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  • metastatic
  • Due to their contents that include specific proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, EVs are now considered shuttles of potential biomarkers for early detection and prognosis of either primary tumors or metastatic lesions. (frontiersin.org)
  • The requirement for more selective cancer therapies, along with the molecular identification of tumor-specific Ags (TSA) 2 and tumor-associated Ags, has led to the development of immune-based strategies for the treatment of metastatic disease, which are being tested in both animal models and clinical trials ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • These microscopic messengers have been found to regulate immune system function, particularly in tumorigenesis, as well as conditioning future metastatic sites for the attachment and growth of tumor tissue. (springer.com)
  • In contrast, IFN-α produces responses rates of 12-22% in metastatic melanoma (5) , and unlike IFN-γ is of benefit in the adjuvant setting. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), a 123-amino acid cell surface glycoprotein, is highly expressed in both local and metastatic prostate cancers as well as in a large proportion of bladder and pancreatic cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Be it the primary or the metastatic tumor, its complex and heterogeneous microenvironment is comprised of a network of both cellular and acellular constituents. (frontiersin.org)
  • vesicles
  • We have artificially addressed the antigen to secreted vesicles by coupling it to the factor VIII-like C1C2 domain of milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8)/lactadherin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • carcinoembryonic antigen
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), the most widely used human tumor marker, is a heavily glycosylated protein over-expressed by a wide range of tumors. (springer.com)
  • In a multi-purpose research program to provide a reliable source for large production of CEA, we converted the membrane-bound carcinoembryonic antigen into a secretory protein by site-specific mutagenesis. (springer.com)
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen, a human tumor marker, functions as an intercellular adhesion molecule. (springer.com)
  • Efficient retroviral vector targeting of carcinoembryonic antigen positive tumors. (springer.com)
  • Immunoadsorbent purification of carcinoembryonic antigen using a monoclonal antibody: a direct comparison with a conventional method. (springer.com)
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen is anchored to membranes by covalent attachment to a glycosylphosphatidylinositol moiety: identification of the ethanolamine linkage site. (springer.com)
  • angiogenesis
  • Chronic inflammation associated with infections or autoimmune disease precedes tumor development and can contribute to it through induction of oncogenic mutations, genomic instability, early tumor promotion, and enhanced angiogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • proteins
  • Glioblastoma microvesicles transport RNA and proteins that promote tumour growth and provide diagnostic biomarkers," Nature Cell Biology , vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1470-1476, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • differentiation
  • Deregulated expression of the human tumor marker CEA and CEA family member CEACAM6 disrupts tissue architecture and blocks colonocyte differentiation. (springer.com)
  • This hitherto unknown trigger for instigating cellular differentiation in a distinctive manner has major implications for mechanisms underlying cancer-recruited stroma, fibrotic diseases, and wound-healing responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Exosome secretion, including the DNA damage-induced p53-dependent secretory pathway, is severely compromised in TSAP6/Steap3-null mice," Cell Death and Differentiation , vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1723-1733, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • tissue
  • Although sometimes applied in cryosurgery through laparoscopic or open surgical approaches, most often cryoablation is performed percutaneously (through the skin and into the target tissue containing the tumor) by a medical specialist, such as an interventional radiologist . (wikipedia.org)
  • The area of tissue destruction created by this technique can be monitored more effectively by CT than RFA, a potential advantage when treating tumors adjacent to critical structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The success of a cancer vaccine is contingent on (1) efficient antigen delivery to sites of T cell priming within lymphoid tissue and (2) antigen presentation in the context of costimulatory molecules and immunostimulatory cytokines. (hindawi.com)
  • In response to tissue damage, infections or necrosis IL-33 is released in the extracellular space, where it functions as an alarmin for the immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, tumor cell lines used in animal studies are often transfected with surrogate rejection Ag ( 7 , 8 , 9 ), which would not necessarily reflect expression or tissue distribution of an endogenously derived, relevant tumor Ag. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cancer therapy can also trigger an inflammatory response by causing trauma, necrosis, and tissue injury that stimulate tumor re-emergence and resistance to therapy. (nih.gov)
  • The immune modulatory properties of IFN-γ include up-regulation of MHC class I and II expression, induction of MHC class II expression on tissue devoid of it, and enhancement of macrophage function. (aacrjournals.org)
  • proliferation
  • Among the physiological functions of Satb1 expressed with the right temporal pattern, the researchers also linked Satb1 behavior to Notch1, a gene linked to tumor cell survival and proliferation. (eurekalert.org)
  • cytokine
  • Tumor-associated inflammation contributes to further ROS, RNI and cytokine production. (nih.gov)
  • prostate
  • The advent of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the 1980s has led to considerable stage migration with increasing numbers of cancers being diagnosed at a potentially curable juncture. (aacrjournals.org)
  • PSCA is expressed in most prostate cancer specimens, including high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, primary androgen-dependent tumors, and hormone-refractory metastases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • growth
  • Unfortunately, irreversible tumor re-growth is the rule during the following 2 years after initial presentation ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)