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  • illness
  • The proportion of visits to health-care providers for influenza-like illness (ILI), as reported in the U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet), was among the highest since ILI surveillance began in 1997 in its current form. (cdc.gov)
  • laboratory
  • Since April 2009, the beginning of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, through June 12, 2010, approximately 740,000 influenza specimens were tested for influenza, and the number of laboratory-confirmed positives was approximately four times the average of the previous four seasons. (cdc.gov)
  • viral
  • The Spanish flu , also known as la grippe, La Gripe Española , or La Pesadilla , was an unusually severe and deadly strain of avian influenza , a viral infectious disease , that killed some 50 to 100 million people worldwide over about a year in 1918 and 1919. (blogspot.com)
  • In healthy adults, bronchitis and pneumonia (primary viral and secondary bacterial) are the most common complications of influenza. (quidel.com)
  • The influenza viruses are RNA viruses from the family Orthomyxoviridae and are classified as either type A or type B based upon the viral nucleoprotein (NP). (quidel.com)
  • Viral CTL epitopes can display variation, allowing influenza A viruses to evade recognition by epitope-specific CTLs. (asm.org)
  • This difference in recognition may have implications for the viral replication kinetics in HLA-A*0201 individuals and spread of influenza A viruses in the human population. (asm.org)
  • clinical
  • To further knowledge of this virus, we report the characteristics and clinical histories of 4 early case-patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza A pandemics: clinical and organizational aspects: the experience in Chile. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For example, an H3N2 influenza type A virus isolated from the eighth individual from whom a clinical sample was obtained in Puerto Rico in 1934 is designated as A/PR/8/34 (H3N2). (quidel.com)
  • World Health Organ
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) figures show that worldwide more than 209 countries and overseas territories or communities have reported laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009, including at least 15174 deaths ( WHO, 5 February 2010 ). (omicsonline.org)
  • In June 2009, the World Health Organization declared the new strain of swine-origin H1N1 as a pandemic . (blogspot.com)
  • On 26 April 2011, an H1N1 pandemic preparedness alert was issued by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the Americas. (blogspot.com)
  • According to the World Health Organization, influenza annually infects 5%-15% of the global population, causing 3-5 million cases of severe illness and ≈500,000 reported deaths. (cdc.gov)
  • H2N2
  • H1N1, H2N2, H3N2, A (H10N8) ] have a very serious haemorrhagic component to them which complicates effective treatment. (scifed.com)
  • pandemics
  • The researchers found that 28 per cent of the H7N9 peptides with the capacity to elicit CTL responses are also found in other influenza A viruses that caused past human pandemics or epidemics. (medindia.net)
  • H7N9
  • A new study has suggests that owing to genetic differences, people could vary in their ability to mount a cell-mediated immune response against the H7N9 influenza virus that emerged in February last year. (medindia.net)
  • Peter Doherty and colleagues investigated the capacity of pre-existing influenza-specific CTLs to respond to the H7N9 virus in individuals not previously exposed to the virus. (medindia.net)
  • Analyses of blood cells from 52 healthy human donors incubated with the peptides in vitro revealed that some HLA alleles elicit robust CTL responses against any human influenza A virus, including H7N9, whereas other alleles, such as those that tend to be prevalent in the indigenous people of Alaska and Australia, displayed limited CTL responses. (medindia.net)
  • Species
  • Due to functional constraints, some epitopes, like the immunodominant HLA-A*0201-restricted matrix protein 1 (M1 58-66 ) epitope, are highly conserved between influenza A viruses regardless of their subtype or host species of origin. (asm.org)
  • protein
  • The virus structure consists of a lipid envelope and a layer of matrix protein that surround the ribonucleoprotein complex. (quidel.com)