Loading...
  • murine leuke
  • Precise identification of endogenous proviruses of NFS/N mice participating in recombination with moloney ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV) to generate polytropic MuLVs. (springer.com)
  • Because modulation of IDO activities after viral infection may have great impact on disease progression, we investigated the role of IDO following infection with LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus. (jimmunol.org)
  • dengue virus
  • Dengue is a disease transmitted by mosquitoes and caused by four types of the dengue virus. (nsf.gov)
  • Dengue virus infects some 50-100 million people annually in Southeast Asia, South America and parts of the United States. (nsf.gov)
  • At the between-host level, this spatial structure is evident for endemic pathogens from observed patterns of genetic differences across space, such as those observed for measles virus at large geographic scales [ 1 ] and dengue virus even at intracity scales [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Here we present a direct RT-qPCR assay, which does not require an RNA purification step, developed for the quantification of several RNA viruses, including dengue virus. (jove.com)
  • tetKUNCprME cells were also capable of packaging replicon RNA from closely and distantly related flaviviruses, West Nile virus and dengue virus type 2, respectively. (asm.org)
  • assays
  • Viral reservoirs are assessed by quantification of HIV nucleic acids, a method which does not discriminate between infectious and defective viruses, or by viral outgrowth assays, which require large numbers of cells and long-term cultures. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The defective nature of the LCV might be related to the fact that assays for DNA polymerase in the virion showed only a negligible activity when compared to Rous sarcoma virus. (asm.org)
  • The key to successful development, validation, and implementation of molecular diagnostic assays is the availability of abundant, non-infectious, and consistently-manufactured reference materials. (seracare.com)
  • The present invention discloses nucleic acid sequences which encode infectious hepatitis C viruses and the use of these sequences, and polypeptides encoded by all or part of these sequences, in the development of vaccines and diagnostics for HCV and in the development of screening assays for the identification. (google.com)
  • Standard plaque assays to determine infectious viral titers can be time consuming, are not amenable to a high volume of samples, and cannot be done with viruses that do not form plaques. (jove.com)
  • Furthermore, detergent-free immunoprecipitation assays, neutralization experiments, and immunofluorescence analyses suggested that whereas apoE associated with infectious intracellular HCV precursors in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related structures, AP-1 participated in HCVcc egress in a post-ER compartment. (asm.org)
  • RNAs
  • Using a sequencing approach, we characterize several subgenomic viral RNAs from human nasopharyngeal specimens infected with the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. (asm.org)
  • The distribution of these in vivo -derived DI-like RNAs was similar to that of in vitro DIs, with the majority of the defective RNAs generated from the PB2 (segment 1) of the polymerase complex, followed by PB1 and PA. (asm.org)
  • Influenza A virus NEP (NS2 protein) downregulates RNA synthesis of model template RNAs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The eight individual negative-sense genomic viral RNAs were transcribed from plasmids containing human RNA polymerase I promoter and hepatitis delta virus ribozyme sequences. (asm.org)
  • Over the years a number of stable infectious full-length cDNA clones of KUN that produced RNAs of different specific infectivities have been generated ( 10 , 12 ). (asm.org)
  • titers
  • Diagnosis of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is usually determined serologically by detection of the presence of immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibodies or rising anti-HEV IgG titers. (mdpi.com)
  • Additionally, high titers of viruses and high levels of transgene expression generally can be obtained. (pnas.org)
  • Orally administered T-705 at a dose of ≥30 mg/kg of body weight/day prevented death, inhibited lung consolidation, and reduced lung virus titers in BALB/c mice lethally challenged with H5N1- and H3N2-subtype viruses ( 12 , 13 ). (asm.org)
  • The Eurasian wild type-H9N2 virus produced lower titers compared to the three G1-H9N2 viruses at respective time points. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genetic
  • Baumert TF, Barth H, Blum HE (2005) Genetic variants of hepatitis B virus and their clinical relevance. (springer.com)
  • Relatively recent dates for the emergence of the modern lentiviral subgroups have been suggested, but these estimates are based on extrapolations of genetic distances observed among contemporary viruses, which are likely to be unreliable for evolutionary comparison of distantly related sequences ( 12 - 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Defective viruses result from genetic mutations or deletions that eliminate essential functions. (nsf.gov)
  • Aaskov and Holmes collected genetic sequences from the defective viruses from 15 people sampled over an 18-month period in Myanmar. (nsf.gov)
  • The scientists analyzed the genetic sequences of the defective and normal viruses to estimate how long the defective virus had been transmitting in the human population. (nsf.gov)
  • In the case of epidemic pathogens, both surveillance data and viral genetic data often point to the occurrence of spatial spread, for example, in seasonal epidemics of influenza viruses in the U.S. [ 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, reassortment between cocirculating human IAVs is an important source of genetic diversity in the evolution of seasonal influenza viruses ( 6 - 11 ). (asm.org)
  • There is, therefore, more chance of mutations occurring over a short time period Viruses undergo genetic change by several mechanisms Genetic drift: where individual bases in the DNA or RNA mutate to other bases Antigenic shift: where there is a major change in the genome of the virus. (slideshare.net)
  • The G1-H9N2 viruses have higher replication capabilities compared to the European wild bird-H9N2 probably due to their specific genetic constitutions which is prerequisite for a successful vaccine candidate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • molecular
  • Because [the] interfering vaccine acts intracellularly and at a molecular level, it should be effective against all influenza A viruses regardless of subtype," wrote the authors in their paper. (jyi.org)
  • In a three-pronged attack on the HIV reservoir, the researchers will employ broadly neutralizing antibodies, CAR stem cells-cells genetically reprogrammed to recognize and attack disease cells-and molecular scissors targeting the virus. (curecountdown.org)
  • This technique has been extremely useful in advancing our understanding of the molecular biology and pathogenicity of influenza viruses. (asm.org)
  • In this report, we describe the construction of MJ4, an infectious chimeric molecular clone of HIV-1 subtype C that replicates in donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages. (asm.org)
  • cDNA
  • 83. The infective clone according to claim 80, wherein said full-length cDNA is flanked at the 3' end by a poly(A) tail, the ribozyme of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV), and the termination and polyadenylation sequences of bovine growth hormone (BGH). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Bridgen and Elliott ( 3 ) succeeded in rescuing a segmented, negative-strand RNA virus, a bunyavirus, from cDNA. (asm.org)
  • KUN RNA transcribed from our originally prepared full-length cDNA clone pAKUN had very low specific infectivity (∼1 PFU per 10 μg of RNA), and the recovered virus differed from the parental KUN by a smaller plaque phenotype and a delayed replication in cells and in mice ( 10 , 12 ). (asm.org)
  • gene
  • The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded viral protein kinase, EBV-PK (the BGLF4 gene product), is required for efficient nuclear viral egress in 293 cells. (asm.org)
  • The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BGLF4 gene product, EBV-PK, is homologous to the cytomegalovirus (CMV) UL97 kinase and belongs to a conserved family of herpesviral protein kinases. (asm.org)
  • We can see from the gene sequence of the defective version that it's the same lineage, and is a continued propagation of the virus," says Lloyd-Smith. (nsf.gov)
  • A single dose of 2.5 × 10 7 VLPs carrying the human respiratory syncytial virus M2 gene induced 1,400 CD8 T cells per 10 6 splenocytes in an ex vivo gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assay. (asm.org)
  • The packaging cell line thus represents a significant advance in the development of the noncytopathic Kunjin virus replicon-based gene expression system and may be widely applicable to the basic studies of flavivirus RNA packaging and virus assembly as well as to the development of gene expression systems based on replicons from different flaviviruses. (asm.org)
  • To study the possibility of using AAV-1 as a gene therapy vector, we constructed an AAV-1 infectious clone and determined its full sequence. (asm.org)
  • Reassortment of gene segments between coinfecting influenza A viruses (IAVs) facilitates viral diversification and has a significant epidemiological impact on seasonal and pandemic influenza. (asm.org)
  • The multipartite genome of influenza A virus (IAV) allows the exchange of gene segments in cells coinfected with multiple variant viruses ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Defective LPS signaling in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice: mutations in Tlr4 gene," Science, vol. 282, pp. 2085-2088 (Dec. 11, 1998). (patentgenius.com)
  • virions
  • Virions contain a single molecule of linear, negative sense, ssRNA that is not infectious alone but is infectious in the form of the nucleocapsid. (ictvonline.org)
  • 14. Viral Genetics Viruses grow rapidly, there are usually a large number of progeny virions per cell. (slideshare.net)
  • We conclude that co-occlusion of genotypically distinct virions in each OB is an adaptive mechanism that favours the maintenance of virus diversity during insect-to-insect transmission. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • H1N1
  • Specifically, the 2005-2006 vaccine formulation is made up of the A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/California/7/2004 (H3N2), and B/Shanghai/361/2002 viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • We evaluated the potential for viruses of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) and seasonal H3N2 lineages to reassort under experimental conditions. (asm.org)
  • Prior to 2009, seasonal H3N2 viruses cocirculated with H1N1 viruses of the 1918 lineage. (asm.org)
  • We investigated the mechanism of T-705 activity against influenza A (H1N1) viruses by applying selective drug pressure over multiple sequential passages in MDCK cells. (asm.org)
  • 0.0001 PFU/cell) or with 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses at a high MOI (10 PFU/cell). (asm.org)
  • vectors
  • An infectious clone of AAV-1 was isolated from a replicated monomer form, and vectors were created with AAV-2 inverted terminal repeats and AAV-1 Rep and Cap functions. (asm.org)
  • Homologous
  • Results of heterologous coinfections with pH1N1 and H3N2 viruses were compared to those obtained following coinfection with homologous, genetically tagged, pH1N1 viruses as a control. (asm.org)
  • hepatitis
  • We investigated the frequency and the clinical relevance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) pre-S mutations in Qidong, China. (springer.com)
  • Buti M, Rodriguez-Frias F, Jardi R, Esteban R (2005) Hepatitis B virus genome variability and disease progression: the impact of pre-core mutants and HBV genotypes. (springer.com)
  • Chen CH, Hung CH, Lee CM, Hu TH, Wang JH, Wang JC, Lu SN, Changchien CS (2007) Pre-S deletion and complex mutations of hepatitis B virus related to advanced liver disease in HBeAg-negative patients. (springer.com)
  • Chisari FV, Ferrari C (1995) Hepatitis B virus immunopathogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Fernholz D, Stemler M, Brunetto M, Bonino F, Will H (1991) Replicating and virion secreting hepatitis B mutant virus unable to produce preS2 protein. (springer.com)
  • Assay sensitivities were further evaluated by testing serially diluted World Health Organization (WHO) reference reagent for hepatitis E virus antibody and one patient sample infected with HEV genotype 3. (mdpi.com)
  • 1. A purified and isolated nucleic acid molecule which encodes human hepatitis C virus, wherein expression of said molecule in transfected cells results in production of virus when transfected into cells, wherein said molecule encodes the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:3 shown in FIGS. 14G-14H. (google.com)
  • 7. A purified and isolated nucleic acid molecule acid molecule which encodes human hepatitis C virus, wherein expression of said molecule in transfected cells results in production of virus, wherein said molecule encodes the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 shown in FIGS. 4G-4H. (google.com)
  • 9. A purified and isolated nucleic acid molecule which encodes human hepatitis C virus, wherein expression of said molecule in transfected cells results in production of virus, wherein a fragment of said molecule which encodes the structural region of hepatitis C virus has been replaced by the structural region from the genome of another hepatitis C virus strain. (google.com)
  • 16. A method for producing a hepatitis C virus comprising step (A) transfecting a host cell with the RNA transcript of claim 13 and step (B) expressing said transcript resulting in replication and production of virus which is infectious in vivo. (google.com)
  • 17. A hepatitis C virus produced by the cell of claim 14. (google.com)
  • 18. A hepatitis C virus produced by the cell of claim 15. (google.com)
  • 19. A purified and isolated nucleic acid molecule which encodes human hepatitis C virus, wherein expression of said molecule in transfected cells results in production of virus, wherein a fragment of the nucleic acid molecule which encodes at least one HCV protein has been replaced by a fragment of the genome of another hepatitis C virus strain which encodes the corresponding protein. (google.com)
  • 21. A hepatitis C virus whose genome comprises a nucleic acid molecule according to claims 2, 8, 9, 11, or 19. (google.com)
  • Hepatitis B virus has reached epidemic levels worldwide. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Yung Chi Cheng, Chung K. Chu and others first reported that l-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-ß-L-arabinofuranosyl)-thymine (L-FMAU) exhibits superior activity against hepatitis B virus and Epstein Barr virus in 1994. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Although it is well established that hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry into hepatocytes depends on clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the possible roles of clathrin in other steps of the viral cycle remain unexplored. (asm.org)
  • Several cellular factors have been described as mediators of hepatitis C virus (HCV) assembly, including components of the very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) synthesis machinery ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • CLONES
  • Most studies describing full-genome clones of subtype C viruses have been restricted to phylogenetic and other sequence analyses ( 15 , 33 , 42 ). (asm.org)
  • Exchange of corresponding DNA fragments between pAKUN and FLSDX clones and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the Tyr518-to-His mutation in NS3 was responsible for an ∼5-fold decrease in specific infectivity of transcribed RNA, while the Ile59-to-Asn mutation in NS2A completely blocked virus production. (asm.org)
  • Reservoirs
  • This method was employed to assess the early reactivation of infectious virus from reservoirs in HIV-1-infected individuals. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • In a novel approach to conquering HIV, amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research, is pairing HIV researchers with bioengineers to address the main barrier to a cure for HIV: the persistent reservoirs of virus not cleared by antiretroviral therapy. (curecountdown.org)
  • Rous
  • That was the year that Peyton Rous was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology for the isolation of his eponymous virus published in 1911, representing a record 55 year incubation period between reporting a discovery and the award [ 6 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • protein
  • 4. The method of claim 3, wherein the host protein is a cell surface receptor for a virus. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Subtype C viruses differ from other subtypes by having a premature truncation of the rev open reading frame and an enlarged Vpu protein ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • The data demonstrated essential roles for the KUN nonstructural protein NS2A in virus assembly and for NS3 in RNA replication and identified specific single-amino-acid residues involved in these functions. (asm.org)
  • Attenuation
  • This is the first reported study to demonstrate definitively that gG is a virulence factor in ILTV and that deletion of gG from this alphaherpesvirus genome causes marked attenuation of the virus in its natural host. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • pathogens
  • In a paper published this week in the journal PLoS Pathogens, scientists funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) report a significant link between one such defective virus and the high rate of transmission of DENV-1 in Myanmar in 2001. (nsf.gov)
  • For virus pathogens (microparasites) of multicellular organisms, transmission occurs in two phases. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • retroviruses
  • And almost certainly, the major families of viruses have been around for hundreds of millions of years, including retroviruses. (pbs.org)
  • Do viruses and retroviruses always cause harm in their host? (pbs.org)
  • kinetics
  • Expression of mouse mammary tumor virus superantigen mRNA in the thymus correlates with kinetics of self-reactive T-cell loss. (springer.com)
  • mutations
  • Further analysis revealed complete retroviral Gag, Pol, and Env coding domains, all of which were multiply defective, containing numerous in-frame stop codons and frameshift mutations. (pnas.org)
  • Epidemic
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C is now the predominant subtype in the global epidemic. (asm.org)