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  • receptors
  • We wished to test whether targeted delivery of an otherwise poorly immunogenic, soluble antigen to APC through their mannose receptors (MR) would induce clinically relevant immunity. (mdx.ac.uk)
  • Lymphocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and tissue extravasation is a multistep process controlled by different adhesion molecules (homing receptors) expressed on lymphocytes and their respective ligands (addressins) displayed on endothelial cells 1 2 . (jove.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 24375454 The DNA damage response (DDR) alerts the immune system to the danger posed by DNA damage through the induction of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules, chemokines, and ligands for activating immune receptors such as lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1), NKG2D, and DNAX accessory molecule 1 (DNAM-1). (jove.com)
  • Indeed, the realization that IgE was the "long-sought" reaginic Ab that causes allergic reactions sparked an exciting time of research that also led to the identification of its culprit target cells, mast cells and basophils, which express high-affinity receptors for IgE (FcεRI). (jimmunol.org)
  • and signal 2 is thus required, which is delivered through interactions between costimulatory receptors and complementary ligands on T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • In the course of modeling the naturally occurring tumor immunity seen in patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD), we discovered an unexpectedly high threshold for breaking CD8+ cytotoxic T cell (CTL) tolerance to the PCD autoantigen, CDR2. (jci.org)
  • phenotype
  • Recently published studies and our in-house data indicate that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in DCs and terminally differentiated CD4 + T cells induces strong immunoregulatory phenotype. (biospace.com)
  • The IDO + cells expressed cell-surface markers (CD14 NEG , CD83 + , CD80 + , CD86 HI , HLA-DR HI ) ( Fig. 1 B) and morphology consistent with mature DCs ( Fig. 1 C). Adherent cells lacked CD83 and displayed residual levels of CD14, consistent with an immature or transitional phenotype. (sciencemag.org)
  • To better understand the helminth-induced AAMφ phenotype, we performed a systems-level analysis of in vivo derived AAMφ using an established mouse model. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Establishment of Hepatitis C Virus RNA-Replicating Cell Lines Possessing Ribavirin-Resistant Phenotype. (ebscohost.com)
  • tumor
  • Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by spleen cells from RP105-deficient mice was increased in comparison with that from wild-type mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, targeting tumor antigen directly to APC in vivo would be a less complicated strategy. (mdx.ac.uk)
  • T cells reactive to lipids presented by CD1 have been involved in the protection against autoimmune and infectious diseases and in tumor rejection. (jove.com)
  • apoptosis
  • Using Beas2B epithelial cells, we found that in contrast to cav-1, Flot-2 conferred cytoprotection via preventing Fas mediated death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation, subsequently suppressed caspase-8 mediated extrinsic apoptosis. (jove.com)
  • Taken together, we found that Flot-2 protected cells from Fas induced apoptosis and counterbalanced the pro-apoptotic effects of cav-1. (jove.com)
  • Whole-mount immunofluorescence to detect activated Caspase 3 (Casp3 assay) is useful to identify cells undergoing either intrinsic or extrinsic apoptosis in zebrafish embryos. (jove.com)
  • The whole-mount analysis provides spatial information in regard to tissue specificity of apoptosing cells, although sectioning and/or colabeling is ultimately required to pinpoint the exact cell types undergoing apoptosis. (jove.com)
  • If the insult persists, cells will undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis), which is regulated and activated by a number of well-established signal transduction cascades 14 . (jove.com)
  • In this protocol we describe the use of the NucView 488 caspase-3 substrate to measure the rate of caspase-3 mediated apoptosis in immortalized N19-oligodendrocyte (OLG) cell cultures 15, 5 , following exposure to different extracellular stresses such as high concentrations of potassium or glutamate. (jove.com)
  • viral
  • An HCV cell culture system is critical for studying various stages of HCV growth including viral entry, genome replication, packaging, and egress. (jove.com)
  • HCV RNA transfected cells released infectious particles into culture supernatant and the viral titer was measured. (jove.com)
  • HCV in vitro research is therefore limited to human hepatoma cell lines permissive for virus entry and completion of the viral life cycle. (jove.com)
  • Viral infections cause morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. (jove.com)
  • According to Researchers Catherine Jopling and colleagues, HCV could ease viral replication by binding its RNA genome to host-cell microRNA (miRNA). (ebscohost.com)
  • regulation
  • Because MSCs have a key role in maintenance of bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic stem cell niche through reciprocal regulation with immune cells, we investigated the possible MSC/DC interaction in human BM by immunohistochemistry. (frontiersin.org)
  • proliferation
  • Moreover, gluten presentation by HLA-DQ2 homozygous antigen-presenting cells was superior to presentation by HLA-DQ2/non-DQ2 heterozygous antigen-presenting cells in terms of T cell proliferation and cytokine secretion. (pnas.org)
  • T Cell Proliferation Assays and Cytokine Expression. (pnas.org)
  • T cell proliferation experiments with the HLA-DQ2-transduced B cells were performed with 10 4 gluten-specific T cells stimulated, with 5·10 3 B cells that were pretreated with mitomycin C (100 μg/ml, M 0503, Sigma) for 1 h, and subsequently preincubated in the presence or absence of tTG-treated gluten peptides (0.2-20 μg/ml) for 24 h. (pnas.org)
  • effector
  • Our finding that T cells serve as a site of immune privilege, inhibiting effector CTL function, uncovers an autorepressive loop with general biologic and clinical relevance. (jci.org)
  • mice
  • CIA was induced in RP105-deficient DBA/1 mice and the incidence and arthritis index were analyzed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The functions of the DCs and regulatory T cells (Tregs) from RP105-deficient or control mice were determined by adding these cells to the lymph node cell culture. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The DCs from RP105-deficient mice induced more IFN-γ production, whereas Tregs from those mice showed less inhibitory effect against IFN-γ production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RP105-deficient mice also showed more severe arthritis induced by collagen with IFA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Streilein JW, Niederkorn JY, Shadduck JA: Systemic immune unresponsiveness induced in adult mice by anterior chamber presentation of minor histocompatibility antigens. (springer.com)
  • Streilein JW, Niederkorn JW: Characterization of the suppressor cell(s) responsible for Anterior Chamber Associated Immune Deviation (ACAID) induced in BALB/c mice by P815 cells. (springer.com)
  • Despite ablation of Lp-PLA2 enzyme activity in Lp-PLA2 KO mice or wild-type mice treated with SB-435495, the number of infiltrating CD45+ cells in the retina was equivalent to control EAU animals, and there was no reduction in disease severity. (jove.com)
  • Cell transfer studies in irradiated recipient mice have established that T cells are pivotal in T1D pathogenesis in this model. (jove.com)
  • Thus, studies of pathogenesis and therapeutic interventions in T1D can proceed at a faster rate than with methods that rely on heterogenous T cell populations or clones derived from diabetic NOD mice. (jove.com)
  • functions
  • Mosmann TR, Coffman RL: Heterogeneity of cytokine secretion patterns and functions of helper T cells. (springer.com)
  • Our novel studies demonstrated that Flot-2, in conjunction with cav-1, played important functions on controlling cell death via regulating Fas pathways. (jove.com)
  • Thus, Flot-2 played crucial functions in cellular homeostasis and cell survival, suggesting a differential role of individual raft proteins. (jove.com)
  • Tetramers constructed from other CD1 molecules have also been generated and these new reagents have greatly expanded the knowledge of the functions of lipid-reactive T cells, with potential use in monitoring the response to lipid-based vaccines and in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and other treatments. (jove.com)
  • costimulatory
  • In addition, they can acquire surface expression of MHC class II and costimulatory molecules as well as T cell stimulatory behavior when cultured with selected cytokines. (frontiersin.org)
  • biology
  • The generation of tetramers of alpha Galactosyl ceramide (a-Galcer) with CD1d has significant insight into the biology of NKT cells. (jove.com)
  • Mesenchymal
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are prototypical adult stem cells, identified as an adherent, fibroblast-like population positive for CD105, CD90 and CD73, and lacking hematopietic markers. (omicsonline.org)
  • When utilizing adult mesenchymal stem cells or osteoprogenitor cells for the expression of bone-promoting osteogenic factors, the cells not only express the factors promoting bone growth, but can respond, differentiate and participate in the bone formation process. (jove.com)
  • Intra-bone marrow-BMT (IBM-BMT) provides distinct advantages because it recruits donor-derived hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • In animal experiments, intra-bone marrow-BMT (IBM-BMT) has been shown to efficiently recruit not only donor-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) but also mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) [ 5 , 10 , 11 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • One report has suggested the potential of mesenchymal stoma cells as a novel cell therapy to prevent allograft rejection and interstitial fibrosis/ tubular atrophy after kidney transplantation [ 12 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are non-hematopoietic precursors able to self-renew, which differentiate into multiple cell lineages including osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Bone marrow progenitor cells (BMPCs), also known as multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, are rare multipotent cells residing in all musculoskeletal tissue that serve as a reservoir for tissue regeneration. (hindawi.com)
  • In a previous study, we have shown that cells in this population are plastic adherent, express CD105 and CD90 but not CD45, CD34, or CD14, and are multipotent [ 26 ], meeting the great majority of criteria for multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells [ 21 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • autoreactive
  • To address a destructive role for autoreactive CD8 T-cells in human disease, we assessed the pathogenicity of a CD8 T-cell clone derived from a T1D donor and specific for an HLA-A2-restricted epitope of islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic-subunit related protein (IGRP). (jove.com)
  • progenitor
  • Nonhuman primates have similar stem and progenitor cell dynamics to humans and have been invaluable in developing and assessing new therapeutic transplant approaches for the treatment of human diseases [ 15 - 17 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Bone marrow progenitor cells (BMPCs), known to express CD105, are important in local trophic and immunomodulatory activity and central to musculoskeletal healing/regeneration. (hindawi.com)
  • Lipid
  • Lipid rafts are subdomains of the cell membrane with distinct protein composition and high concentrations of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. (jove.com)
  • Based upon their amino acid sequences, such a hydrobphobic groove provides an ideal environment for the binding of lipid antigens. (jove.com)
  • bone marrow
  • Intra-bone marrow bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) can replace not only hemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) but also MSCs. (omicsonline.org)
  • Li M, Guo K, Ikehara S (2014) Update on Bone Marrow Collection and Stem Cell Transplantation. (omicsonline.org)
  • In humans, bone marrow cells (BMCs) have usually been collected by multiple bone marrow aspirations from the iliac crest. (omicsonline.org)
  • Furthermore, gene therapy and organ transplantation have been performed using bone marrow cells (BMCs) [ 4 - 8 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • peripheral blood
  • 1. Evidence that an antigen-specific, ACAID-inducing, cell-associated signal exists in the peripheral blood. (springer.com)
  • However, when using this AM, the BMCs are contaminated with peripheral blood with the result that there are more than 20% of T cells in the BMCs, which in turn leads to the induction of GvHD. (omicsonline.org)
  • HLA-A2/IGRP tetramer staining revealed a higher frequency of IGRP-specific CD8 T-cells in the peripheral blood of recent onset human individuals than of healthy donors. (jove.com)
  • IGRP(265-273)-specific CD8 T-cells that were cloned from the peripheral blood of a recent onset T1D individual were shown to secrete IFN? (jove.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been reported to replicate in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), particularly in patients coinfected with HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (ebscohost.com)
  • Oyster Mushroom Laccase Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Entry into Peripheral Blood Cells and Hepatoma Cells. (ebscohost.com)
  • suppress
  • On the contrary, systemic TLR3 activation has been shown to suppress antibody-induced and TCR-transgenic mouse serum-induced arthritis [ 26 ], thus suggesting the different effect in arthritis between the local and systemic activation of TLRs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • exposure
  • The whole-mount Casp3 assay is optimized for analysis of fixed embryos between the 4-cell stage and 32 hr-post-fertilization and is useful for a number of applications, including analysis of zebrafish mutants and morphants, overexpression of mutant and wild-type mRNAs, and exposure to chemicals. (jove.com)
  • respectively, both of which can contribute to Th2 polarization after exposure to egg antigens. (rupress.org)
  • activation
  • Notably, this immunogenicity can be further improved and/or oriented by the incorporation into VLPs of ncRNA, which provides further TLR-mediated activation and Th1-type CD4 + and CD8 + T cell response orientation. (asm.org)
  • IL4/IL13 induce canonical alternative activation via IL4Rα-dependent phosphorylation of STAT6, driving the transcription of a diverse repertoire of genes, including Arg1 (Arginase-1), Chi3l3 (Chitinase 3-like 3, YM-1), and Retnla (resistin-like α, RELMα, FIZZ-1). (bloodjournal.org)
  • The so-called "three-signal model" ( 4 ) is usually used to define the APC function required for the activation of T cells. (frontiersin.org)