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  • protease inhibitor
  • Induction of apoptosis by protease inhibitor also was detected in U937 and TF-1 leukemia cell lines and cells obtained from acute myelogenous leukemia patients but not in normal human blood monocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • While the majority of researchers have advocated a view that this syndrome is predominantly a drug-related side effect mediated by contributions from both the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and protease inhibitor (PI) classes of antiretroviral medications, some studies, such as the recent HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS), have demonstrated no evidence of antiretroviral class-specific effects. (thebodypro.com)
  • Cyclins
  • Schematic structure of p21 protein showing the regions responsible for binding to Cyclins, CDK and PCNA. (intechopen.com)
  • Cell cycle progression may be also regulated, independently of cyclins and CDKs, thanks to the strong affinity binding to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) [ 14 - 17 ], a protein playing a central role in DNA replication and repair, as well as in other processes of DNA metabolism [ 18 , 19 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • pathway
  • The identification of myostatin and its biological function immediately suggested the possibility that inhibitors of this pathway may have clinical applications for treating patients with muscle loss. (pnas.org)
  • The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is the principal mechanism for the degradation of short-lived proteins in eukaryotic cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We demonstrated that treatment of THP-1 human monocytic leukemia cells with Z-LLL-CHO, a reversible proteasome inhibitor, induced cell death through an apoptotic pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Apoptosis in THP-1 cells induced by Z-LLL-CHO involved a cytochrome c -dependent pathway, which included the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c , activation of caspase-9 and -3, and cleavage of Bcl-2 into a shortened 22-kDa fragment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings show that the action of proteasome inhibitors is mediated primarily through a cytochrome c -dependent pathway and induces apoptosis in leukemic cells that are not differentiated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this pathway, specific proteins are marked for degradation by conjugation to multiple molecules of ubiquitin, which targets proteins for rapid hydrolysis by the 26S proteasome. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway was initially regarded as a mechanism of destruction for old and damaged proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In recent years, however, it has become clear that proteolysis by the proteasome pathway is a crucial mechanism of regulation of many cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, gene expression, and cell differentiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Prior to activation of the RTK/Ras/ERK-signaling pathway, LIN-1 functions as a SUMOylated transcriptional repressor that inhibits vulval cell fate. (genetics.org)
  • The mechanisms that enable ETS proteins to switch cell fates in response to signaling pathway activation are not fully defined, and to address this important issue it is critical to elucidate the function of these proteins both prior to ERK activation and following phosphorylation by ERK. (genetics.org)
  • The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway is known to be involved in limb myogenesis during development, but whether it is involved in postnatal muscle regeneration is unclear. (physiology.org)
  • binds
  • The proinflammatory cytokine IL-1 binds two surface IL-1 receptors, type I (IL-1RI) and type II (IL-1RII). (jimmunol.org)
  • Marinopyrrole A directly binds to Mcl-1 and targets it for proteasomal degradation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Leukotactin-1 (Lkn-1)/CCL15 is a CC chemokine that binds to the CCR1 and CCR3. (springer.com)
  • Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we showed that the EGL-27 /MTA1 component of the NuRD complex binds the carboxy-terminus of LIN-1 independently of LIN-1 SUMOylation. (genetics.org)
  • EGL-27 also binds UBC-9 , an enzyme involved in SUMOylation, and MEP-1 , a zinc-finger protein previously shown to bind LIN-1 . (genetics.org)
  • toxicity
  • The detrimental skeletal effects of glucose toxicity, insulin deficiency, and diabetes complications might partly explain the association between type 1 diabetes and osteoporosis ( 3 - 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • skeletal
  • Myostatin and activin A are structurally related secreted proteins that act to limit skeletal muscle growth. (pnas.org)
  • Mstn −/− mice exhibit an approximate doubling of skeletal muscle mass throughout the body as a result of a combination of increased numbers of muscle fibers and increased muscle fiber sizes ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, the pathogenesis of this skeletal fragility and markers for the evaluation of bone metabolism in type 1 diabetic patients remain to be fully clarified. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We have found that adult inhibitor of differentiation (Id)-mutant (Id1 +/− Id3 −/− ) mice display delayed and reduced skeletal muscle regeneration after injury compared with either wild-type littermates or Id3-null mice. (physiology.org)
  • Inhibition of BMP signaling in injured skeletal muscle by Noggin injection reduced pSmad1/5/8, Id1, and Id3 protein levels. (physiology.org)
  • These data suggest a model in which BMP signaling regulates Id1 and Id3 in muscle satellite cells, which directs their proper proliferation before terminal myogenic differentiation after skeletal muscle injury in postnatal animals. (physiology.org)
  • Acts
  • 27036124 ). Acts as inhibitor of monocyte chemotaxis. (uniprot.org)
  • IL-1RII contains a signaling-incompetent cytoplasmic domain of only 29 amino acids and acts as a negative regulator of IL-1 signaling by serving as a docking site for IL-1, thereby preventing its interaction with IL-1RI. (jimmunol.org)
  • Acts as a repressor of MYOD-dependent transcription, glucocorticoid receptor-dependent transcription, and muscle differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Tumors
  • However, tumors derived from Id1-overexpression cells (pWPI-hId-transfected) showed SCC with undifferentiated or low-grade differentiated types, while those from control cells (pWPI-transfected) revealed a better differentiation (Fig.6). (nih.gov)
  • lbene, also known as TMS, is a selective and competitive inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1B1, an overexpressed enzyme in particular tumors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • cytochrome
  • Likewise, differentiated THP-1 cells were refractory to Z-LLL-CHO-induced cytochrome c release, caspase activation, and Bcl-2 cleavage. (aacrjournals.org)
  • recombinant
  • Abgent has over fifteen years of experience producing recombinant proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells (CHO and HEK293, etc), and we have added a powerful yeast expression platform to our menu of services. (abgent.com)
  • chemotaxis
  • Ko J, Kim IS, Jang SW, Lee YH, Shin SY, Min DS et al (2002) Leukotactin-1/CCL15-induced chemotaxis signaling through CCR1 in HOS cells. (springer.com)
  • ectopically
  • To determine whether Id-1 expression is required for transformation of H8 cells, we ectopically expressed Id-1 in H8 cells through lentivirus transduction. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the role of Akt in nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neuronal differentiation, PC12 cells ectopically expressing wild-type or dominant-inhibitory forms of Akt were analyzed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • mechanisms
  • Our previous study implied a correlation between inhibitors of differentiation-1 (Id-1) and cervical cancer development.However, how Id-1 contributes to cervical carcinogenesis is unknown.Our results suggest that Id-1 plays an oncogenic role in HPV-related cervical carcinogenesis, which sheds light on cervical cancer development mechanisms and implies that Id-1 is a potential target for cervical cancer prevention and therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Even though IL-1RI uses TRAF6 as a signaling adaptor molecule, it has been shown that IL-1 does not directly induce osteoclast formation ( 17 , 18 ) It is worth noting, though, that the detailed mechanisms of IL-1-mediated downstream signaling pathways have yet to be revealed. (jimmunol.org)
  • TLR4
  • Epigenetic modification of TLR4 promotes activation of NFκB by regulating methylCpGbinding domain protein 2 and Sp1 in gastric cancer. (abmole.com)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, whole transcriptome analysis confirmed a developmental path of OSPC differentiation from hiPSCs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, the addition of IL-1 to IL-1RI overexpressing BMMs (IL-1/IL-1RI) strongly activates NF-κB, JNK, p38, and ERK which is a hallmark gene activation profile of osteoclastogenesis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, IL-1 strongly induces expression of osteoclast-specific genes such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) via activation of MITF. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, the osteoclast levels in tibia, suppressed in diabetes, were also blunted by PAI-1 deficiency in female mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • receptor
  • Chloroquine (diphosphate) is an antimalarial drug and autophagy/lysosome inhibitor, inhibiting Toll-like receptor ( TLR ) signalling. (medchemexpress.com)
  • CU CPT 22 is a toll-like receptor 1 and 2 ( TLR1/2 ) inhibitor with an IC 50 of 0.58 µM. (medchemexpress.com)
  • TLR7-agonist-1 is a potent and selective Toll-like Receptor 7 ( TLR7 ) agonist with a LEC of 0.4 μM. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Herein, we show that IL-1 has the potential to drive osteoclast differentiation via a receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/RANK-independent mechanism. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, we demonstrate that overexpression of the IL-1RI receptor in BMMs or induction of IL-1RI by c-Fos overexpression enables IL-1 alone to induce the formation of authentic osteoclasts by a RANKL/RANK-independent mechanism. (jimmunol.org)
  • Rather, IL-1/IL-1RI strongly activates MITF, which subsequently induces osteoclast-specific genes such as osteoclast-associated receptor and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. (jimmunol.org)
  • Osteoclasts are formed from hematopoietic monocyte/macrophage cells in response to macrophage CSF (M-CSF) 3 and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) ( 1 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Antigen
  • Antigens (such as cancer/testis antigen [NY-ESO-1] protein) are found on many cancer cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • I. To determine the effectiveness of INCB024360 on enhancing vaccine efficacy by assessing cancer-testis antigen (NY-ESO-1) specific cellular and humoral immunity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • UniProt
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • Neutrophils
  • Lkn-1 functions as an essential factor in the migration of monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. (springer.com)
  • Frontiers
  • Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 10 (66), 1−13.10.3389/fncel.2016.00066. (etis.ee)
  • activation
  • We further investigated the biological consequence of Id-1 activation in tumorigenesis with the nude mouse xenograft model. (nih.gov)
  • IL-1 is a potent cytokine that can induce bone erosion in inflammatory sites such as rheumatoid joint regions via activation of osteoclasts. (jimmunol.org)
  • Together, these results reveal that IL-1 has the potential to induce osteoclast differentiation via activation of microphthalmia transcription factor under specific microenvironmental conditions. (jimmunol.org)
  • Activation of Fas causes the recruitment of Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) via interactions between the death domain of Fas and FADD and is followed by pro-caspase-8 binding to FADD via interactions between the death effector domains (DED) of FADD and pro-caspase-8 leading to the activation of caspase-8. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • PKCδ activation due to Lkn-1 is involved in migration, as well as the butyric acid-induced differentiation. (springer.com)
  • interacts
  • Of the six known TRAFs, RANK interacts with TRAFs 1, 2, 3, and 5 in a membrane-distal region of the cytoplasmic tail, and with TRAF6 at a distinct membrane-proximal binding motif ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • mediates
  • Here we demonstrate using the yeast two-hybrid system that SUMOylation of LIN-1 mediates interactions with a protein predicted to be involved in transcriptional repression: the RAD-26 Mi-2β/CHD4 component of the nu cleosome r emodeling and histone d eacetylation (NuRD) transcriptional repression complex. (genetics.org)
  • metabolic
  • Table 1 summarizes the metabolic and morphologic complications associated with HIV infection and ART. (thebodypro.com)
  • The combination of these morphologic changes and antiretroviral-associated metabolic derangements has been referred to as the lipodystrophy syndrome ( Figures 1-4 ). (thebodypro.com)
  • role
  • However, the role of these proteins in regulation of myelopoiesis is currently unclear. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system. (medchemexpress.com)
  • However, the role of PAI-1 in the pathogenesis of diabetic osteoporosis has not yet been elucidated. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Studies of the similar gene in Xenopus suggested that this protein play a pivotal role in the loading of DNA polymerase alpha onto chromatin. (abnova.com)
  • biological processes
  • Due to the lack of a defined tertiary structure, p21 protein may adopt an extended conformation [ 9 ], which may explain its ability to interact with a number of proteins involved in several important biological processes [ 3 - 6 ] ( Figure 1) . (intechopen.com)
  • Human
  • Han IS, Ra JS, Kim MW, Lee EA, Jun HY, Park SK et al (2003) Differentiation of CD34 + cells from human cord blood and murine bone marrow is suppressed by C6 beta-chemokines. (springer.com)
  • D2 is the only known protein capable of producing T3 in the human brain [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These issues have significant implications for human health, since ETS proteins contribute to human diseases including cancer ( Dittmer 2003 ). (genetics.org)