• One of the most promising economic perspectives of hemp production chain is female inflorescence valorization, despite there being actually no chemical composition or biological data from water fraction. (nih.gov)
  • Differential damage to the female inflorescence of corn, Zea mays L., by the corn rootworms Diabrotica virgifera Leconte, Diabrotica longicornis (Say) and Daibrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber. (k-state.edu)
  • To identify candidate genes associated with floral sex differentiation of P. volubilis , we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and comparative analysis on control male inflorescence buds (MIB) and female inflorescence buds (FIB) induced by 6-BA using Illumina sequencing technology. (cas.cn)
  • Our systems genetics approach reveals that the program for inflorescence branching is initiated surprisingly early during meristem maturation and that evolutionary diversity in inflorescence architecture is modulated by heterochronic shifts in the acquisition of floral fate. (pnas.org)
  • The alternation between meristem termination and renewal in sympodial plants provides the foundation for a wide range of inflorescence types showing extensive variation in branch and flower number ( 5 , 6 ), but the basis for sympodial growth and branching diversity is poorly understood. (pnas.org)
  • Plants in the nightshade (Solanaceae) family ( 7 ), particularly tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ), are models for sympodial growth, and inflorescence architectures range from a solitary flower, as in petunia ( 8 ), to progressively more complex structures in which the meristem proliferates into multiple branches with dozens of flowers, as in several wild species of tomato ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Because meristem ontogenies between s mutants and normal plants are nearly identical, we proposed that s inflorescences might be highly branched due to a molecular delay in meristem maturation and termination that results in an extended period of indeterminacy, during which additional sympodial meristems, and therefore branches, develop. (pnas.org)
  • After the transition to reproductive growth, the aim1 inflorescence meristem becomes disorganized, producing abnormal floral meristems and resulting in plants with severely reduced fertility. (plantcell.org)
  • A set of transgenic lines constructed by Agrobacteriummediated seed transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Wassilewskija (Ws) ( Feldmann, 1991 ) was screened for inflorescence meristem mutants. (plantcell.org)
  • TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) is a key regulator of flowering time and the development of the inflorescence meristem in Arabidopsis thaliana. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the inflorescence apex, TFL1 keeps the floral genes LEAFY ( LFY ) and APETALA1 ( AP1 ) restricted to the flower, while LFY and AP1 restrict TFL1 to the inflorescence meristem. (oup.com)
  • Inflorescence stems, which dominate the overall architecture of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana , are initially formed from the rib zone of the SAM and are composed of radially patterned tissue layers of epidermis, cortex, endodermis, vasculature, and pith. (pnas.org)
  • The LM13 linear arabinan epitope is specifically detected in epidermal cell walls of the younger, flexible regions of inflorescence stems and increases in abundance at the base of inflorescence stems in response to an imposed mechanical stress. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • We report the identification of a putative transcription factor, GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS), which regulates aspects of shoot maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Overexpression has the opposite effect on trichome initiation and causes other heterochronic phenotypes, affecting flowering and juvenile-adult leaf transition and inducing the formation of rosette leaves on inflorescence stems. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • This use is not technically correct, as, despite their 'normal' appearance, these leaves are considered, in fact, bracts , so that 'leafy inflorescence' is preferable. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transcript levels of UNI were at least 2-fold higher in coch leaves and secondary inflorescences than the corresponding COCH organs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It was concluded that COCH negatively regulated UNI in the differentiating leaves and secondary inflorescences and thereby controlled their sizes and/or structures. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The requirement for mature overwintering leaves to effect inflorescence initiation in 'Carnival' suggests that environmental factors, such as low temperature and daylength may play an inductive role. (sun.ac.za)
  • Mature leaves on the overwintering shoot supported growth of the spring flush and the early stages of inflorescence development. (sun.ac.za)
  • Dry mass accumulation of the inflorescence subtended by the spring flush was supported by the spring flush leaves and was only indirectly affected by defoliation. (sun.ac.za)
  • The architecture of the rice inflorescence which is mainly determined by the length and number of primary (PBL and PBN) and secondary (SBL and SBN) branches can influence NSP. (nih.gov)
  • Inflorescence can also be defined as the reproductive portion of a plant that bears a cluster of flowers in a specific pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflorescences usually have modified shoots foliage different from the vegetative part of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ?infection seems to affect all inflorescences on the plant. (bioimages.org.uk)
  • Finally, transcriptome analysis of er and epfl4 epfl6 revealed a potential downstream component as well as a role for plant hormones in EPFL4/6- and ER-mediated inflorescence growth. (pnas.org)
  • Finally, transcriptome analysis implicates the plant hormones auxin and gibberellin (GA) as potential factors promoting non-cell-autonomous growth of the inflorescence via EPFL4/6 and ER. (pnas.org)
  • In the compound inflorescences of tomato and related nightshades (Solanaceae), new lateral inflorescence branches develop on the flanks of older branches that have terminated in flowers through a program of plant growth known as "sympodial. (pnas.org)
  • We analyzed the process of inflorescence formation in Impatiens balsamina by studying the architecture of the plant under different photoperiod treatments. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Furthermore, the manipulation of the level of inductive signal in the plant during photoperiod treatments should provide information on the mechanisms that control the progression to flowering and inflorescence formation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • For each plant observed, the number of inflorescences at the time of the observation was recorded, so that the effects of inflorescence number on pollinator attraction could be determined. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Plant parts such as rhizome, leaf and inflorescence of torch ginger have been traditionally used as condiment and medicine . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The abnormal inflorescence meristem1 ( aim1 ) mutation is a novel mutation in a plant β-oxidation enzyme that affects the mature plant. (plantcell.org)
  • We investigated the evolution of CYC- like genes in Dipsacaceae (Dipsacales), a plant clade in which capitulum inflorescences originated independently of Asteraceae. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have recently purified calorigen, the natural trigger for heat production in the inflorescences of Sauromatum guttatum Schott (voodoo lily), a thermogenic plant, and identified it as salicylic acid. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The most typical plant inflorescences are thus indeterminate, and sometimes called "racemose," after the most representative type, the RACEME. (ohioplants.org)
  • The inflorescence refers to that part of the lily plant that houses the flower and reproductive organs. (gardenguides.com)
  • staminate and carpellate flowers may appear on the same plant, on separate plants, or in the same inflorescence. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1977 ) concluded that the inflorescence was the major source of GA, which facilitated the elongation of the p-1 internode. (plantphysiol.org)
  • 2000 ) and Wolbang and Ross ( 2001 ), where removal of the apical bud led to the reduction in the levels of auxin and GA 1 (and, therefore, internode elongation), the present paper tests the possibility that the inflorescence is a source of auxin for the p-1 internode. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In fig, by contrast, the time interval during which inflorescence (flower bud, fruit) differentiation occurs corresponds to the shoot elongation period. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Considering the broadest meaning of the term, any leaf associated with an inflorescence is called a bract . (wikipedia.org)
  • Red' inflorescence in terms of colour, number and size of bract, and inflorescence yield. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The expression of EPFL4 or EPFL6 in the endodermis, a layer adjacent to phloem, is sufficient to rescue the er -like inflorescence of epfl4 epfl6 plants. (pnas.org)
  • To estimate seed production as a product of autonomous self-fertilization and to determine whether this differs between cytotypes, we applied loose-fitting mesh bagging to an entire inflorescence on six plants in each population before flowers opened. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this study, F 2 (second filial) populations derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 10AS111A (highly-branched inflorescence) and the S. pimpinellifolium PI124039 (inflorescence having a single branch) were used to decipher the genetic control of branch number (BN) of inflorescence in plants bearing small-sized tomato fruits. (mdpi.com)
  • 1977 ) experimented with removal of the inflorescence of oat ( Avena sativa ) plants, a method that could be likened to the decapitation of pea plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • plants' inflorescences as sagebrush set seed. (bl.uk)
  • Whereas abiotic stress-regulated miRNAs have been identified in vegetative tissues in several plants, they are not well studied in reproductive tissues such as inflorescences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We used Illumina deep sequencing technology to sequence four small RNA libraries that were constructed from the inflorescences of rice plants that were grown under control condition and drought, cold, or salt stress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our research involves the isolation and identification of the possible chemical compounds in black-eyed Susans that may be responsible for the olfactory attraction of the crab spider Misumenoides formosipes to the inflorescences of these plants. (bsu.edu)
  • The results indicate that the inflorescence of barley is a source of IAA that is transported basipetally into the internodes and nodes where bioactive GA 1 and GA 3 are biosynthesized. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Maize (Zea mays) inflorescences are patterned by a series of branching events, culminating in floral meristems that produce sexual organs. (uncg.edu)
  • We further identified two EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR-LIKE ( EPFL ) secreted peptide genes, EPFL4 and EPFL6/CHALLAH ( CHAL ), as redundant, upstream components of ER -mediated inflorescence growth. (pnas.org)
  • How these distinct tissue layers coordinate their growth and development to organize inflorescence architecture has not yet been fully explored. (pnas.org)
  • The endodermal expression of EPFL4 or EPFL6 and the phloem expression of ER are sufficient for proper inflorescence growth. (pnas.org)
  • Variability in the number and organization of sympodial branches produces a remarkable array of inflorescence architectures, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying sympodial growth and branching diversity. (pnas.org)
  • Diversity in inflorescence architecture is based on two major growth habits. (pnas.org)
  • In general, single applications at low doses promote lower levels of injuries associated with short periods of control of height growth and reduction in inflorescence emergence. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Growth of the p-1 internode (the internode below the peduncular internode), which occurs at a rapid rate during inflorescence development, was diminished with the removal of the inflorescence and abolished when the nodes above and below it were also removed. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Multiple pharmacognostic characterization on hemp commercial cultivars: Focus on inflorescence water extract activity. (nih.gov)
  • Administration of the methanol extract of coconut inflorescence to the diabetic rats showed dose dependent reduction in hyperglycemia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cratonic® contains thick extract of hawthorn inflorescence (Crataegi inflorescentiae extractum spissum). (herbapol.pl)
  • Secondary inflorescences were bracteole-less and bracteolated in COCH and coch genotypes, respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Regardless of genotypes and inflorescence developmental stage, total phenolic content showed the highest correlation with antioxidant activity (r = 0.779**), followed by ascorbic acid (r = 0.674**) and flavonoid content (r = 0.602**), whereas total GSLs showed a nonsignificant correlation with antioxidant activity. (conicyt.cl)
  • The initiation of inflorescence was positively related to the production of leaf primordia in the bud and this response was consistent under different environmental conditions. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • For example, many were formed after six leaf primordia and some produced no inflorescences or tendrils at all. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • The inflorescence differentiation process occurs sequentially, starting from the lower nodes, which first bear fruit, and progressing toward the higher ones. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inflorescences differentiate sequentially from lower nodes as a 1-year-old fruit-bearing branch develops. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two main inflorescence types are present in Dipsacaceae: (1) radiate species contain two kinds of floret within the flowering head (disk and ray), and (2) discoid species contain only disk florets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An endophytic fungus isolated from the inflorescence axis of Aster tataricus is proposed as a new species. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In order to explore biodiversity of Fusarium species associated with the inflorescences of poaceous weeds, heads and inflorescences were collected from wild grasses in Ardabil province (Iran). (ac.ir)
  • The results revealed that several species of Fusarium are present on inflorescences of wild grasses in Ardabil province. (ac.ir)
  • 5) Each of the morphological characteristics foundin the maize inflorescences, except one, is present inother grasses, but the collection of morphologicalcharacteristics found in the ear and tassel is unique.One morphological characteristic not found in othergrasses but found in the maize ear is the presence ofa terminal, fertile, and aborted, lateral flower in eachof the paired spikelets. (sciencemag.org)
  • Defoliation closer to spring budbreak affected characteristics of the spring flush and the inflorescence subtended by the spring flush. (sun.ac.za)
  • RESULTS: The phytochemical analyses on inflorescence showed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, resins and alkaloids. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Removal of the developing inflorescence reduced the endogenous levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), GA 1 , and GA 3 and increased the level of GA 29 in internodal and nodal tissues below the site of excision. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Cytoprotective, antihyperglycemic and phytochemical properties of Cocos nucifera (L.) inflorescence. (biomedsearch.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the cytoprotective and antidiabetic activities as well as phytochemical composition of the immature inflorescence of Cocos nucifera belonging to the Arecaceae Family. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHODS: The phytochemical screening of inflorescence was done to determine the major constituents present in Cocos nucifera inflorescence. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly decreased in the diabetic rats treated with inflorescence when compared with the diabetic control rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Segregation analysis of FA and S alleles by high-resolution melting (HRM) method confirmed that alleles for both genes from 10AS111A significantly increased the BN and the size of inflorescence. (mdpi.com)
  • The palm tribe Chamaedoreeae displays flowers arranged in a complex partial inflorescence called an acervulus. (botany.one)
  • The maize fuzzy tassel (fzt) mutant has striking inflorescence defects with indeterminate meristems, fasciation, and alterations in sex determination. (uncg.edu)