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  • Virology
  • Plaque purification is used extensively in virology to establish clonal virus stocks. (virology.ws)
  • On episode #257 of the science show This Week in Virology , the TWiV team consider how the kinase mTOR modulates the antibody response to provide broad protection against influenza virus, and explore the problems with scientific research. (virology.ws)
  • pathogenic
  • Use of M2e ELISAs for longitudinal surveillance of commercial poultry in Indonesia vaccinated against highly pathogenic avian influenza. (amedeo.com)
  • Extensive research has been performed to understand the molecular viral mechanisms involved in the H5N1 pathogenesis in humans, providing interesting insights about the virus-host interaction and the regulation of the innate immune response by these highly pathogenic viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • virion
  • The currently used "inactivated" vaccines provide very short-term and highly specific humoral immunity due to the frequent antigenic variations in the influenza virion. (springer.com)
  • When a complete virus particle ( virion ) comes in contact with a host cell, only the viral nucleic acid and, in some viruses, a few enzymes are injected into the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For certain viruses the RNA is replicated by a viral enzyme ( transcriptase ) contained in the virion, or produced by the host cell using the viral RNA as a messenger. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In other viruses a reverse transcriptase contained in the virion transcribes the genetic message on the viral RNA into DNA, which is then replicated by the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The envelope is studded with glycoproteins necessary for virus egress, attachment, and entry and is lined internally by the matrix protein (M). A number of species-specific accessory proteins are also found within the virion ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Within many particles, nucleocapsids were readily visualized in three dimensions, allowing us to trace the path of individual genomes through the virion. (asm.org)
  • vitro
  • The lengths of the in vivo -derived DI-like segments also are similar to those of known in vitro DIs, and the in vivo -derived DI-like segments share internal deletions of the same segments. (asm.org)
  • Using deep sequencing, we have demonstrated that HMPV particles accumulate excessive amounts of defective interfering RNA (DIs) rapidly upon in vitro passage, and that these are associated with IFN induction. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The 5' terminal structure of the methylated mRNA synthesized in vitro by vesicular stomatitis virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • mutants
  • DIPs are deletion mutants of a wild-type (WT) virus that lack genes necessary to complete their reproduction cycle. (siam.org)
  • Interestingly, only 3 of the 21 samples that were positive for mumps RNA were positive with both sets of primers, indicating that the persistence of mumps virus in the myocardium may be related to the selection of defective virus mutants. (ahajournals.org)
  • H7N9
  • Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing was first applied and long-read sequencing analysis showed that a variety of H7N9 DI-RNA species were present in the patient samples and human bronchial epithelial cells. (flu.org.cn)
  • pleomorphic
  • Influenza virus consists of pleomorphic, approximately spherical particles having an external diameter of about 110nm and an inner electron-dense core of 70nm. (healthcpn.com)
  • Structure analysis of these viruses has proven challenging, owing to disordered regions in important constituent proteins, conformational flexibility in the nucleocapsid and the pleomorphic nature of virus particles. (asm.org)
  • Our results confirm the pleomorphic nature of these viruses, although we have found some larger particles measuring up to 540 nm in diameter. (asm.org)
  • dengue
  • Analogous to observations in RNA viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus, genetic variation associated with intrahost dengue virus (DENV) populations has been postulated to influence viral fitness and disease pathogenesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Arbovirus epidemiology and transmission dynamics specially dengue and Zika virus. (cidid.org)
  • At the between-host level, this spatial structure is evident for endemic pathogens from observed patterns of genetic differences across space, such as those observed for measles virus at large geographic scales [ 1 ] and dengue virus even at intracity scales [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • genomes
  • Examples include the genomes of some (+) strand RNA viruses of plants, which consists of two RNA molecules that are packaged in different particles. (virology.ws)
  • Is this because of a low probability of coinfection between DIPs and viruses with full length genomes? (virology.ws)
  • In the simplest case, DI particles are unable to produce a complete viral capsid, and therefore the DI genomes can only be packaged when a wild-type virus co-infects the same cell. (virology.ws)
  • The family Rhabdoviridae includes 18 genera and 131 species of viruses with negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genomes of approximately 10-16 kb. (ictvonline.org)
  • parainfluenza
  • The Paramyxoviridae include many medically important viruses such as measles, mumps, and parainfluenza viruses and the emerging zoonotic agents nipah and hendra viruses. (asm.org)
  • Development of a blocking ELISA for Caprine parainfluenza virus type 3. (amedeo.com)
  • Reciprocal complementation of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 lacking either the membrane or fusion gene. (amedeo.com)
  • infectivity
  • We found that each drug increased the frequency of mutations in influenza virus populations and decreased the virus' specific infectivity, indicating a mutagenic mode of action. (asm.org)
  • Ada, G. L., Perry, B. T.: Infectivity and nucleic acid content of influenza virus. (springer.com)
  • have demonstrated previously that the infectivity of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotyped with the Zaire GP was enhanced by mouse anti-Zaire GP sera produced by DNA immunization, while substantially weaker enhancement was observed with anti-Reston GP sera ( 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Here we present evidence indicating that antibodies able to enhance infectivity of authentic Ebola Zaire virus are produced in humans and propose a novel mechanism for this antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) in which the complement protein C1q mediates the enhancement. (asm.org)
  • Ebola virus infectivity was quantified by counting IFA-positive cells in 5 to 10 microscopic fields. (asm.org)
  • proteins
  • The starting point for our investigation is a synthetic defective construct with such an in-frame deletion, so that the DIP must rely on the WT virus for capsid proteins (see Figure 1). (siam.org)
  • All viral proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm structural proteins bind to the cell membrane and are joined by the ribonucleoprotein at 8 hours, new virus particles bud through the membrane. (healthcpn.com)
  • Influenza viruses are classified as type A, B, or C based on antigenic reactions of their internal proteins. (asmscience.org)
  • In viruses that have membranes, membrane-bound viral proteins are synthesized by the host cell and move, like host cell membrane proteins, to the cell surface. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although in general viruses "steal" their lipid envelope from the host cell, virtually all of them produce "envelope proteins" that penetrate the envelope and serve as receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For example, measles virus N has been found to bind several viral and host proteins. (asm.org)
  • HA and NA are viral surface proteins and the main antigenic determinants of the virus. (springer.com)
  • pandemic
  • These new strategies will be successful if they are supported by regulatory agencies and if a robust market for influenza virus vaccines against interpandemic and pandemic threats is made and sustained. (cdc.gov)
  • Gene
  • Out of all PRRs found to date, retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) has been shown to play a key role in recognition of RNA viruses. (pnas.org)
  • Phylogenetic relationships of Iranian infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) based on the glycoprotein gene. (ictvonline.org)
  • reassortant
  • Clements ML, Snyder MH, Buckler-White AJ, Tierney EL, London WT, Murphy BR (1986) Evaluation of avian-human reassortant influenza A/Washington/897/80 x A/Pintail/119/79 virus in monkeys and adult volunteers. (springer.com)
  • Immunogenicity
  • We have been evaluating an oral vaccine platform based on recombinant adenoviral vectors for the purpose of creating a prophylactic vaccine to prevent influenza, and have demonstrated vaccine efficacy in animal models and substantial immunogenicity in humans. (springer.com)
  • Self-Amplifying RNA Vaccines for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Induce Robust Protective Immunogenicity in Mice. (nih.gov)
  • populations
  • We were able to drive viral populations to extinction by passaging influenza virus in the presence of each drug, indicating that complete lethal mutagenesis of influenza virus populations can be achieved when a sufficient mutational burden is applied. (asm.org)
  • Population-wide resistance to these mutagenic agents did not arise after serial passage of influenza virus populations in sublethal concentrations of drug. (asm.org)
  • Typically the fitness of antigenically variant viruses is not the same as wild type, and therefore such viruses are not likely to spread in well immunized populations. (virology.ws)
  • segments
  • In influenza-infected cells RIG-I preferentially associated with shorter genomic segments as well as subgenomic DI particles. (pnas.org)
  • Bishop, D. H. L., Huddleston, J. A., Brownlee, G. G.: The complete sequence of RNA segments of influenza A/NT/60/68 and its encoded PI protein. (springer.com)
  • Carter, M.J., Mahy, B. W.J.: Synthesis of RNA segments 1-3 during generation of incomplete influenza A (Fowl plague) vims. (springer.com)
  • protein
  • A virus consists of genetic material, which may be either DNA or RNA, and is surrounded by a protein coat and, in some viruses, by a membranous envelope. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The RdRP is contained within a viral large (L) protein, which associates with N‐RNA through a phosphoprotein (P). Here, we define that vesicular stomatitis virus L initiates synthesis via a de‐novo mechanism that does not require N or P, but depends on a high concentration of the first two nucleotides and specific template requirements. (embopress.org)
  • Addition of an EGFP-tag to the N-terminal of influenza virus M1 protein impairs its ability to accumulate in ND10. (amedeo.com)
  • Characterization of Durham virus, a novel rhabdovirus that encodes both a C and SH protein. (ictvonline.org)
  • Role of the nucleocapsid protein in regulating vesicular stomatitis virus RNA synthesis. (ictvonline.org)
  • An integrated protein localization and interaction map for potato yellow dwarf virus, type species of the genus Nucleorhabdovirus . (ictvonline.org)
  • Novel
  • Novel therapies for RNA viruses are needed due to the ease with which these viruses evolve resistance to existing therapeutics. (asm.org)
  • therapeutic
  • Together, our data suggest that lethal mutagenesis may be a particularly effective therapeutic approach with a high genetic barrier to resistance for influenza virus. (asm.org)
  • Dr. Racaniello, I would like to expand on David Loria's question as well as inquire about potential therapeutic uses for defective interfering particles (DIPs) or genetically modified DIPs. (virology.ws)
  • Ebola
  • Ebola virus is a filamentous, enveloped, negative-strand RNA virus. (asm.org)
  • Ebola virus (Zaire strain Mayinga) was propagated in Vero E6 cells and stored at −80°C until use. (asm.org)
  • To detect virus-infected cells, we used rabbit antiserum to VP40 of Ebola Zaire species ( 12 ) as a primary antibody to abolish any cross-reactivity with the mouse MAb. (asm.org)