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  • vaccine
  • In the USA alone the toll from influenza is estimated at 36 000 deaths and 226 000 hospitalisations, and it ranks as the most important cause of vaccine preventable mortality in that country (CDC 2010). (scielo.org.za)
  • morbidity and morta
  • Influenzavirus B mutates at a rate 2 to 3 times slower than type A. It is currently accepted that influenza B viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and significantly impacts adolescents and schoolchildren. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolution
  • The phylogeny, or the evolutionary history of a particular species, is an important component when analyzing the evolution of influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1988
  • A prescient commentary by Scholtissek and Naylor in 1988 drew attention to the risks of future pandemics which could result from developments in aquaculture which promote contacts between humans, ducks and pigs (Scholtissek & Naylor 1988). (scielo.org.za)
  • infectious
  • One of the most prevalent and important human infectious disease is influenza, a disease responsible globally for a quarter million deaths annually. (scielo.org.za)
  • The epidemiological behaviour of human influenza clearly defines it as an emerging infectious disease and the recent understanding of its zoonotic origins has contributed much to the understanding of its behaviour in humans (Fauci 2006). (scielo.org.za)
  • species
  • There have been many scans for selective sweeps in humans and other species, using a variety of statistical approaches and assumptions. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is both epizootic (an epidemic in non-humans) and panzootic (a disease affecting animals of many species especially over a wide area). (wikipedia.org)
  • pigs
  • Biologically, pigs are very similar to humans, thus are frequently used for human medical research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans have introduced pigs into Australia, North and South America, and numerous islands, either accidentally as escaped domestic pigs which have gone feral, or as wild boar. (wikipedia.org)
  • A continuing concern is that many animals, such as pigs, have a shorter lifespan than humans, meaning that their tissues age at a quicker rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • SIVs
  • Evidence of person-to-person spread of SIVs is very limited and most swine-to-human transmissions have been epidemiologically dead-end events, i.e. onward transmissions are very rare. (europa.eu)
  • immune
  • The animal organ, probably from a pig or baboon could be genetically altered with human genes to trick a patient's immune system into accepting it as a part of its own body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replication
  • A polymorphism leading to an amino acid change in the HA that was previously reported to be positively selected during replication in humans altered the organ tropism of KAN- 1 in mice and ferrets. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Furthermore, functional studies revealed that the restriction of avian influenza polymerases in mammals is due to a general defect in RNA-replication and not transcription. (uni-marburg.de)
  • 1997
  • Dr Nabarro later took up the post of Chief Health and Population Adviser at the Overseas Development Administration (London office) in 1990, and moved on to become Director of Human Development (as well as Chief Health Adviser) in 1997. (wikipedia.org)