###### benefit incidence

- In the 1990s a branch of fiscal incidence known as "benefit incidence analysis" grew in popularity. (wikipedia.org)
- Benefit incidence analyses typically provide detailed estimates of whether poverty-reducing programs-particularly in developing countries-reach targeted populations. (wikipedia.org)
- In economics, benefit incidence refers to the availability of a benefit. (wikipedia.org)
- In the United States, the benefit incidence is calculated by the National Compensation Survey (NCS). (wikipedia.org)
- This is commonly contrasted with benefit incidence as an approach to planning and measuring the effect of a government spending programme. (wikipedia.org)

###### Prevalence

- The words "incidence" and "prevalence" have precise yet different meanings. (encyclopedia.com)
- Pediatric feeding and/or swallowing impairment incidence and prevalence data from the review papers cited below reflect this high variability. (asha.org)
- Analyse and draw conclusions from estimates of disease incidence and prevalence in the published literature. (bristol.ac.uk)
- Incidence should not be confused with prevalence, which is the proportion of cases in the population at a given time rather than rate of occurrence of new cases. (wikipedia.org)
- Thus, incidence conveys information about the risk of contracting the disease, whereas prevalence indicates how widespread the disease is. (wikipedia.org)
- Incidence is usually more useful than prevalence in understanding the disease etiology: for example, if the incidence rate of a disease in a population increases, then there is a risk factor that promotes the incidence. (wikipedia.org)

###### geometry

- GID is usually, but not exclusively, done in grazing incidence and exit geometry. (warwick.ac.uk)
- In mathematics, incidence geometry is the study of incidence structures. (wikipedia.org)
- Using geometric language, as is done in incidence geometry, shapes the topics and examples that are normally presented. (wikipedia.org)
- In geometry, an incidence relation is a binary relation between different types of objects that captures the idea being expressed when phrases such as "a point lies on a line" or "a line is contained in a plane" are used. (wikipedia.org)
- Historically, projective geometry was developed in order to make the propositions of incidence true without exceptions, such as those caused by the existence of parallels. (wikipedia.org)

###### mathematics

- Incidence structures arise naturally and have been studied in various areas of mathematics. (wikipedia.org)
- In mathematics, an incidence matrix is a matrix that shows the relationship between two classes of objects. (wikipedia.org)
- In mathematics, an abstract system consisting of two types of objects and a single relationship between these types of objects is called an incidence structure. (wikipedia.org)
- In mathematics, an incidence poset or incidence order is a type of partially ordered set that represents the incidence relation between vertices and edges of an undirected graph. (wikipedia.org)
- In order theory, a field of mathematics, an incidence algebra is an associative algebra, defined for every locally finite partially ordered set and commutative ring with unity. (wikipedia.org)

###### determine the incidence

- Say you are looking at a sample population of 225 people, and want to determine the incidence rate of developing HIV over a 10-year period: At the beginning of the study (t=0) you find 25 cases of existing HIV. (wikipedia.org)
- Several definitional issues complicate attempts to determine the incidence of open marriage. (wikipedia.org)

###### economics

- The Changing Incidence of Geography ," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 698, Boston College Department of Economics. (repec.org)
- Fiscal incidence is a concept within public finance, a sub-discipline within economics, that refers to the combined overall economic impact of both government taxation and expenditures on the real economic income of individuals. (wikipedia.org)
- Barna's conceptual framework-first developed as a doctoral candidate at the London School of Economics under Nicholas Kaldor-was influential and today serves as the essential framework for fiscal incidence studies conducted by the British government. (wikipedia.org)
- In economics, tax incidence or tax burden is the analysis of the effect of a particular tax on the distribution of economic welfare. (wikipedia.org)

###### GISAXS

- Grazing Small and Wide Angle Scattering (GISAXS & GIWAXS), Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) and Surface X-ray diffraction ( SXRD ), althought this nomenclature is not universal. (warwick.ac.uk)
- The scattered probe is either photons ( grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering , GISAXS ) or neutrons ( grazing-incidence small-angle neutron scattering , GISANS ). (wikipedia.org)
- When employed under very small scattering angles, the technique is called grazing-incidence small-angle scattering (GISAS, GISAXS, GISANS), and requires special methodology. (wikipedia.org)

###### fuselage

- A variable-incidence wing has an adjustable angle of incidence relative to its fuselage. (wikipedia.org)
- By increasing the incidence of the wing but not the fuselage, both high lift and good forward vision can be maintained. (wikipedia.org)
- In this case the variable incidence provided good takeoff and landing performance while avoiding any passenger discomfort from tilting the fuselage. (wikipedia.org)
- Another proposal by B&V, the P 193 attack aircraft, would have been of pusher configuration and could not rotate its fuselage for takeoff without the propeller fouling the ground, so it was given a variable-incidence wing. (wikipedia.org)

###### cancer incidence

- Results: Cervical cancer incidence among young women 15-24 years of age was stable during 2000-2006 from 9.5 in 2000 to 9.1 in 2006, but decreased from 6.9 in 2007 to 5.3 in 2013 (annual percentage decrease [APD] 5.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-10.2, significantly different from the APD during 2000-2006). (aacrjournals.org)
- Cervical cancer incidence among young females 25-34 years of age also decreased from 99.7 in 2000 to 78.2 in 2006 (APD 4.0, 95% CI 2.3-5.6), and from 78.6 in 2007 to 68.2 in 2013 (APD 2.5, 95% CI 0.5-4.5). (aacrjournals.org)
- Surveillance of cancer incidence can help public health officials target areas for cancer control efforts ( 2 ) and track progress toward the national cancer objectives set forth in Healthy People 2020 ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
- This report summarizes the most recent invasive cancer incidence rates by sex, age, race, ethnicity, primary site, and state of residence using data from U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2009. (cdc.gov)
- Cancer incidence rates were higher among men (524) than women (414), highest among blacks (473) and lowest among American Indian/Alaska Natives (273), and ranged by state from 387 to 509. (cdc.gov)

###### cumulative incidence

- Cumulative incidence or incidence proportion is a measure of frequency, as in epidemiology, where it is a measure of disease frequency during a period of time. (wikipedia.org)
- Cumulative incidence is defined as the probability that a particular event, such as occurrence of a particular disease, has occurred before a given time. (wikipedia.org)
- Cumulative incidence is calculated by the number of new cases during a period divided by the number of subjects at risk in the population at the beginning of the study. (wikipedia.org)
- 2.5 marks] d) What was the cumulative incidence of ESKD over the 5-year study period? (wikipedia.org)
- Incidence proportion (also known as cumulative incidence) is the number of new cases within a specified time period divided by the size of the population initially at risk. (wikipedia.org)
- When this assumption is substantially violated, such as in describing survival after diagnosis of metastatic cancer, it may be more useful to present incidence data in a plot of cumulative incidence, over time, taking into account loss to follow-up, using a Kaplan-Meier Plot. (wikipedia.org)

###### assigns

- This implies that incidence coloring assigns distinct colors to neighborly incidences. (wikipedia.org)
- Any member of an incidence algebra that assigns the same value to any two intervals that are isomorphic to each other as posets is a member of the reduced incidence algebra. (wikipedia.org)

###### angle

- In grazing incidence techniques, the X-ray beam impinges on the surface at a very small angle with respect to the surface plane. (warwick.ac.uk)
- By modifying the incidence angle, the penetration depth of the X-ray beam in the sample can be controlled, and thus, at very shallow angles (typically below 1°), the signal coming from the surface area is maximised. (warwick.ac.uk)
- Grazing-incidence small-angle scattering ( GISAS ) is a scattering technique used to study nanostructured surfaces and thin films. (wikipedia.org)
- As a hybrid technique, GISAS combines concepts from transmission small-angle scattering (SAS), from grazing-incidence diffraction (GID), and from diffuse reflectometry. (wikipedia.org)
- The angle created between the incident ray and the normal is referred to as the angle of incidence. (swpp.co.uk)

###### relation

- An incidence structure (P, L, I) consists of a set P whose elements are called points, a disjoint set L whose elements are called lines and an incidence relation I between them, that is, a subset of P × L whose elements are called flags. (wikipedia.org)
- An incidence structure is a triple (P, L, I) where P is a set whose elements are called points, L is a disjoint set whose elements are called lines and I ⊆ P × L is the incidence relation. (wikipedia.org)
- Incidence posets have been particularly studied with respect to their order dimension, and its relation to the properties of the underlying graph. (wikipedia.org)
- The most basic incidence relation is that between a point, P, and a line, l, sometimes denoted P I l. (wikipedia.org)
- There are many expressions used in common language to describe incidence (for example, a line passes through a point, a point lies in a plane, etc.) but the term "incidence" is preferred because it does not have the additional connotations that these other terms have, and it can be used in a symmetric manner, reflecting this property of the relation. (wikipedia.org)
- a plane is a set of points) then an incidence relation may be viewed as containment. (wikipedia.org)

###### taxation

- When the economic incidence of taxation is combined with the economic incidence of government expenditures, the result is a measure of the overall increase or decrease in welfare that individuals enjoy from the state's taxing and spending policies. (wikipedia.org)
- The concept was brought to attention by the French Physiocrats, in particular François Quesnay, who argued that the incidence of all taxation falls ultimately on landowners and is at the expense of land rent. (wikipedia.org)

###### poset

- Every incidence poset of a non-empty graph has height two. (wikipedia.org)
- The incidence poset of a connected graph G has order dimension at most two if and only if G is a path graph, and has order dimension at most three if and only if G is at most planar (Schnyder's theorem). (wikipedia.org)
- Every complete graph on n vertices, and by extension every graph on n vertices, has an incidence poset with order dimension O(log log n). (wikipedia.org)
- If an incidence poset has high dimension then it must contain copies of the incidence posets of all small trees either as sub-orders or as the duals of sub-orders. (wikipedia.org)
- An incidence algebra is finite-dimensional if and only if the underlying poset is finite. (wikipedia.org)

###### graphs

- The oriented incidence matrix of an undirected graph is the incidence matrix, in the sense of directed graphs, of any orientation of the graph. (wikipedia.org)
- The definitions of incidence matrix apply to graphs with loops and multiple edges. (wikipedia.org)
- Because the edges of ordinary graphs can only have two vertices (one at each end), the column of an incidence matrix for graphs can only have two non-zero entries. (wikipedia.org)
- However, graphs whose incidence posets have order dimension 4 may be dense and may have unbounded chromatic number. (wikipedia.org)
- They bounded it in terms of Δ(G), the maximum degree of a graph G. Initially, the incidence chromatic number of trees, complete bipartite graphs and complete graphs was found out. (wikipedia.org)
- They also conjectured that all graphs can have an incidence coloring using Δ(G) + 2 colors (Incidence coloring conjecture - ICC). (wikipedia.org)

###### diffraction

- SAXS or SANS ) and the surface sensitivity of grazing incidence diffraction (GID). (wikipedia.org)
- Grazing incidence X-ray and neutron diffraction (GID, GIXD, GIND), typically from a crystalline structure uses small incident angles for the incoming X-ray or neutron beam, so that diffraction can be made surface sensitive. (wikipedia.org)

###### graph theory

- Incidence matrices are mostly used in graph theory. (wikipedia.org)
- In graph theory an undirected graph has two kinds of incidence matrices: unoriented and oriented. (wikipedia.org)

###### vertex

- The unoriented incidence matrix (or simply incidence matrix) of an undirected graph is a n × m matrix B, where n and m are the numbers of vertices and edges respectively, such that Bi,j = 1 if the vertex vi and edge ej are incident and 0 otherwise. (wikipedia.org)
- The incidence matrix of a directed graph is a n × m matrix B where n and m are the number of vertices and edges respectively, such that Bi,j = −1 if the edge ej leaves vertex vi, 1 if it enters vertex vi and 0 otherwise (many authors use the opposite sign convention). (wikipedia.org)
- For these examples, the vertices of the graph form the point set, the edges of the graph form the line set, and incidence means that a vertex is an endpoint of an edge. (wikipedia.org)
- The incidence coloring is a special graph labeling where in each incidence of an edge with a vertex is assigned a color under certain constraints. (wikipedia.org)
- Let G = (V, E) be a simple graph with vertex set (non-empty) V(G) and edge set E(G). An incidence is defined as a pair (v, e) where v ϵ V(G) is an end point of e ϵ E(G). In simple words, one says that vertex v is incident to edge e. (wikipedia.org)

###### vertices

- However, a combinatorial metric does exist in the corresponding incidence graph (Levi graph), namely the length of the shortest path between two vertices in this bipartite graph. (wikipedia.org)
- The distance between two objects of an incidence structure - two points, two lines or a point and a line - can be defined to be the distance between the corresponding vertices in the incidence graph of the incidence structure. (wikipedia.org)
- The vertices of the collinearity graph are the points of the incidence structure and two points are joined if there exists a line incident with both points. (wikipedia.org)
- For example the incidence matrix of the undirected graph shown on the right is a matrix consisting of 4 rows (corresponding to the four vertices, 1-4) and 4 columns (corresponding to the four edges, e1-e4): If we look at the incidence matrix, we see that the sum of each column is equal to 2. (wikipedia.org)

###### Euclidean

- A geometric structure such as the Euclidean plane is a complicated object that involves concepts such as length, angles, continuity, betweenness, and incidence. (wikipedia.org)
- What is left is the incidence structure of the Euclidean plane. (wikipedia.org)

###### hypergraph

- As there is a hypergraph for every Levi graph, and vice versa, the incidence matrix of an incidence structure describes a hypergraph. (wikipedia.org)
- Conversely, every incidence structure can be viewed as a hypergraph by identifying the lines with the sets of points that are incident with them. (wikipedia.org)

###### expenditure

- Both studies found that the U.S. tax system was roughly proportional overall and mildly progressive over some ranges, while the distribution of expenditure benefits was sharply progressive, resulting a progressive overall distribution of fiscal incidence for 1961 and 1965. (wikipedia.org)
- Expenditure incidence is the effect of government expenditure upon the distribution of private incomes. (wikipedia.org)

###### displaystyle

- The discrete Laplacian (or Kirchhoff matrix) is obtained from the oriented incidence matrix B(G) by the formula B ( G ) B ( G ) T . {\displaystyle B(G)B(G)^{T}.} The integral cycle space of a graph is equal to the null space of its oriented incidence matrix, viewed as a matrix over the integers or real or complex numbers. (wikipedia.org)
- The minimum number of colors needed for incidence coloring of a graph is known as incidence chromatic number or incidence coloring number of G, represented by χ i {\displaystyle \chi _{i}} (G). This notation was introduced by Jennifer J. Quinn Massey and Richard A. Brualdi in 1993. (wikipedia.org)
- For a complete bipartite graph K m , n {\displaystyle K_{m,n}} with m ≥ n ≥ 2, incidence chromatic number is m + 2. (wikipedia.org)
- For any graph G, χ i {\displaystyle \chi _{i}} (G) ≤ 2Δ(G). For cycle C n {\displaystyle C_{n}} , incidence chromatic number is at most 4. (wikipedia.org)
- It may also be calculated by the incidence rate multiplied by duration: C I ( t ) = 1 − e − I R ( t ) ⋅ D . {\displaystyle CI(t)=1-e^{-IR(t)\cdot D}\,.} In order to examine progression from less severe chronic kidney disease to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), in 2010, researchers recruited a group of 8,808 Indigenous Australians, aged between 45 to 64, who currently have chronic kidney disease. (wikipedia.org)
- On this underlying set one defines addition and scalar multiplication pointwise, and "multiplication" in the incidence algebra is a convolution defined by ( f ∗ g ) ( a , b ) = ∑ a ≤ x ≤ b f ( a , x ) g ( x , b ) . {\displaystyle (f*g)(a,b)=\sum _{a\leq x\leq b}f(a,x)g(x,b). (wikipedia.org)
- An incidence coloring of a graph G {\displaystyle G} is an assignment of a color to each incidence of G in such a way that adjacent incidences get distinct colors. (wikipedia.org)

###### incident

- The incidence matrix of an incidence structure C is a p × q matrix B, where p and q are the number of points and lines respectively, such that Bi,j = 1 if the point pi and line Lj are incident and 0 otherwise. (wikipedia.org)
- An incidence structure is uniform if each line is incident with the same number of points. (wikipedia.org)
- For instance, a partial linear space is an incidence structure that satisfies: Any two distinct points are incident with at most one common line, and Every line is incident with at least two points. (wikipedia.org)
- If the first axiom above is replaced by the stronger: Any two distinct points are incident with exactly one common line, the incidence structure is called a linear space. (wikipedia.org)
- The orientation of the incident light's polarization with respect to the plane of incidence has an important effect on the strength of the reflection. (wikipedia.org)
- P-polarized light is incident linearly polarized light with polarization direction lying in the plane of incidence. (wikipedia.org)

###### distinct colors

- Therefore, these incidences have to be colored using distinct colors. (wikipedia.org)

###### invasive

- Methods: We examined trends in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer by race and histology among young women (15-24 years and 25-34 years) during the prevaccine era (2000-2006) and the vaccine era (2007-2013). (aacrjournals.org)
- In 2009, a total of 1,476,504 invasive cancers were diagnosed in the United States, an annual incidence rate of 459 cases per 100,000 persons. (cdc.gov)

###### corresponds

- The oriented incidence matrix is unique up to negation of any of the columns, since negating the entries of a column corresponds to reversing the orientation of an edge. (wikipedia.org)
- The delta function in this incidence algebra similarly corresponds to the formal power series 1. (wikipedia.org)

###### loops and multiple edges

- Any graph (which need not be simple, loops and multiple edges are allowed) is a uniform incidence structure with two points per line. (wikipedia.org)

###### estimates

- Inaccurate information about the openness of marriages will make estimates of the incidence of open marriage less reliable. (wikipedia.org)

###### Levi

- In this case the incidence matrix is also a biadjacency matrix of the Levi graph of the structure. (wikipedia.org)

###### fiscal

- Fiscal incidence is the term for the overall impact of government taxing and spending considered together. (wikipedia.org)
- This is referred to as fiscal incidence. (wikipedia.org)
- Early empirical studies of fiscal incidence date to the 1940s. (wikipedia.org)
- As a result, early studies found that overall fiscal incidence resulted in a net redistribution of income between income groups within the United States, from higher-income individuals to lower-income individuals. (wikipedia.org)

###### epidemiology

- USCS includes incidence data from CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program and mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- Play media Incidence in epidemiology is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. (wikipedia.org)

###### satisfy some additional

- Incidence structures that are most studied are those that satisfy some additional properties (axioms), such as projective planes, affine planes, generalized polygons, partial geometries and near polygons. (wikipedia.org)
- it is typical to study incidence structures that satisfy some additional axioms. (wikipedia.org)

###### adjacent

- The two incidences (v,e) and (u,f) are said to be adjacent if one of the given conditions holds: v = u, e ≠ f e = f, v ≠ u e = {v, u}, f = {u, w} and v ≠ w. (wikipedia.org)
- An incidence coloring of G can be defined as a function c: I(G) → N such that c((v, e)) ≠ c((u,f)) for any incidences (v, e) and (u, f) that are adjacent. (wikipedia.org)

###### algebra

- The members of the incidence algebra are the functions f assigning to each nonempty interval [a, b] a scalar f(a, b), which is taken from the ring of scalars, a commutative ring with unity. (wikipedia.org)
- This is a subalgebra of the incidence algebra, and it clearly contains the incidence algebra's identity element and zeta function. (wikipedia.org)
- Any element of the reduced incidence algebra that is invertible in the larger incidence algebra has its inverse in the reduced incidence algebra. (wikipedia.org)

###### typically

- The concept of an incidence structure is very simple and has arisen in several disciplines, each introducing its own vocabulary and specifying the types of questions that are typically asked about these structures. (wikipedia.org)
- When the tax incidence falls on the farmer, this burden will typically flow back to owners of the relevant factors of production, including agricultural land and employee wages. (wikipedia.org)

###### therefore

- Therefore, the statutory incidence is on the retail seller. (britannica.com)
- Incidence is therefore customarily expressed as a rate. (encyclopedia.com)

###### Theory

- The incidence matrix is an important tool in the theory of block designs. (wikipedia.org)
- The theory of tax incidence has a number of practical results. (wikipedia.org)

###### containment

- Incidence of a point and a line is given by containment of the one dimensional subspace in the two dimensional subspace. (wikipedia.org)

###### refers

- The 'incidence' of pediatric dysphagia refers to the number of new cases identified in a specified time period. (asha.org)

###### structures

- It sometimes happens that authors blur the distinction between a study and the objects of that study, so it is not surprising to find that some authors refer to incidence structures as incidence geometries. (wikipedia.org)
- Very general incidence structures can be obtained by imposing "mild" conditions, such as: A partial linear space is an incidence structure for which the following axioms are true: Every pair of distinct points determines at most one line. (wikipedia.org)
- Incidence structures are most often considered in the geometrical context where they are abstracted from, and hence generalize, planes (such as affine, projective, and Möbius planes), but the concept is very broad and not limited to geometric settings. (wikipedia.org)
- Incidence structures of this type are called set-theoretic. (wikipedia.org)
- Incidence structures use a geometric terminology, but in graph theoretic terms they are called hypergraphs and in design theoretic terms they are called block designs. (wikipedia.org)

###### proportion

- Where the period of time considered is an entire lifetime, the incidence proportion is called lifetime risk. (wikipedia.org)
- It is sometimes also referred to as the incidence proportion. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, if a population initially contains 1,000 non-diseased persons and 28 develop a condition over two years of observation, the incidence proportion is 28 cases per 1,000 persons per two years, i.e. 2.8% per two years. (wikipedia.org)
- In the same example as above, the incidence rate is 14 cases per 1000 person-years, because the incidence proportion (28 per 1,000) is divided by the number of years (two). (wikipedia.org)

###### implies

- Use of this measure implies the assumption that the incidence rate is constant over different periods of time, such that for an incidence rate of 14 per 1000 persons-years, 14 cases would be expected for 1000 persons observed for 1 year or 50 persons observed for 20 years. (wikipedia.org)

###### burden

- Tax incidence , the distribution of a particular tax's economic burden among the affected parties. (britannica.com)
- The final incidence (also called economic incidence) of a tax is the final burden of that particular tax on the distribution of economic welfare in society. (britannica.com)
- As a result, the purchaser bears the final burden, the economic incidence. (britannica.com)
- Tax incidence is said to "fall" upon the group that ultimately bears the burden of, or ultimately has to pay, the tax. (wikipedia.org)
- The key concept is that the tax incidence or tax burden does not depend on where the revenue is collected, but on the price elasticity of demand and price elasticity of supply. (wikipedia.org)
- On the other hand, if the apple farmer is unable to raise prices because the product is price elastic the farmer has to bear the burden of the tax or face decreased revenues: the tax incidence falls on the farmer. (wikipedia.org)
- Tax incidence or burden does not in any way depend on where the revenue has been collected. (wikipedia.org)

###### 100,000

- Of all population groups, the incidence per 100,000 people was 0.52. (news-medical.net)
- Some particular population groups, such as women aged between 13 and 25 years, were more likely to be affected by the syndrome, with an incidence of 1.41 per 100,000. (news-medical.net)
- These studies include incidence values ranging to a maximum of 17 per 100,000 women. (news-medical.net)
- Annual incidence rates per 100,000 population were age-adjusted by the direct method to the 2000 U.S. standard population. (cdc.gov)
- The age-adjusted annual incidence for all cancers was 459 per 100,000 population (524 per 100,000 in males and 414 per 100,000 in females). (cdc.gov)

###### decrease

- A significance decrease in the incidence was only observed in Whites, but not in Blacks, Hispanics, or Asians/Pacific Islanders. (aacrjournals.org)
- A significance decrease was observed in the incidence of non-squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) rather than SCC among young females 15-24 years from 3 in 2007 to 1.5 in 2013 (APD 9.1, 95% CI 3.1-14.7). (aacrjournals.org)
- Conclusion: A significance decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer during the vaccine era among young females 15-24 years may indicate early effects of HPV vaccination. (aacrjournals.org)
- When the association between tampons with higher absorbency and toxic shock syndrome became clear, public health interventions were initiated to decrease the incidence of the condition. (news-medical.net)
- This public health initiative is largely to account for the decrease in incidence of toxic shock syndrome since the 1980s and its relative rarity today. (news-medical.net)

###### optics

- In describing reflection and refraction in optics, the plane of incidence (also called the meridional plane[citation needed]) is the plane which contains the surface normal and the propagation vector of the incoming radiation. (wikipedia.org)

###### Interval

- The interval incidence coloring number of G is the minimum number of colors used for the interval incidence coloring of G. It is denoted by IIC(G). If only IIC(G) colors are used for the interval incidence coloring, then it is said to be minimal. (wikipedia.org)

###### rate

- If the notification of new cases of malignant melanoma to cancer registries in an area is complete, all diagnoses are accurate, and the number and age of people at risk of getting malignant melanoma is known, then the incidence rate can be calculated, fluctuations from year to year can be discerned, and the groups or localities where the incidence is unusually high can be identified. (encyclopedia.com)
- Define and interpret a disease incidence as the rate of disease or risk of disease over a time period. (bristol.ac.uk)
- The incidence rate is the number of new cases per population at risk in a given time period. (wikipedia.org)
- When the denominator is the sum of the person-time of the at risk population, it is also known as the incidence density rate or person-time incidence rate. (wikipedia.org)

###### wings

- Early types incorporating one or more variable-incidence wings included the Zerbe Air Sedan, a tandem quadruplane of 1919, and the tandem-wing Flying Flea which was popular during the 1930s. (wikipedia.org)

###### equivalent

- It is equivalent to the incidence, calculated using a period of time during which all of the individuals in the population are considered to be at risk for the outcome. (wikipedia.org)

###### example

- His counter example showed that incidence chromatic number is at most Δ(G) + O(log Δ(G)). Chen et al. (wikipedia.org)

###### Variable

- these are called variable incidence wing s. (britannica.com)
- An early patent for the variable-incidence wing was lodged in France on 20 May 1912 by Bulgarian inventor George Boginoff. (wikipedia.org)
- Without a variable-incidence wing (or other high-lift device), the pilot must pitch up the entire aircraft to maintain lift at the slow approach speed required, and this can restrict forward vision. (wikipedia.org)
- One of the earlier designs to have variable incidence for this purpose was the Supermarine Type 322 prototype carrier-borne aircraft of 1943. (wikipedia.org)
- The only production aircraft to incorporate variable incidence was the American F-8 Crusader carrier-borne jet fighter, while other prototype designs to have flown include the Martin XB-51. (wikipedia.org)

###### thus

- The tax incidence is thus said to fall on the employee. (wikipedia.org)

###### Define

- Another way to define a distance again uses a graph-theoretic notion in a related structure, this time the collinearity graph of the incidence structure. (wikipedia.org)
- Studies that define open marriage by agreement alone will tend to report a higher incidence than studies that define open marriage by agreement and behavior. (wikipedia.org)

###### case

- This conjecture was disproved by Guiduli, who showed that incidence coloring concept is a directed star arboricity case, introduced by Alon and Algor. (wikipedia.org)
- He showed that in case of outerplanar graph of maximum degree 4, the incidence chromatic number is not 5. (wikipedia.org)

###### concept

- There is no natural concept of distance (a metric) in an incidence structure. (wikipedia.org)
- The concept of incidence coloring was introduced by Brualdi and Massey in 1993. (wikipedia.org)

###### population

- Incidence rates (per 1,000,000) were age-adjusted to the 2010 US standard population by the direct method, using SEER*Stat software. (aacrjournals.org)
- Incidence means the number of new episodes of an illness, injury, or other health-related event that commence during a specified period of time in a specified population. (encyclopedia.com)
- Women who are menstruating and use tampons are at a greater risk of suffering from toxic shock syndrome and, for this reason, the incidence in this population is higher. (news-medical.net)

###### data

- Data from research conducted over the period from 2000-2006, reported that the incidence of toxic shock syndrome now remains low and stable. (news-medical.net)
- An incidence structure is what is obtained when all other concepts are removed and all that remains is the data about which points lie on which lines. (wikipedia.org)

###### relatively

- The incidence of toxic shock syndrome rose significantly in the following decade until it reached a peak in the 1980s and declined from that point until today and is now seen as a relatively rare condition. (news-medical.net)
- The incidence of open marriage has remained relatively stable over the last two generations. (wikipedia.org)

###### government

- The initial incidence (also called statutory incidence) of a tax is the initial distribution among taxpayers of a legal obligation to remit tax receipts to the government. (britannica.com)

###### study

- Economists formally study tax incidence by using the tools of supply and demand analysis. (britannica.com)
- To measure incidence you must take into account how many years each person contributed to the study, and when they developed HIV. (wikipedia.org)

###### risk

- Some research has indicated a significantly higher incidence when considering at risk populations of women that use tampons regularly. (news-medical.net)

###### time

- Sellers' incidence falls over time due to specialization, despite constant gravity coefficients. (repec.org)
- For each mesh, the incidence colors can be made in the linear time with the least number of colors. (wikipedia.org)

###### economic

- Neglected properties of the structural gravity model offer a theoretically consistent method to calculate the incidence of estimated trade costs, disaggregated by commodity and region, and re-aggregated into forms useful for economic geography. (repec.org)
- The Changing Incidence of Geography ," NBER Working Papers 14423, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (repec.org)

###### structure

- The distance between two points of the incidence structure can then be defined as their distance in the collinearity graph. (wikipedia.org)
- When distance is considered in an incidence structure, it is necessary to mention how it is being defined. (wikipedia.org)
- This is an incidence structure in which the lines fall into k parallel classes, so that two lines in the same parallel class have no common points, but two lines in different classes have exactly one common point, and each point belongs to exactly one line from each parallel class. (wikipedia.org)
- The Fano plane above is a self-dual incidence structure. (wikipedia.org)
- As an incidence structure, X is the set of points and F is the set of lines, usually called blocks in this context (repeated blocks must have distinct names, so F is actually a set and not a multiset). (wikipedia.org)

###### higher

- For Canada's provinces, 1992-2003, incidence is on average some five times higher for sellers than for buyers. (repec.org)

###### types

- In these types, varying the incidence of one wing while leaving another fixed was used as a substitute for the more conventional elevator control surface. (wikipedia.org)

###### given

- It is the incidence matrix of any bidirected graph that orients the given signed graph. (wikipedia.org)

###### However

- However, early in 1980, epidemiological studies reported toxic shock syndrome occurring with increasing incidence in menstruating women. (news-medical.net)
- However, Rely was not the only tampon product available that had led to the increased incidence of the syndrome. (news-medical.net)
- However, it could equally well be argued that in some cases the incidence of the tax falls on the employer. (wikipedia.org)