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  • opposing gradien
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Overexpression of HOXC6 induced a gene expression signature similar to several acute myeloid leukemia subtypes when compared with normal GMPs/CMPs. (jove.com)
  • The ZZUi006-A cell line may provide a robust platform for further study of DM1 pathogenesis as well as drug testing and gene therapy research. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line (VRFi001-A) from orbital adipose tissue of a bilateral retinoblastoma patient with heterozygous RB1 gene deletion. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We and others have successfully generated and infused T-cells specific for Epstein Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Adenovirus (Adv) using monocytes and EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell (EBV-LCL) gene-modified with an adenovirus vector as antigen presenting cells (APCs). (jove.com)
  • In many T-ALL cases, oncogenes are driven by a chromosomal translocation involving the T-cell receptor ( TCR ) gene locus, which is associated with somatic recombination in immature thymocytes ( 16 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • So, the discovery of hiPSCs opens new opportunities in biomedical sciences, since these cells may be useful for understanding the mechanisms of diseases in the production of new diseases models, in drug development/drug toxicity tests, gene therapies, and cell replacement therapies. (hindawi.com)
  • The fibroblasts were engineered so that any cells reactivating the ESC-specific gene, Fbx15, could be isolated using antibiotic selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Danio rerio homologue is known as ntl (no tail) Expression of the brachyury gene has been identified as a definitive diagnostic marker of chordoma, a malignant tumor that arises from remnant notochordal cells lodged in the vertebrae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mir-92 is no exception and currently identified gene targets have been among those involved in cell cycle regulation and cell signalling, and thus necessary during all stages of mammalian development and essential for the proliferation of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • MB can be induced by 2 inherited cancer syndromes, one of which is called the Gorlin syndrome and is caused by a mutated PATCHED(PTCH) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MIR155HG was initially identified as a gene that was transcriptionally activated by promoter insertion at a common retroviral integration site in B-cell lymphomas and was formerly called BIC (B-cell Integration Cluster). (wikipedia.org)
  • The SALL genes were identified based on their sequence homology to Spalt, which is a homeotic gene originally cloned in Drosophila melanogaster that is important for terminal trunk structure formation in embryogenesis and imaginal disc development in the larval stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • This interaction is best characterized in the co-regulation of HOXA9 gene by SALL4 and MLL in leukemic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The retinoblastoma gene was the first tumor suppressor gene to be cloned in 1986. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cluster of differentiation 97 is a protein also known as BL-Ac[Fencoded by the ADGRE5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • An established or immortalized cell line has acquired the ability to proliferate indefinitely either through random mutation or deliberate modification, such as artificial expression of the telomerase gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was there that Clevers cloned the T-cell gene CD3 epsilon. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was the first to link Wnt signaling with adult stem cell biology, when he showed that TCF4 gene disruption leads to the abolition of crypt stem cell compartments of the gut. (wikipedia.org)
  • He went on to show that the Tcf4-driven target gene program in colorectal cancer cells is the malignant counterpart of a physiological crypt stem cell program. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Stem cell researchers are engaged in different endeavors, including treating genetic disorders and generating new stem cell-derived human tissues and biomaterials for use in pharmacy genomics and regenerative medicine. (medsci.org)
  • It was found that expression of NR2F6 was consistently upregulated in neoplastic tissues in leukemic, ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer as compared to non-malignant tissues, while the silencing of NR2F6 induces a reduction of cancer cell proliferation, inhibiting clonogenicity and self-renewal of proliferating cancer cells, and induces differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since iPSCs can be derived directly from adult tissues, they not only bypass the need for embryos, but can be made in a patient-matched manner, which means that each individual could have their own pluripotent stem cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, mir-92 was also present in libraries constructed from four-day-old fully differentiated cells, as well as libraries constructed from adult tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • ED1 is the most widely used monoclonal antibody clone directed against the rat CD68 protein and is used to identify macrophages, Kupffer cells, osteoclasts, monocytes, and activated microglia in rat tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together these results suggest that miR-155-5p is expressed in a number of tissues and cell types and, therefore, may play a critical role in a wide variety of biological processes, including hematopoiesis Although very few studies have investigated the expression levels of miR-155-3p, Landgraf et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells can be isolated from tissues for ex vivo culture in several ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells can be isolated from solid tissues by digesting the extracellular matrix using enzymes such as collagenase, trypsin, or pronase, before agitating the tissue to release the cells into suspension. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • CFs interact with not only cardiac myocytes (CMs) but also with other cells in the heart, including vascular endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and immune cells, via direct or indirect cellular communications. (rochester.edu)
  • Periostin has also been shown to increase the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase from valvular intestinal cells, endothelial cells, and macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • In pre-active lesion, increased expression of CD55 in endothelial cells and robust CD97 expression on infiltrating leukocytes suggest a possible role of both molecules in immune cell migration through the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • In recent years, the convergence of better immunological evaluation of antibody responses for the selection of patients who might benefit from immunoglobulin replacement therapy, together with substantially improved therapies for these malignant conditions that lengthen survival, has prompted the need to review the role of IVIg (or subcutaneous administration, SCIg) in the prevention of infectious complications. (frontiersin.org)
  • Modulation of Gfi1 in MM cells had major effects on their survival and growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gfi1 enhanced cell survival of p53-wt MM cells by binding to p53, thereby blocking binding to the promoters of the pro-apoptotic BAX and NOXA genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Modern treatment approaches have markedly improved MM patient survival, but MM remains incurable for most patients [ 3 , 4 ] due to the emergence of drug-resistant clones. (biomedcentral.com)
  • M-Ras has been found to induce Akt kinase activity in the PI3-K pathway, and it may play a role in cell survival of neural-derived cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • By binding RANKL, OPG prevents RANK-mediated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation which is a central and rapid acting transcription factor for immune-related genes, and a key regulator of inflammation, innate immunity, and cell survival and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These fusion genes encode fusion proteins that continuously stimulate cell growth, proliferation, prolonged survival, and/or differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the level of the cell, there is selection for increased cell proliferation and survival, such that a mutant cell that acquires one of the hallmarks of cancer (see below), will have a competitive advantage over cells that have not acquired the hallmark. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought to have a role in the cell growth and angiogenesis required for tumour survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • Specifically, over the G1/S transition it has been demonstrated that the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex SCFSkp2 induces degradation of p21. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD97 in colonic enterocytes strengthens E-cadherin-based adherens junctions to maintain lateral cell-cell contacts and regulates the localization and degradation of β-catenin through glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and Akt signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • They target and modulate protein expression by inhibiting translation and / or inducing degradation of target messenger RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • After injury, mature terminally differentiated kidney cells dedifferentiate into more primordial versions of themselves and then differentiate into the cell types needing replacement in the damaged tissue Macrophages can self-renew by local proliferation of mature differentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In newts, muscle tissue is regenerated from specialized muscle cells that dedifferentiate and forget the type of cell they had been. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor tissue is heterogeneous and contains cancer cells displaying differing levels of differentiation. (jcancer.org)
  • To fuse the cells, biologists combined isolated mouse cells, with the same kind of tissue, and induced fusion of their outer membrane using the Sendai virus (a respiratory virus in mice). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it became evident that some of the proteins participating in these host defense processes may simultaneously function as regulators of tissue regeneration when in the extracellular matrix, thus coupling defense functions with regulation of stem cells. (degruyter.com)
  • He is focused on understanding how cells respond to their surroundings during development or following tissue injury. (rochester.edu)
  • Our overall hypothesis is that unique interactions between CF and other cells in the injured myocardial tissue environment activate CF, triggering a unique transcriptional program that leads to cardiac fibrosis and heart disease. (rochester.edu)
  • Tissue-culture based techniques have demonstrated one of its roles may be in controlling the velocity of cells as they leave the primitive streak. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD68 (Cluster of Differentiation 68) is a protein highly expressed by cells in the monocyte lineage (e.g., monocytic phagocytes, osteoclasts), by circulating macrophages, and by tissue macrophages (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Periostin localizes to the extracellular compartment of cells during tissue remodeling associated with wound repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression of CD97 on macrophage and the abundant presence of its ligand CD55 on fibroblast-like synovial cells suggest that the CD97-CD55 interaction is involved in the recruitment and/or retention of macrophages into the synovial tissue in rheumatoid arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some people with AML may experience swelling of the gums because of infiltration of leukemic cells into the gum tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the cells of interest have been isolated from living tissue, they can subsequently be maintained under carefully controlled conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, the term "cell culture" now refers to the culturing of cells derived from multicellular eukaryotes, especially animal cells, in contrast with other types of culture that also grow cells, such as plant tissue culture, fungal culture, and microbiological culture (of microbes). (wikipedia.org)
  • The historical development and methods of cell culture are closely interrelated to those of tissue culture and organ culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laboratory technique of maintaining live cell lines (a population of cells descended from a single cell and containing the same genetic makeup) separated from their original tissue source became more robust in the middle 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, pieces of tissue can be placed in growth media, and the cells that grow out are available for culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that miR-181 targets the homeobox protein Hox-A11 and participates in establishing muscle tissue downregulating it (a repressor of the differentiation process in mammalians and lower organisms). (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • These cells inhibit normal hematopoiesis resulting in BM failure. (haematologica.org)
  • In this cell type, p53 activates numerous microRNAs (like miR-302a, miR-302b, miR-302c, and miR-302d) that directly inhibit the p21 expression in hESCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • These findings suggest that the pattern of c-MYC expression, particularly its later decline, is key to producing functional platelets from selected iPSC clones. (rupress.org)
  • A direct correlation was found between CD dose (AdCMVCD PFU/cell) and CD mRNA and protein expression (P (jove.com)
  • Purification of a unique cell population based on the expression of specific cell surface markers enabled the prospective isolation of CSCs in various types of cancers. (frontiersin.org)
  • We found that Gfi1 expression is increased in patient's MM cells and MM cell lines and was further increased by co-culture with BMSC, IL-6, and sphingosine-1-phosphate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cells that over-express brachyury have down-regulated expression of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin, which allows them to undergo EMT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunocyto- and histochemical profiling of nucleostemin expression: marker of epidermal stem cells? (wikipedia.org)
  • identified a protein p21 (WAF1) which was present in cells expressing wild type p53 but not those with mutant p53, moreover constitutive expression of p21 led to cell cycle arrest in a number of cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was demonstrated that miR-155 over-expression supports the development and aggresivness of B cell malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence analysis of small RNA clone libraries comparing miRNA expression to all other organ systems examined established that miR-155-5p was one of five miRNAs (i.e. miR-142, miR-144, miR-150, miR-155, and miR-223) that was specific for hematopoietic cells including B-cells, T-cells, monocytes and granulocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • established that expression levels of this miRNA was very low in hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mouse embryos, SALL4 expression is detectable as early as the two-cell stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its expression persists through 8- and 16-cell stages to the blastocyst, where it is found in some cells of the trophectoderm and inner cell mass (ICM), from which mouse ESCs are derived. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, ectopic CD97 expression facilitated RhoA activation through binding of Gα12/13 as well as induced Ki67 expression and phosphorylated ERK and Akt through enhancing lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1) signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ectopic CD97 expression upregulates the expression of N-cadherin and β-catenin in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells leading to enhanced cell-cell aggregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In malignant melanoma expression of CXCR1 at the cell surface is present, independent of the cancers stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibroblasts
  • hESCs can be generated by SCNT using dermal fibroblasts nuclei from both a middle-aged 35-year-old male and an elderly, 75-year-old male, suggesting that age-associated changes are not necessarily an impediment to SCNT-based nuclear reprogramming of human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induction of pluripotent stem cells by reprogramming human ocular fibroblasts under xeno-free conditions. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A mixing experiment with cultured melanocytes and fibroblasts was performed and cell population purity was determined by manual counts of positively staining cells in the FCBs and by flow cytometry. (jove.com)
  • also found that γ-irradiation of fibroblasts induced a p53 and p21 dependent cell cycle arrest, here p21 was found bound to inactive cyclin E/CDK2 complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may also promote injury closure by facilitating the activation, differentiation, and contraction of fibroblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Periostin production is upregulated in lung fibroblasts by either TGF-β2 or TGF-β3, the latter being secreted by infiltrating cancer stem cells (in MMTV-PyMT mouse breast cancer model) Periostin has been shown to be highly upregulated in glioblastomas (grade IV gliomas) compared to the normal brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Our hope is that stem cell scientists and clinicians will use the information presented herein as a starting point for more in-depth analysis of ethical and safety issues related to clinical translation of stem cells since controversial regulation and application of stem cell therapy has been falsely celebrated not only in countries with lax medical regulations but also in many developed countries. (medsci.org)
  • Project 3 focuses on platelets/monocytes and aims to test the hypothesis that platelets act as a post-myocardial infarction fibrosis 'rheostat' through β2M-dependnet regulation of monocyte differentiation, and subsequent fibroblast function. (rochester.edu)
  • M-Ras, induced and activated by BMP-2 signaling, also participates in the osteoblastic determination, differentiation, and transdifferentiation under p38 MAPK and JNK regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cluster
  • The miR-17-92 Cluster has been implicated in Medulloblastoma (MB) which is the most common paediatric malignant brain tumour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cluster of differentiation Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein Scavenger receptor (immunology) Holness CL, Simmons DL (March 1993). (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly, SALL4 has been shown to localize to heterochromatin regions in cells, for which its last zinc finger cluster (shared between SALL4A and B) is necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has also been designated as CD181 (cluster of differentiation 181). (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • It is well known, however, that repeated transfusion induces antibodies in recipients against allogenic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) on the transfused platelets ( Schiffer, 2001 ). (rupress.org)
  • It was found that antigen receptor stimulation-induced NF-AT/AP-1 activity is regulated through the nuclear receptor NR2F6 (NR2F6 acts as a direct repressor of NF-AT/AP-1 transactivation) and that by preventing NR2F6 function, transcriptional activation of NF-AT/AP-1 is enhanced in immune cells which leads to an augmented immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of these approaches rely on tolerance-inducing antigen presenting cells (APC). (jove.com)
  • Here we present a protocol for the generation of non-cellular killer artificial antigen presenting cells (KaAPC), which allows for the depletion of pathologic T cells while leaving the remaining immune system untouched and functional. (jove.com)
  • KaAPC is an alternative solution to cellular immunotherapy which has potential for treating autoimmune diseases and allograft rejections by regulating undesirable T cell responses in an antigen specific fashion. (jove.com)
  • p21 interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in S phase DNA replication and DNA damage repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • osteoblast
  • OPG binding to RANKL on osteoblast/stromal cells, blocks the RANKL-RANK interaction between osteoblast/stromal cells and osteoclast precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • Primordial germ cells, germ cells that still have to reach the gonads, also known as PGCs, precursor germ cells or gonocytes, divide repeatedly on their migratory route through the gut and into the developing gonads. (wikipedia.org)
  • miR-92 is part of a large precursor sequence that forms a stem loop once transcribed into RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has the effect of inhibiting the differentiation of the osteoclast precursor into a mature osteoclast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once miR-155 pri-miRNA is transcribed, this transcript is cleaved by the nuclear microprocessor complex, of which the core components are the RNase III type endonuclease Drosha and the DiGeorge critical region 8 (DGCR8) protein, to produce a 65 nucleotide stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-mir-155) (see Figure 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other binding partners of SALL4 include promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF) in sperm precursor cells, Rad50 during DNA damage repair, and b-catenin downstream of the Wnt signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The overwhelming majority of CSCs however, are arrested in the G0 phase of the cell cycle and express high levels of proteins related to drug resistance 4 , 7 , 8 . (jcancer.org)
  • In algae, sea urchins, and sponges SRCR proteins mediate different functions related to cell differentiation, reproduction, and regeneration, which have as common factor the recognition of "self structures" (2, 5, 6). (degruyter.com)
  • Wunen proteins are chemorepellents that lead the germ cells away from the endoderm and into the mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mouse ESCs, Sall4 was found to bind the essential stem cell factor, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), in two separate unbiased mass spectrometry (spec) screens Sall4 can also bind other important pluripotency proteins such as Nanog and sex determining region Y (SRY)-box 2 protein (Sox2). (wikipedia.org)
  • The clone of eosinophils bear a mutation in any one of several genes that code for proteins that regulate cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • prostatic
  • Prostatic carcinoma is often a multifocal disease, in which multiple histologic patterns, reflective of the varied differentiated aptitude of the neoplastic clone, may coexist within a single tumor ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • normal prostatic glands stain with p63 (as they have basal cells), while the malignant glands in prostatic adenocarcinoma (which lacks these cells) do not. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Cell transfer studies in irradiated recipient mice have established that T cells are pivotal in T1D pathogenesis in this model. (jove.com)
  • We describe herein a simple method to rapidly induce T1D by adoptive transfer of purified, primary CD4+ T cells from pre-diabetic NOD mice transgenic for the islet-specific T cell receptor (TCR) BDC2.5 into NOD.SCID recipient mice. (jove.com)
  • Thus, studies of pathogenesis and therapeutic interventions in T1D can proceed at a faster rate than with methods that rely on heterogenous T cell populations or clones derived from diabetic NOD mice. (jove.com)
  • Working in mouse models, it was also shown that whilst mice lacking p21 were healthy, spontaneous tumours developed and G1 checkpoint control was compromised in cells derived from these mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD97 antibodies and lack of CD97 or CD55 in mice reduced synovial inflammation and joint damage in collagen- and K/BxN serum transfer-induced arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Cell fusion is an important cellular process in which several uninuclear cells (cells with a single nucleus) combine to form a multinuclear cell, known as a syncytium. (wikipedia.org)
  • These hybrid cells that were created were considered forced exceptions to normal cellular integrity and it was not until 2002 that the possibility of cell fusion between cells of different types may have a real function in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our program will determine how external cellular signaling pathways through various different cardiac cell types emerge to CFs and lead to CF activation and cardiac fibrosis. (rochester.edu)
  • There, they undergo meiosis, followed by cellular differentiation into mature gametes, either eggs or sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription of genes required for mesoderm formation and cellular differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a cancer cell divides, both daughter cells inherit the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities of the parent cell, and may also acquire new genetic and epigenetic abnormalities in the process of cellular reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • To develop an efficient and xeno-free standard eye-derived induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming protocol for use during induced pluripotent stem cell-based cell therapies in treating retinal de. (bioportfolio.com)
  • By studying multiple cell types in addition to the fibroblast itself we may discover new therapeutic strategies or combination therapies to effectively prevent post-MI fibrosis and heart failure. (rochester.edu)
  • We also present the importance of the use of statistical methods to evaluate the possible validation for the hiPSCs for future therapeutic use toward personalized cell therapies. (hindawi.com)
  • Cancer therapies act as a form of artificial selection, killing sensitive cancer cells, but leaving behind resistant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cycle arrest
  • p21 represents a major target of p53 activity and thus is associated with linking DNA damage to cell cycle arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of p53 dependent cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage identified p21 as the primary mediator of downstream cell cycle arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • The purpose of this study is to develop a collection of iPS cells called a bank ("Bank") that are immune-matched to a large percentage of the US population by containing the most common HL. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Besides, there are other B cell malignancies with similar immune defects that are not currently authorized as indications for IVIg, thus resulting in subsequent discrimination of such patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are responsible for the generation and regeneration of circulating blood cells, including those involved in the immune system, and have been used in clinical therapy 4 . (jcancer.org)
  • Therefore, new approaches need to be developed that target only the disease mediating cells and leave the remaining immune system intact. (jove.com)
  • Over the past decade a variety of cell based immunotherapy strategies to modulate T cell mediated immune responses have been developed. (jove.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that leukemic cells suppress the host immune system with tumor progression connected to immune cells dysfunction [ 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • These unlimited supplies of autologous cells could be used to generate transplants without the risk of immune rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in some cell types it is detectable only when up-regulated, such as activated but not quiescent microglia, and can thus be used as a marker of inflammatory conditions and immune reactions in those instances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outside the immune system, CD97 is likely involved in cell-cell interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • The human RORC (retinoid-related orphan receptor C) has been considered as the essential transcription factor for Th17 differentiation [ 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • mammalian
  • Mammalian eggs are somewhat symmetrical and after the first divisions of the fertilized egg, the produced cells are all totipotent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells are grown and maintained at an appropriate temperature and gas mixture (typically, 37 °C, 5% CO2 for mammalian cells) in a cell incubator. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • We show that lentiviral delivery of a genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 knockout (GeCKO) library targeting 18,080 genes with 64,751 unique guide sequences enables both negative and positive selection screening in human cells. (jove.com)
  • First, we used the GeCKO library to identify genes essential for cell viability in cancer and pluripotent stem cells. (jove.com)
  • The second way is found in birds and mammals, where germ cells are not specified by such determinants but by signals controlled by zygotic genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • angiogenesis
  • These kinases are involved in tumor angiogenesis, as well as in growth and progression of a variety of tumor types such as leukemias and renal cell and hepatocellular carcinomas, suggesting CSC targeting by SO. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is thought that periostin plays a role in cardiac valve complex degeneration by inducing both angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase production. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, CD97 promotes angiogenesis of the endothelium through to α5β1 and αvβ3 integrins, which contributes to cell attachment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathways
  • In many cancers, periostin binds to integrins on cancer cells, activating the Akt/PKB- and FAK-mediated signaling pathways. (wikipedia.org)