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  • human fetal
  • According to the manufacturer-produced package inserts included with each vaccine batch, many vaccines are made with disturbing ingredients like aborted human fetal proteins, altered DNA material, and even genetically-modified (GM) human albumin. (naturalnews.com)
  • placenta
  • It is not known whether these observations are specific to the mode of delivery of supplemental amino acids to the fetus (via the mother and placenta vs. a direct fetal infusion) or to the excess amino acids themselves. (physiology.org)
  • The fetal adrenal glands and the placenta interact in order to produce estrogen in appropriate amounts. (rnceus.com)
  • This is an example of the 'placenta/fetal unit' at work. (rnceus.com)
  • synthesis
  • Fetal protein accretion (2.6 ± 0.5 and 2.2 ± 0.6 μmol·min −1 ·kg −1 in AA and Con, respectively), synthesis (6.2 ± 0.8 and 7.0 ± 0.9 μmol·min −1 ·kg −1 in AA and Con, respectively), and degradation (3.6 ± 0.6 and 4.5 ± 1.0 μmol·min −1 ·kg −1 in AA and Con, respectively) rates were similar between groups. (physiology.org)
  • Disruption of normal rates of amino acid transport into the fetus and, thus, abnormal fetal plasma amino acid concentrations could limit fetal protein synthesis and/or lead to abnormal amino acid metabolism, even to the point of producing metabolic acidosis. (physiology.org)
  • Forced TR2/TR4 Expression in Sickle Cell Disease Mice Confers Enhanced Fetal Hemoglobin Synthesis and Alleviated Disease Phenotypes," Proceedings of the National Academy of Science s, Oct. 31, 2011. (uofmhealth.org)
  • nitric oxide sy
  • The researchers say that blocking IL-1 halted a cascade of inflammatory responses that would otherwise lead to the activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the fetal brain, an enzyme implicated in neurotoxicity. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • gestation
  • To bypass placental transport, singleton fetal sheep were intravenously infused with an amino acid mixture (AA, n = 8) or saline [control (Con), n = for ∼12 days during late gestation. (physiology.org)
  • Similarly, supplementation of pregnant sheep with intravenous amino acids for several days at the end of gestation demonstrated adverse fetal effects, including hypoxia and respiratory and metabolic acidosis ( 34 ). (physiology.org)
  • Throughout the later stages of gestation the fetal lungs are maintained at a level of expansion that is considerably greater than the level achieved as a result of passive equilibration between lung recoil and the chest wall. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Previous studies have suggested that the volume and production rate of fetal lung liquid decrease late in gestation, before the onset of labor, in preparation for the clearance of lung liquid at birth. (biomedsearch.com)
  • exposure
  • These questions become particularly relevant when testing interventions that might improve fetal growth after chronic exposure to placental insufficiency and improve organ-specific sensitivity to nutrients and hormones (e.g., insulin) later in life. (physiology.org)
  • A third group first got an injection of a compound known to block the effects of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1), a protein involved in activating the inflammatory immune response and shown in previous research to be a key player in modulating fetal brain injury following exposure to inflammation in the womb. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Children's exposure to tobacco constituents during fetal development and via environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is perhaps the most ubiquitous and hazardous of children's environmental exposures. (aappublications.org)
  • Studies of each of these problems suggest independent effects of both pre- and postnatal exposure for each, with the respiratory risk associated with parental smoking seeming to be greatest during fetal development and the first several years of life. (aappublications.org)
  • surfactant
  • We found that a protein within lung surfactant serves as a hormone of labor that signals to the mother's uterus when the fetal lungs are sufficiently mature to withstand the critical transition to air breathing," Dr. Mendelson said. (bio-medicine.org)
  • There may be several chemical pathways that lead to labor, but we think that this surfactant protein, which is also produced by the fetal lung in humans, may be the first hormonal signal for labor," said Dr. Mendelson, who is co-director of the North Texas March of Dimes Birth Defects Center at UT Southwestern. (bio-medicine.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to examine the effects of oligohydramnios and cervical cord transection on fetal lung development, pulmonary surfactant, and lung mechanics in rabbits. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 95% O 2 from birth, increased viability induced by intraperitoneal injection of KGF (2 μg/g body wt) every other day was associated with prevention of neutrophil influx in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), prevention of decreases in whole lung DNA content and cell proliferation rate, partial prevention of apoptosis increase, and a markedly increased proportion of surfactant protein B-immunoreactive cells in lung parenchyma. (physiology.org)
  • alpha fetal p
  • Herein, we constructed a dual amplification fluorescence sensor by incorporating immunohybridization chain reaction (immuno-HCR) and metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) of CDs for the detection of alpha fetal protein (AFP). (figshare.com)
  • The results showed that GO co-treatment significantly suppressed the NDEA-induced increases of alpha fetal protein (AFP) level in serum, nuclear atypia in H&E staining, sirius red-positive areas and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression. (umm.ac.id)
  • normally
  • In summary, prolonged infusion of amino acids directly into normally growing fetal sheep increased leucine oxidation. (physiology.org)
  • The vast majority of sickle cell disease patients are diagnosed early in childhood when adult hemoglobin normally replaces fetal hemoglobin, but the severity of the disease can differ markedly, correlating most strongly with the level of fetal hemoglobin present in red cells," says pediatrician and lead study author Andrew D. Campbell, M.D., director of the Pediatric Comprehensive Sickle Cell Program at the U-M Comprehensive Cancer Center. (uofmhealth.org)
  • alveolar
  • Estrogen also contributes to the increase in breast size, especially the alveolar ductile tissue. (rnceus.com)
  • Hyperoxia decreased by 30% the rate of wound closure of a monolayer of fetal alveolar epithelial cells, due to cell death, which was overcome by recombinant human KGF (100 ng/ml). (physiology.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Despite extensive research activity in this field, the mechanisms underlying fetal tolerance are still not well understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • The molecular mechanisms exploration revealed that the protein levels of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-p85, PI3K-p110, total AKT, p-AKT (Ser473) and p-AKT (Thr308) in the liver of NDEA group rats were higher than those in control group rats. (umm.ac.id)
  • tissue
  • Estrogen, along with the hormone relaxin, relaxes pelvic joints and ligaments, and increases mobility of nipple tissue. (rnceus.com)
  • It also helps your breast and uterine tissue to grow during pregnancy, and it plays a role in your increasing blood supply. (americanpregnancy.org)
  • Previous studies had shown that mutated genes underlying the disease produce toxic ribonucleic acids (RNAs) during transcription, and these RNAs cause the production of incorrect forms of proteins in muscle tissue by blocking the actions of a protein called MBNL1. (redorbit.com)
  • We estimated the success rates of cytogenetic analyses in different tissue samples after intrauterine fetal deaths and analyzed the value of cytogenetic testing for determining the causes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • prenatally
  • The treated mice exposed prenatally to the inflammatory protein were still born before reaching full term, but without neurologic damage. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and characteristics of prenatally detected fetal micrognathia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • signaling pathway
  • Expressions of components in the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in fetal skeletal muscle were similar between groups. (physiology.org)
  • These data are consistent with the hypothesis that β-catenin up-regulates NOS2 and suggest a novel mechanism by which the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may contribute to cancer by increasing NO· production. (aacrjournals.org)
  • rats
  • Pregnant rats were maintained on an isocaloric diet containing either 23% or 5% protein. (garvan.org.au)
  • Using heart muscle cells from adult rats, Dr. Henning and his colleagues found that cocaine activates the enzyme calmodulin kinase II (CaMK), which increases calcium within the heart muscle cells. (medindia.net)
  • inflammatory
  • An inflammatory protein that triggers a pregnant mouse's immune response to an infection or other disease appears to cause brain injury in her fetus, but not the premature birth that was long believed to be linked with such neurologic damage in both rodents and humans, new Johns Hopkins-led research suggests. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In addition, NDEA treatment induced IκB degradation and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, and up-regulated the protein levels of downstream pro-inflammatory mediators. (umm.ac.id)
  • hormones
  • Through binding their specific receptors expressed by immune cells and/or by acting via mediators these hormones support fetal tolerance by inhibiting destructive immune responses and inducing tolerance pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • serum
  • In pregnancy , elevated alpha fetoprotein levels in a woman's serum can indicate fetal abnormalities, like neural tube defects ( spina bifida ) or ventral wall defects like omphalocele . (healthtap.com)
  • lungs
  • Fetal lungs provide a signal initiating labor, UT Southwestern resear. (bio-medicine.org)
  • DALLAS March 22, 2004 A protein released from the lungs of a developing mouse fetus initiates a cascade of chemical events leading to the mother's initiation of labor, researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas have found. (bio-medicine.org)
  • presumably the enlarged lungs increase intrathoracic pressure, compress the fetal heart, and occlude venous return. (biomedsearch.com)
  • glucose
  • Amino acid-stimulated increases in fetal glucagon, cortisol, and NE may contribute to a shift in substrate oxidation by the fetus from glucose to amino acids. (physiology.org)
  • Raising the glucose concentration from 2.7 mM to 16.7 mM caused a two-fold increase in DNA replication. (bioscirep.org)
  • It is suggested that this dual effect of glucose may depend on a stimulation of proliferation in a limited pool of islet cells which may not exhibit an increase in cAMP. (bioscirep.org)
  • shift
  • By 11 months of age, there is a shift towards increased levels of long-term HSCs. (oalib.com)
  • This study demonstrates that Ang II in vivo, via the type 1 receptor, directly induces a shift to the fetal phenotype of cardiac myocytes and cardiac remodeling independent of blood pressure elevation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, induced by hypertension or pressure overload by aortic coarctation, is accompanied not only by quantitative changes (increase in cardiac myocyte size) but also by qualitative changes, including a shift to the fetal phenotype of myocytes 5 12 13 14 15 and cardiac remodeling such as interstitial fibrosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • We obtained direct evidence that Ang II, via the type 1 (AT 1 ) receptor, can induce the shift to the fetal phenotype of cardiac myocytes and cardiac remodeling independent of hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • Nuclear extract from HCT116, HepG2, or DLD1 cells bound to NOS2 TBE1 or TBE2 oligonucleotides in electrophoretic mobility shift assays and the specific protein-DNA complexes were supershifted with anti-β-catenin or anti-Tcf-4 antibody. (aacrjournals.org)
  • accumulation
  • The researchers also demonstrated that the CaMK inhibitors Nifedipine and KN-62 appear to limit the accumulation of abnormal proteins in heart muscle, suggesting they may be a useful therapy for cardiac hypertrophy, or enlarged heart. (medindia.net)
  • Development
  • While the average fetal hemoglobin was 7.6 percent in the sickle cell mice, the TR2/TR4 treated sickle cell mice had an average fetal hemoglobin of 18.6 percent," says senior study author James Douglas Engel, Ph.D. , professor and chair of the U-M's Cell and Development Biology Department . (uofmhealth.org)
  • Fetal body development was assessed. (garvan.org.au)
  • vessels
  • It accomplishes this by either increasing the size or the number of tissues, vessels, and blood cells. (rnceus.com)
  • Estrogen is responsible for the increased size of the uterus, and more blood vessels both to and from the uterus. (rnceus.com)
  • By 20 days conception p.c. fetal vessels are discernible in developing villi. (springer.com)
  • abnormal
  • Cocaine, in concentrations commonly sold on the street, causes the abnormal buildup of primitive proteins in heart muscle - a process causing heart enlargement that can ultimately lead to sudden death, report researchers at the University of South Florida College of Medicine and James A. Haley Veterans' Hospital. (medindia.net)
  • childhood
  • This shocking information was compiled as part of an NVIC safety review on the childhood vaccination schedule, which has been called into question in recent years due to a steady increase in cases of autism and other forms of neurological and brain damage among vaccinated children. (naturalnews.com)
  • concentrations
  • leucine, isoleucine, and valine) but decreased fetal concentrations of other amino acids, including the essential amino acid threonine ( 4 , 20 , 34 ). (physiology.org)
  • However, at higher concentrations of this drug, known to considerably increase the islet cAMP levels, a marked inhibition of islet DNA replication was observed. (bioscirep.org)
  • uterus
  • Estrogen is a major factor in the increased size of the uterus and thickening of the uterine wall. (rnceus.com)
  • During the pregnancy, the uterus increases in size to accommodate the developing pregnancy. (rnceus.com)
  • It does this through hyperplasia (increase in the number of cells), hypertrophy (increase in the size of cells) of muscle cells, and stretching of the uterus. (rnceus.com)
  • The uterus grows from 60 grams in weight to 1200 grams (20 times it's nonpregnant weight), with a volume increasing from 10 cc to 2-10 liters of fluid. (rnceus.com)
  • Estrogen is responsible for an increased blood, lymphatics and nerve supply to the uterus, and throughout the body. (rnceus.com)
  • cells
  • However, it remains unclear why some pregnant women do not become alloimmunized during pregnancy even when exposed to high amounts of RhD-positive fetal red blood cells (RBC). (frontiersin.org)
  • Recipients of BCR-ABL-transduced bone marrow cells from P-selectin-deficient donors develop a more aggressive CML, with increased percentages of LSCs and progenitors. (oalib.com)
  • There is a significant increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood, ('leukocytosis of pregnancy'), as may occur during acute infection or inflammation. (rnceus.com)
  • risk
  • An elevation of the Alpha fetoprotein test should alert your doctor that there may be an increased risk of genetic abnormalities such as down's syndrome in the baby. (healthtap.com)
  • The researchers note that understanding the relationship between increased parental age and autism risk is critical to the understanding of the biological cause. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Down the road, we hope to be able to treat pregnant women whose babies are at risk for this type of neurologic damage and prevent it from happening," says study leader Irina Burd, M.D., Ph.D. , an assistant professor of gynecology and obstetrics and neurology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and director of the Integrated Research Center for Fetal Medicine . (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Such babies have increased rates of illness and death, but they are also at higher risk for cognitive and neurobehavioral disorders as they grow older. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • This decreases the risk of hemorrhage, but also increases the risk of blood clots or thrombosis. (rnceus.com)
  • Fetal and placental size and risk of hypertension in adult life. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 12 Household smoking increases the frequency of attacks, 27 the number of emergency department visits, 28 and the risk of intubation. (aappublications.org)
  • hypertrophy
  • In cardiac hypertrophy, or enlarged heart, the heart's main pumping chamber becomes abnormally large as a result of an increased workload. (medindia.net)
  • Hydralazine (10 mg/kg per day), which completely normalized blood pressure, did not block cardiac hypertrophy or increased cardiac gene expressions by Ang II. (ahajournals.org)
  • inflammation
  • Studies in murine models of RBC alloimmunization showed increased RBC antibody (RBCA) production associated with artificially induced inflammation ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Expression
  • According to the U-M study, increasing the expression of the proteins, TR2 and TR4, more than doubled the level of fetal hemoglobin produced in sickle cell mice and reduced organ damage. (uofmhealth.org)
  • The study team, that included experts in hematology oncology, cell and developmental biology and pathology from the U-M and the University of Tsukuba, Japan, demonstrated a potential method for boosting the fetal hemoglobin levels by modulating TR2/TR4 expression. (uofmhealth.org)
  • We also show that P-selectin expression on LT-HSCs, but not ST-HSCs and MPPs, increases with aging. (oalib.com)
  • In the absence of P-selectin expression, mice at 6 months of age possess increased levels of short-term HSCs and multipotent progenitors. (oalib.com)
  • Lithium chloride (LiCl), an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, increased cytosolic and nuclear β-catenin level, NOS2 expression, and NO· production in primary human and rat hepatocytes and cancer cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Treatment with Wnt-3A-conditioned medium increased β-catenin and NOS2 expression in fetal human hepatocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When administered in vivo , LiCl increased hepatic β-catenin level in a dose-dependent manner with simultaneous increase in NOS2 expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Increased lung antioxidant capacity is likely to be due in part to enhanced CAAT/enhancer binding protein α expression. (physiology.org)
  • autism
  • One theory on the link was found in a 2008 UC Davis study that found that some mothers of children with autism had antibodies to fetal brain protein. (emaxhealth.com)
  • This study is important, but we are not going to find one factor that can explain this dramatic increase in the prevalence of autism. (emaxhealth.com)