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  • genes
  • More recently, expression of engineered immunoglobulin genes in tissue culture can be used to produce IgM with specific alternations and thus to identify the molecular requirements for features of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immunoglobulin light chain genes in tetrapods can be classified into three distinct groups: kappa (κ), lambda (λ), and sigma (σ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific rearrangement of lambda light chain of immunoglobulins can lead to loss of some protein coding genes, which does not seem to be functionally relevant (while functionally relevant miR-650 can be overexpressed). (wikipedia.org)
  • While class switch recombination is mostly a deletional process, rearranging a chromosome in "cis", it can also occur (in 10 to 20% of cases, depending upon the Ig class) as an inter-chromosomal translocation mixing immunoglobulin heavy chain genes from both alleles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The variable region of each immunoglobulin heavy or light chain is encoded in several pieces on the genes. (news-medical.net)
  • Rearrangements in certain parts of their DNA called immunoglobulin genes are a normal part of their development. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Structural
  • The V domains of normal immunoglobulin are highly heterogeneous, reflecting their role in protecting against the great variety of infectious microbes, and this heterogeneity impeded detailed structural analysis of IgM. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • The immunoglobulin domain is a type of protein domain that consists of a 2-layer sandwich of 7-9 antiparallel β-strands arranged in two β-sheets with a Greek key topology, consisting of about 125 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each light chain is composed of two tandem immunoglobulin domains: one constant (CL) domain one variable domain (VL) that is important for binding antigen The approximate length of a light chain protein is from 211 to 217 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • heavy
  • Immunoglobulins are composed of two types of protein chain -- the heavy chain and the light chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each heavy chain has two regions: a constant region (which is the same for all immunoglobulins of the same class but differs between classes). (wikipedia.org)
  • The variable domain of any heavy chain is composed of a single immunoglobulin domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • During class switching, the constant region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain changes but the variable regions, and therefore antigenic specificity, stay the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the highly repetitive structure of the target S regions, the process of class switching needs S regions to be first transcribed and spliced out of the immunoglobulin heavy chain transcripts (where they lie within introns). (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • In these situations, immunoglobulin infusions confer passive resistance to infection on their recipients by increasing the quantity/quality of IgG they possess. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin therapy is especially useful in some acute infection cases such as pediatric HIV infection and is also considered the standard of treatment for some autoimmune disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulins are produced by vertebrate animals as part of the normal immune response to microbial, e.g., bacterial or viral, infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • Human immunoglobulin is made from human blood plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Advisory Committee on Blood and Blood Products of Canada (NAC) and Canadian Blood Services have also developed their own separate set of guidelines for the appropriate use of immunoglobulin therapy, which strongly support the use of immunoglobulin therapy in primary immunodeficiencies and some complications of HIV, while remaining silent on the issues of sepsis, multiple sclerosis, and chronic fatigue syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG) holds the highest share (44%) in the global blood plasma market, with a revenue of $9.24 billion. (frost.com)
  • Immunoglobulin can be collected from the plasma of donated blood. (oncolink.org)
  • symptoms
  • Immunoglobulin therapy is also used for a number of other conditions, including in many autoimmune disorders such as dermatomyositis in an attempt to decrease the severity of symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The name Immunoglobulin Y was suggested in 1969 by G.A. Leslie and L.W. Clem, after they were able to show differences between the immunoglobulins found in chicken eggs, and immunoglobulin G. Other synonymous names are Chicken IgG, Egg Yolk IgG, and 7S-IgG. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the immunoglobulins arising during the immune response, only IgY is found in chicken eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • sIgA is the main immunoglobulin found in mucous secretions, including tears, saliva, sweat, colostrum and secretions from the genitourinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, prostate and respiratory epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • variable
  • It is believed that the structure of variable subgenes of Ig and the surface immunoglobulin determine the propensity of chronic or tonic BCR signalling. (wikipedia.org)