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  • Inhibition
  • Inhibition of miR-128 increased Sp1 protein levels and promoted muscle satellite cell differentiation but also suppressed proliferation. (springer.com)
  • The activation of Akt1 is a primary event in regulating skeletal muscle development since it controls the phosphorylation of a number of substrates involved in protein synthesis including mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) (and its downstream targets 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and p70S6 kinase) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), as well as, the inhibition of protein degradation via the forkhead transcription factor (FOXO) pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • tissues
  • ILK is ubiquitously expressed in most tissues, with predominance at skeletal muscle, heart, kidney and pancreas. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The extent to which RE may be able to directly affect circadian-regulated genes in peripheral tissues such as human muscle is not known, however. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1 Interestingly, all three muscle tissues recapitulate some aspects of ontogenesis when hyperplastic or hypertrophic growth is induced in adulthood as part of an adaptive response to some pathophysiological stimulus. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 In striated muscle, this protein is expressed in tissues and in a developmental stage-specific manner, and the myosin isoform pattern correlates with specific contractile properties. (ahajournals.org)
  • It is widely accepted that mechanical forces are important in the development, growth, the maintenance and function of tissues, such as the remodelling of skeletal muscle system and cardiovascular tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate the function of miRNAs in chicken growth, breast muscle tissues of the two-tail samples (highest and lowest body weight) from Recessive White Rock (WRR) and Xinghua Chickens (XH) were performed on high throughput small RNA deep sequencing. (mdpi.com)
  • Cytoglobin is a hemoprotein expressed in response to oxidative stress in a variety of tissues, including striated muscle. (pnas.org)
  • inflammation
  • 70% of microRNA-122 (miR-122) is found in the liver, 5 where miR-122 plays a critical health-promoting role by suppressing tumorigenesis and uncontrolled proliferation and inflammation. (asnjournals.org)
  • protein synthesis
  • The lower skeletal muscle mass in the OZR appears to be partly accounted for by an altered balance between protein synthesis and degradation in this model of metabolic syndrome ( 4 , 16 ). (physiology.org)
  • This decrease in muscle mass is secondary to an increase in muscle proteolysis, whereas muscle protein synthesis rate does not seem to be affected [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Similarly, experimental sepsis induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration increases muscle proteolysis, but it does not decrease protein synthesis [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • vivo
  • Examination of muscle strength showed reduced force generation in vivo and ex vivo compared to wild-type controls. (kennedykrieger.org)
  • Our studies enhance our understanding of in vivo TGF-β pathway modulation and suggest that Smad7 may be an important therapeutic target for muscle disorders. (kennedykrieger.org)
  • The parallel orientation of muscle fibres guarantees the generation of longitudinal force after contraction that is induced by motoneuron activity in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Mice in which cytoglobin was knocked out specifically in skeletal muscle were generated to examine the role of cytoglobin in vivo. (pnas.org)
  • mediator
  • The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling cascade is a key mediator of inflammatory cytokine action, and signaling via this pathway is increased in muscles with aging. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mice
  • Smad7(-/-) mice showed reduced muscle mass, hypotrophy and hypoplasia of muscle fibres, as well as an increase in oxidative fibre types. (kennedykrieger.org)
  • Twelve-week-old or 24-month-old SOCS3 muscle-specific knockout (SOCS3 MKO) mice and littermate controls were either left uninjured or injured with a single injection of notexin (10 μg/ml) into the right tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • inflammatory
  • Entangled with respiratory burst and autoantibody induction, NETs are turning out be almost omnipresent in inflammatory response, playing important roles in rheumatoid arthritis just as for the osseointegration of titanium implants. (uni-salzburg.at)
  • Cytokines such as TNFα act as potent inducer of the inflammatory response transcription factor NF- B that increases proteasome-dependent protein breakdown in skeletal muscle [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Although muscle wasting during sepsis seems to be secondary to multiple factors, the increased release of proinflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids and the decreased release of IGF-I are important mediators of inflammatory cachexia. (hindawi.com)
  • actin
  • In the UUO model, miR-196a/b silenced TGF- β -Smad signaling, decreased the expression of collagen 1 and α -smooth muscle actin, and attenuated renal fibrosis. (asnjournals.org)
  • decreases
  • Declines in circulating GH and IGF-1 often parallel decreases in skeletal muscle mass, making GH supplementation a potentially attractive treatment for conditions of GH deficiency. (biomedcentral.com)