  • DNA replication licensing factor MCM3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MCM3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few other mechanisms in E. coli that variously regulate initiation are DDAH (datA-Dependent DnaA Hydrolysis, which is also regulated by IHF), inhibition of the dnaA gene (by the SeqA protein), and reactivation of DnaA by the lipid membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA replication licensing factor MCM5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MCM5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is structurally very similar to the CDC46 protein from S. cerevisiae, a protein involved in the initiation of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA replication licensing factor MCM2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MCM2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene silencing studies with small interfering RNA demonstrated that this protein plays an essential role in coordinating chromosome replication and segregation with cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human CCDC113 gene is located on chromosome 16q21 and encodes 5,304 base pairs of mRNA and 377 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene is also expressed in embryonic tissues and stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA replication licensing factor MCM7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MCM7 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene expression of P2 is regulated over time during the lytic cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Late gene transcription is initiated from four late promotersonce DNA replication has started and the transcriptional activator Ogr has been expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to mediating cell cycle checkpoints, Chk1 also contributes to DNA repair processes, gene transcription, embryo development, cellular responses to HIV infection and somatic cell viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • swarmer
  • In swarmer cells, CpdR is in the phosphorylated state, thus preventing ClpXP localization and CtrA degradation. (pnas.org)
  • As swarmer cells differentiate into stalked cells (G 1 /S transition), unphosphorylated CpdR accumulates and is localized to the stalked cell pole, where it enables ClpXP localization and CtrA proteolysis, allowing the initiation of DNA replication. (pnas.org)
  • A ) Swarmer cells of a strain expressing cpdR-yfp from a low copy-number plasmid in a wild-type background were harvested, resuspended on an agarose pad, and, thereafter, imaged by DIC and fluorescence microscopy every 45 min. (pnas.org)
  • Clearance of CtrA∼P from the stalked cell at the swarmer-to-stalked cell transition, or from the stalked cell compartment at cell division, by simultaneous dephosphorylation and degradation enables initiation of chromosome replication. (pnas.org)
  • The initially motile swarmer cell progeny sheds its flagellum and differentiates into a nonmotile stalked cell. (asmscience.org)
  • In addition to morphological differences, the stalked- and swarmer cell progeny inherit different competencies for chromosome replication. (asmscience.org)
  • G 1 -phase swarmer cells can be isolated easily and allowed to proceed synchronously through the cell cycle, facilitating temporal dissection of cell cycle events. (pnas.org)
  • The swarmer cell has a nonreplicating chromosome and a polar flagellum and pili. (pnas.org)
  • At the swarmer-to-stalked cell transition, the pili and the flagellum are lost, and a stalk is formed at that same pole, coincident with the initiation of DNA replication. (pnas.org)
  • CtrA∼P is present at relatively high levels in G 1 swarmer cells before being dephosphorylated and rapidly proteolyzed at the swarmer-to-stalked cell transition ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • One daughter is a mobile "swarmer" cell that has a single flagellum at one cell pole that provides swimming motility for chemotaxis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Swarmer cells differentiate into stalked cells after a short period of motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • In strain NA1000, which was derived from CB15 in the 1970s, the stalked and predivisional cells can be physically separated in the laboratory from new swarmer cells, while cell types from strain CB15 cannot be physically separated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The isolated swarmer cells can then be grown as a synchronized cell culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The swarmer cell is thought to provide cell dispersal, so that the organism constantly seeks out new environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many, perhaps most, of the swarmer daughter cells will not find a productive environment, but the obligate dispersal stage must increase the reproductive fitness of the species as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • replicate
  • Certain mutated cells keep trying to replicate their DNA-with disastrous results-even after medications rob them of the raw materials to do so, according to new research from USC. (phys.org)
  • degradation
  • Thus, the regulation of Cdc6p is tightly correlated to the activity of Cdk2 and since Cdk2-activity is oscillating once per cell cycle, the accumulation and degradation of Cdc6p also oscillates. (wikipedia.org)