• The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Primary transducing effect is adenylate cyclase inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) and pharmacological inhibition of sortilin were used to elucidate the role of sortilin as a functional receptor during progranulin-induced breast cancer stem cell propagation, both in vitro and in vivo, using breast cancer xenograft models. (gu.se)
  • The UCLA study , published in the inaugural issue of the new scientific journal Nature Cancer, showed that genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the oncogene PAK4 overcomes resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy in preclinical models. (newswise.com)
  • However, these studies relied on transient pharmacological inhibition shortly after activation, and therefore the role of BET bromodomains during T cell subset differentiation and their potential therapeutic application remain to be defined. (rupress.org)
  • This type of inhibition can be overcome by sufficiently high concentrations of substrate ( V max remains constant), i.e., by out-competing the inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, the extent of inhibition depends only on the concentration of the inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition of SIRT1 by sirtinol, a cell-permeable inhibitor, or by specific sh-RNA resulted in an increase of premature-senescence phenotype, a reduction of proliferation rate with increased apoptosis. (hindawi.com)
  • In particular, little is known about BRCA1-independent restoration of HR. Here we show that loss of REV7 (also known as MAD2L2) in mouse and human cell lines re-establishes CTIP-dependent end resection of DSBs in BRCA1-deficient cells, leading to HR restoration and PARP inhibitor resistance, which is reversed by ATM kinase inhibition. (nature.com)
  • However, inhibition of GRK2 activity with the peptide GRK2 inhibitor, ï ¢ARKct, was cardioprotective, and resulted in less cell death and increased AKT signaling, with more viable myocardium and improved post-ischemic cardiac function. (redorbit.com)
  • Therefore, our aim was to describe and quantify the effects of SGLT2 inhibition on body weight, energy balance, and body composition in T2DM patients on stable therapy with empagliflozin, a highly selective SGLT2 inhibitor. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Baricitinib (LY3009104, INCB028050) is a selective JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor with IC50 of 5.9 nM and 5.7 nM, ~70 and ~10-fold selective versus JAK3 and Tyk2, no inhibition to c-Met and Chk2. (selleckchem.com)
  • If it is reversible inhibition, then effects of the inhibitor can be overcome by increasing substrate concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major physiologic function of striatal efferent activity appears to be inhibition of tonically active GABAergic neurons in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata. (google.com)
  • inhibition of tonically active GABAergic neurons" should cause excitation. (google.com)
  • The major hypothesis today -- one supported by many animal studies -- has been that neurons in the autistic brain receive too little inhibition or too much excitation, which causes hyperexcitability or increased 'spiking. (news-medical.net)
  • He found, however, that even though the ratio of excitation to inhibition was higher than in normal mouse brains, neurons maintained a normal spiking rate. (news-medical.net)
  • Dr. Susan Ferguson's laboratory employs a novel chemical-genetic approach that uses viral vectors to express artificial, engineered G-protein coupled receptors (known as DREADD receptors) in discrete neuronal cell populations in rodents (e.g. striatonigral 'direct' pathway neurons, striatopallidal 'indirect' pathway neurons, populations of cortical neurons) in combination with rodent operant learning tasks in order to study the role of the cortex and the striatum in behavioral inhibition. (washington.edu)
  • The feedforward circuit consists of a relatively small population of GABAergic interneurons that receives excitatory input from the neocortex and exerts monosynaptic inhibition onto striatal spiny projection neurons. (nih.gov)
  • These data have revealed that the feedforward inhibition is powerful and widespread, with spiking in a single interneuron being capable of significantly delaying or even blocking the generation of spikes in a large number of postsynaptic spiny neurons. (nih.gov)
  • In vivo, we document an inhibition of tumor growth after AUY922 treatment. (gu.se)
  • RESULTS Aspirin induced inhibition of OVCAR-3 tumor cell growth in a dose-dependent fashion ranging from little to no inhibitory response in cultures treated with 1-mmol/L aspirin to 68% in those treated with 5-mmol/L aspirin. (lww.com)
  • But decreased inhibition may have unwanted secondary effects that impair other aspects of neural information processing, such as the tuning each neuron has to specific stimuli. (news-medical.net)
  • We found that rapid inhibition of the neural differentiation of nonselected cells, coupled with high cell-to-cell variability in the timing of selection, is crucial for accurate SOP selection. (sciencemag.org)
  • The new study by Pär Flodin and coauthors from Karolinska Institutet (Stockholm, Sweden) builds on previous findings in fibromyalgia that showed abnormal neuronal activity in the brain associated with poor pain inhibition. (eurekalert.org)
  • Experiments with toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-stimulated rat primary microglia show that inflammation increases LRRK2 activity and expression, while inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity or knockdown of protein attenuates TNFα secretion and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, actin inhibitors that phenocopy inhibition of process outgrowth and chemotaxis fail to modify TLR4 stimulation of TNFα secretion and inducible iNOS induction, suggesting that LRRK2 acts upstream of cytoskeleton control as a stress-responsive kinase. (jneurosci.org)
  • Inhibition of VEGF activity results in a decrease of microvessel density, which increases hypoxia in the target tissue. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • On the other hand, they did observe some apparent correlates of inhibition without concomitant excitation (such as the growing positivity on trials in the third experiment where no response was required), but this could simply reflect activity in another region "stealing" activation from motor cortex. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Expression of conformationally constrained adhesion peptide in an antibody CDR loop and inhibition of natural killer cell cytotoxic activity by an antibody antigenized with the RGD motif," EMBO Journal , vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 4375-4384, 1993. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, we observed a consistent reduction of tubule-like formation and migration and we found that SIRT1 inhibition reduced the hypoxia induced accumulation of HIF-1α protein and its transcriptional activity in hMSCs. (hindawi.com)
  • Successful inhibition was associated with increased activity in pre-supplementary motor area, and that was in turn related to lower variability in RTs. (scienceblogs.com)
  • In contrast, higher RT variability was associated with less anterior cerebellum and more dlPFC activity generally, more dlPFC & AFC activity in NoGo inhibition trials, and more posterior cerebellum activity in Go trials. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Inhibition of proteolytic activity is usually employed for two purposes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These results suggest that the bulk of the fast inhibition that has the strongest effects on spiny neuron spike timing comes from the feedforward interneuronal system whereas the axon collateral feedback system acts principally at the dendrites to control local excitability as well as the overall level of activity of the spiny neuron. (nih.gov)
  • I3C downregulated the reporter activity of LNCaP cells transiently transfected with an AR promoter-luciferase plasmid, demonstrating that a unique response to I3C is the inhibition of AR promoter activity. (wellnessresources.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Inhibition of DNA polymerase activity by thymine hydrates. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Selective inhibition of BET bromodomains. (nih.gov)
  • A 2004 paper by Burle et al in Brain and Cognition focuses on the simple act of choosing between two stimuli, and shows that inhibition seems to be involved even in that process. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Transmarginal Inhibition, or TMI, is an organism's response to overwhelming stimuli. (sott.net)
  • In conclusion, our results provide evidence that Hsp90-inhibition by AUY922 may be a promising alternative therapeutic strategy for myxoid liposarcoma patients. (gu.se)
  • In- vivo inhibition experiments were conducted on male Sprague-Dawley- rats administered 400mg/kg BAPN, 100mg/kg MMAPN, 250mg/kg DMAPN, or 300mg/kg IDPN by intraperitoneal injection for 4 days. (cdc.gov)
  • That does not of course exclude the contingency that an inhibitory influence on a given unit may under some circumstances be unable to produce effective inhibition there owing to its being too weak to overcome concurrent excitation. (nobelprize.org)
  • An "inhibitory" afferent nerve emerged simply as an afferent nerve whose impulses at certain central loci cause, directly or indirectly, inhibition, while at other central loci the same nerve, probably even the same nerve fibre can produce excitation. (nobelprize.org)
  • There was no satisfactory evidence that an afferent nerve fibre whose end-effect is inhibitory ever for its end-effect at that same locus evokes excitation or indeed any other effect than inhibition. (nobelprize.org)
  • Pavlov found that the other three types, when faced with more stress than could be coped with by the usual means, would also eventually enter a state of brain inhibition similar to that state entered very quickly by the melancholic/weak inhibitory type. (sott.net)
  • The "weak inhibitory" type was an exception to the other three types: this type of dog went into a state of protective brain inhibition more rapidly and in response to lighter stresses. (sott.net)
  • Retrieved on August 09, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/whitepaper/20180614/Inhibition-of-Mitochondrial-Permeability-Transition-Pore-Evaluated-by-Calcium-Retention-Capacity-Assay.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • Effects of peroxisomal catalase inhibition on mitochondrial function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Two types of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition (phasic and tonic) have been described in cerebellar granule cells, although these cells receive GABAergic input only from a single cell type, the Golgi cell. (google.com)
  • Deficits in behavioral inhibition are prominent among psychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and addiction. (washington.edu)
  • interpret this to reflect increasing disinhibition of the correct thumb, and increasing inhibition of the incorrect thumb, as subjects approach the point where they will ultimately give a response. (scienceblogs.com)
  • In each case the inhibition increases in proportion to the similarity in form and dissimilarity in content of the materials learned. (hubpages.com)
  • A similar inhibition of uptake of virus occurs in human diploid fibroblasts and primary chicken embryo fibroblasts treated with homologous IFN. (pnas.org)
  • No significant inhibition occurs when cells are treated with heterologous IFN. (pnas.org)
  • In Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety (1925), Sigmund Freud discussed the anxiety that occurs when so-called "ego-alien" impulses (impulses unacceptable to the individual) threaten to manifest themselves in the individual's thinking or behavior. (hubpages.com)
  • Hence, similar to what occurs in memory, first-language forgetting may arise, at least in part, from the suppression or inhibition of native language. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pavlovian conditioned inhibition. (springer.com)
  • In Pavlovian conditioning, the subject develops an inhibition against any unrewarding response to a simulus. (hubpages.com)
  • We previously identified the stimulatory effect of AMPKα1, the dominant AMPKα isoform in satellite cells, on myogenin expression and fusion into myotubes ( 20 , 21 ), which led us to hypothesize that AMPKα1 facilitates muscle regeneration and that obesity impedes muscle regeneration mainly through inhibition of AMPK. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These results document a previously unrecognized antiviral effect of IFN--namely, inhibition at the level of viral uptake. (pnas.org)
  • But actually, our results suggest that loss of inhibition might represent a useful compensation that the brain is doing, or might be unrelated to disease symptoms. (news-medical.net)
  • The Prostaglandin Inhibition for Emphysema (PIE) study will determine if a currently available therapy, ibuprofen 600 mg three times daily, can block PGE production in the lower respiratory tract and if this results in improvement in measures of lung repair function. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Due to the difference in anaerobic inocula, waste composition, and experimental methods and conditions, literature results on inhibition caused by specific toxicants vary widely. (nih.gov)
  • Our results identify the BET family of proteins as a fundamental link between chromatin signaling and T H 17 biology, and support the notion of BET inhibition as a point of therapeutic intervention in autoimmune conditions. (rupress.org)
  • The exclusive extrasynaptic presence of the delta subunit-containing receptors, together with their kinetic properties, suggests that tonic inhibition could be mediated mainly by extrasynaptic alpha6beta2/3delta receptors, whereas phasic inhibition is attributable to the activation of synaptic alpha1beta2/3gamma2, alpha6beta2/3gamma2, and alpha1alpha6beta2/3gamma2 receptors. (google.com)
  • In contrast to previous evidence, successful inhibition in this task was not associated with right vlPFC activation in any of the contrasts here. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Conclusions: Inhibition of GSK-3 may protect against oxidative stress (and cataract) via prevention of MPT induction and attenuate apoptosis in HLEC. (gu.se)
  • In contrast, catalytic inhibition of CBP/EP300 prevents iPSC formation, suggesting distinct functions for different coactivator domains in reprogramming. (nature.com)
  • An inhibition is a force that prevents something from happening-and often comes from you yourself. (vocabulary.com)
  • Some inhibitions are good, such as the one that prevents us from choking the life out of people we dislike. (vocabulary.com)
  • The first experimental indication of inhibition as a process working within the nervous system itself appeared in 1863. (nobelprize.org)
  • Any strong experimental stress imposed on such a dog's nervous system resulted in the dog being reduced to a state of brain inhibition and "fear paralysis. (sott.net)