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  • infection
  • However, the susceptibility of this species to infection with influenza viruses is unknown. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In this study, we asked 2 questions: 1) Are red foxes susceptible to infection with a wild bird isolate of HPAI virus (H5N1) from clade 2.2? (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We performed a retrospective case-series study of patients with influenza A (H5N1) admitted to the National Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Hanoi, Vietnam, from January 2004 through July 2005 with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection, a history of high-risk exposure or chest radiographic findings such as pneumonia, and positive findings for A/H5 viral RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. (cdc.gov)
  • pathogenicity
  • To answer these questions, we experimentally assessed the excretion pattern (based on route, duration, and concentration of virus excretion) and pathogenicity (based on clinical signs, death rates, and distribution of lesions and virus) of a wild bird isolate of clade 2.2 HPAI virus (H5N1) in red foxes infected intratracheally and in red foxes fed infected bird carcasses. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • swine influenza virus
  • Illumina reads were first mapped to a database of publicly available human, avian, and swine influenza virus reference sequences from the Western Hemisphere Americas and Eurasia, and then remapped against references with the highest number of reads and best average coverage. (cdc.gov)
  • clinical
  • At least 12 companies and 17 governments are developing prepandemic influenza vaccines in 28 different clinical trials that, if successful, could turn a deadly pandemic infection into a nondeadly one. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of human disease associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus. (nih.gov)
  • The clinical presentation and risk factors associated with severe disease were defined and the results of methods for rapid virus diagnosis were compared. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical presentation was that of an influenza-like illness with evidence of pneumonia in seven patients. (nih.gov)
  • Rapid H5-subtype-specific laboratory diagnosis can be made by RT-PCR applied directly to clinical specimens. (nih.gov)
  • Our results suggest that the intensive monitoring of dogs is necessary to prevent human infection by H5N1 influenza virus, since infected dogs may not show clear clinical signs, in contrast to infected cats. (deepdyve.com)
  • To further knowledge of this virus, we report the characteristics and clinical histories of 4 early case-patients. (cdc.gov)
  • To help identify the best treatment strategies for influenza A(H7N9) virus infection, we summarized the clinical characteristics and outcomes for the first 4 patients who were transferred to Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center (SHPHCC) for treatment of influenza A(H7N9) virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • To answer these questions, we experimentally assessed the excretion pattern (based on route, duration, and concentration of virus excretion) and pathogenicity (based on clinical signs, death rates, and distribution of lesions and virus) of a wild bird isolate of clade 2.2 HPAI virus (H5N1) in red foxes infected intratracheally and in red foxes fed infected bird carcasses. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • ferrets
  • Cross-protectiveness and immunogenicity of influenza A/Duck/Singapore/3/97(H5) vaccines against infection with A/Vietnam/1203/04(H5N1) virus in ferrets. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have demonstrated that the 1918 HA gene was necessary for efficient direct contact transmission, but did not allow respiratory droplet transmission between ferrets of an avian influenza virus possessing an avian polymerase subunit PB2. (pnas.org)
  • Also, it was found that influenza viruses that were able to transmit efficiently in ferrets were able to replicate efficiently at the lower temperature (33 °C) found in the environment of mammalian airway. (pnas.org)
  • Studies to investigate the transmissibility of the 1918 pandemic virus have been carried out in ferrets, which, based on accumulated data, are the best available animal model to study transmission of avian and human influenza viruses ( 7 , 9 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • The ongoing controversy over publication of two studies involving the transmission in ferrets of H5N1 (H5) subtype influenza viruses and the recommendations of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity to redact key details in the manuscripts call for an examination of relevant scientific facts. (pnas.org)
  • proteins
  • The M gene of influenza A encodes 2 proteins, both highly conserved: M1, the capsid protein, and M2, an ion channel protein. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Human H1 proteins that bind α2,6 SA, including the parental South Carolina HA of 1918, contain an aspartate at both positions (Asp 190 and Asp 225 ), whereas α2,3 binding avian viruses contain glutamate at position 190 (Glu 190 ) and glycine at position 225 (Gly 225 ) ( 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • antibodies
  • This vaccination induced antibodies that cross-reacted with divergent M2 peptide from an H5N1 subtype. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Active surveillance of domestic ducks and chickens in Laos has been limited, but serum antibodies against subtypes H5 and H9 have been detected in ducks. (cdc.gov)
  • sialic acid
  • Binding of HA to sialic acid-containing receptors on the surface of its target cell brings about the attachment of the virus particle to the cell and forms a endosome. (scribd.com)
  • Influenza viruses agglutinate erythrocytes by binding to cell surface sialic acid. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza viruses use cell surface glycans with terminal sialic acid (SA) moieties as receptors for cell entry. (pnas.org)
  • VietNam
  • Eleven outbreaks of H5N1 were reported worldwide in June 2008 in five countries (China, Egypt, Indonesia, Pakistan and Vietnam) compared to 65 outbreaks in June 2006 and 55 in June 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • To test human and sheep antiserum, 15 laboratories used HI and neutralization and reassortant A/Vietnam/1194/2004, A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 (clade 2.2), and A/Anhui/1/2005 (clade 2.3.4) viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • surveillance
  • The global HPAI situation significantly improved in the first half of 2008, but the FAO reports that imperfect disease surveillance systems mean that occurrence of the virus remains underestimated and underreported. (wikipedia.org)
  • A prospective surveillance program for influenza viruses was established in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) in July of 2005. (cdc.gov)
  • amino
  • This receptor binding preference for either α2,3 or α2,6 linked SA can be modulated by mutation of amino acid residues at positions 190 and 225 (H3 numbering) in the H1 subtype HA ( 19 , 20 ). (pnas.org)