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  • antigen
  • Hadzidimitriou A, Darzentas N, Murray F et al (2009) Evidence for the significant role of immunoglobulin light chains in antigen recognition and selection in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (springer.com)
  • Also, with only a few exceptions, the antigen, if any, that reacts with the clonal immunoglobulins produced by lymphomas and myelomas is not known. (pnas.org)
  • In the case of transplanted human kidneys, a search for the antigen(s) that drives the replication of the B-cells that have infiltrated the allograft should be simpler because one knows the perturbations that initiated the process. (pnas.org)
  • This region is composed of 110-130 amino acids and shown great variance between different immunoglobulins and also specific for antigen binding. (mybiosource.com)
  • During an initial infection (or primary immune response) involving a T-dependent antigen, naive follicular B cells are activated in the presence of TFH cells within the follicles of secondary lymphoid organs (i.e. spleen and lymph nodes) and undergo clonal expansion to produce a foci of B cells that are specific for the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, as an infection proceeds, memory B cells selected in the later stages of a germinal center response are found to have accumulated the highest numbers of immunoglobulin mutation events with superior affinity towards their targeted antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • With each such subsequent exposure to the same antigen, the number of different responding B cell clones increases to generate a polyclonal response and effectively a greater number of memory B cells persist. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way the MHC-TCR-CD3 interaction for T cells is functionally similar to the antigen(Ag)-immunoglobulin(Ig)-FcR interaction for myeloid leukocytes, and Ag-Ig-CD79 interaction for B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • All heavy chains contain a series of immunoglobulin domains, usually with one variable domain (VH) that is important for binding antigen and several constant domains (CH1, CH2, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • IMP321 is a 200 kDA soluble dimeric recombinant fusion protein of the extracellular portion of LAG3 with immunoglobulin, designed to activate antigen presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, on dendritic cells LAG-3 is an activator, causing increased antigen presentation to cytotoxic CD8+ T cells when it binds to MHC Class II. (wikipedia.org)
  • had successfully produced a soluble fusion protein of LAG3 and immunoglobulin around 1995 and had initially envisaged its use as an immunosuppressant after evidence that its interaction with MHC class II molecules leads to the down-regulation of CD4+ antigen-specific T cell clone proliferation and cytokine secretion, and that it inhibited the alloresponses of naive peripheral blood lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • An April 2006 paper in Cancer Research showed, in vitro, that IMP321 would induce an antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell response in human PBMCs, with the T cells thus created being cytotoxic and capable of producing Tc1 cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The investigators for this work used influenza matrix protein antigen and the tumor antigens Melan-A/MART-1 and survivin when seeking this CD8+ T cell response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The surface antigen CD319 (SLAMF7) is a robust marker of normal plasma cells and malignant plasma cells in multiple myeloma. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • To date, several host- and virus-related factors have been implicated in the progression to MCII, such as the virus-induced expansion of selected subsets of B-cell clones expressing discrete immunoglobulin variable (IgV) gene subfamilies, the involvement of complement factors and the specific role of some HCV proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • This immune complex-mediated vasculitis is characterized by a primary B-cell clonal proliferation accompanied by the deposition of immune complexes composed of complement factors, mono/oligoclonal IgMs with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity bound to oligo/polyclonal IgGs that, in the case of HCV infection, are mostly directed against HCV proteins [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • CD81 is a widely expressed and evolutionary conserved molecule that associates with different proteins in different cell types ( ref/abstract ). (stanford.edu)
  • We hypothesize that CD81 affects a multitude of cell functions because it is essential for the spatial orientation of its associated/partner proteins in membranes. (stanford.edu)
  • We analyzed the individual B cell immune response of HCV-infected patients to the viral envelope proteins. (stanford.edu)
  • Furthermore, several major advances in the early to mid 1980s appeared to be quite inconsistent with the notion that CTLs recognize cell-bound viral proteins. (jimmunol.org)
  • A large number of different hinge regions and effector domains are taken from libraries of immunoglobulins, and the combined proteins are produced in genetically modified (transfected) cells and screened for clones with useful properties like high binding specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphomas
  • The investigators also demonstrated an association between JAK inhibition and an increased frequency of aggressive B-cell lymphomas in mouse models. (eurekalert.org)
  • The majority of lymphomas originate from B cells at the germinal center stage. (springer.com)
  • Küppers R, Klein U, Hansmann ML et al (1999) Cellular origin of human B-cell lymphomas. (springer.com)
  • Induction of lymphomas in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens by replication competent, non-transforming avian retroviruses (Avian Leukosis Virus, ALV) is both an economically significant, naturally occurring disease and an experimental model system which has provided seminal insights into the role of the myc oncogene in B-cell neoplasia. (springer.com)
  • These data strengthen the hypothesis that the HCV-associated lymphomas are derived from clonally expanded B cells stimulated by HCV. (stanford.edu)
  • bone marrow
  • A rigorous quantification of lineage trees reveals presence of intraclonal variations in the PB clones compared to the bone marrow (BM) clones, which suggests a common precursor that is still subject to somatic mutation. (springer.com)
  • One of three disorders that falls under the umbrella of myeloproliferative neoplasms is myelofibrosis, a rare bone marrow cancer in which too many blood cells are produced, leading to scarring and hardening inside the bone marrow. (eurekalert.org)
  • In samples taken from the patients with myelofibrosis, investigators found a preexisting B-cell clone in the bone marrow in three of the four patients who later developed lymphoma. (eurekalert.org)
  • We determined that patients with this preexisting B-cell clone in their bone marrow are most at risk for developing aggressive lymphoma," said Dr. Jäger. (eurekalert.org)
  • A normocellular microscopical appearance, with no plasma cell dyscrasia , was displayed on the bone marrow aspirate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • however, it may be useful in certain patients with hematologic abnormalities and an elevated level of plasma cells in the bone marrow and without specific clinical manifestations (3). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Maintenance of these levels results from a balance between production of eosinophils by bone marrow eosinophil precursor cells termed CFU-Eos and the emigration of circulating eosinophils out of the blood through post-capillary venules into tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • chains
  • Each immunoglobulin molecule contains light chains of one of two types, either lambda (2) or kappa (x). (mybiosource.com)
  • The ratio of x/2 chains in human and swine immunoglobulins is about 60:40, whereas in mouse, rat and rabbit immunoglobulins it is about 95:5. (mybiosource.com)
  • Some other mammals such as dog, cat, and farm animals (ox, sheep, and horse) have mainly 2 chains and chicken immunoglobulins contain only 2 chains. (mybiosource.com)
  • In humans, in 95% of T cells the TCR consists of an alpha (α) chain and a beta (β) chain (encoded by TRA and TRB, respectively), whereas in 5% of T cells the TCR consists of gamma and delta (γ/δ) chains (encoded by TRG and TRD, respectively). (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells expressing this receptor are referred to as α:β (or αβ) T cells, though a minority of T cells express an alternate receptor, formed by variable gamma (γ) and delta (δ) chains, referred as γδ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heavy chains γ, α and δ have a constant region composed of three tandem (in a line next to each other) immunoglobulin domains but also have a hinge region for added flexibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • CD81 is required for the normal expression of the CD19 signaling molecule in B cells ( ref/abstract ). (stanford.edu)
  • Basal cell adhesion molecule is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BCAM gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ESAM gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic hypermutation
  • The process is called somatic hypermutation and is responsible for introducing spontaneous mutations with a frequency of about 1 in every 1600 cell division (a relatively high frequency considering the low mutation frequency of other cells of the body being 1 in 106 cell divisions). (wikipedia.org)
  • diversity
  • Here, we report restriction in the diversity of VL gene usage with a dominance of clonally related B cells in the peripheral blood (PB) isotype-specific repertoire of AL patients. (springer.com)
  • Reynaud CA, Anquez V, Dahan A, Weill J-C (1985) A single rearrangement event generates most of the chicken immunoglobulin light chain diversity. (springer.com)
  • differentiation
  • However, IL-10 may also act by enhancing the growth and/or differentiation of cells that are already IgG4 committed. (jimmunol.org)
  • and 3) differentiation into Ig-secreting plasma cells ( 33 , 35 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Activated B cells that fail to undergo germinal center differentiation do not persist as effective memory B cells and are rapidly negatively selected against. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, the same authors showed that soluble LAG-3 would reduce the differentiation of macrophages and dendritic cells from monocytes, suggested that the positive effect of LAG-3 as a dendritic cell activator related to existing dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • soluble
  • The production of IgE is controlled by additional secondary signals provided by soluble mediators or by direct T:B cell contact. (jimmunol.org)
  • Soluble LAG3 was first established as a dendritic cell activator in the late 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in March 1999 a key paper in the Journal of Immunology from scientists at the University of Montreal, on which Triebel was listed as a co-author, demonstrated soluble LAG3's role as a dendritic cell activator. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Therefore, graphical analysis of B cell lineage trees and mathematical quantification of tree properties provide novel insights into the process of B cell clonal evolution in AL. (springer.com)
  • amyloidosis
  • Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL) is characterized by a limited clonal expansion of plasma cells and amyloid formation. (springer.com)
  • Her medical history was significant for extranodal marginal zone lymphoma, plasma cell dyscrasia and amyloidosis diagnosed one year earlier following biopsy of a right cheek mass. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • type II mixed cryoglobulinemia
  • The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the induction of type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII) and the possible establishment of related lymphoproliferative disorders, such as B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), is well ascertained. (mdpi.com)
  • epithelial
  • The human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor facilitates invasion of epithelial cells by Streptococcus pneumoniae in a strain-specific and cell type-specific manner. (springer.com)
  • This protein may play a role in epithelial cell cancer and in vaso-occlusion of red blood cells in sickle cell disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tight junctions represent one mode of cell-to-cell adhesion in epithelial or endothelial cell sheets, forming continuous seals around cells and serving as a physical barrier to prevent solutes and water from passing freely through the paracellular space. (wikipedia.org)
  • dendritic cells
  • We demonstrated the inhibitory effect of HCV infection on the maturation and function of dendritic cells in patients ( ref/abstract ). (stanford.edu)
  • In vivo adjuvant-induced mobilization and maturation of gut dendritic cells after oral administration of cholera toxin. (springer.com)
  • A February 2003 paper in the journal Vaccine showed that, in human immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells, IMP321 could induce production of the chemokines that would direct the migration of maturing dendritic cells to lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notably, LAG-3-matured dendritic cells were upregulated for CCR7. (wikipedia.org)
  • hinge region
  • The binding region is a modified single-chain variable fragment (scFv), and the rest of the protein can be constructed from the fragment crystallizable region (Fc) and the hinge region of an immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). (wikipedia.org)
  • selectively
  • We have developed a method, termed target-selective homologous recombination (TS-HR), in which PCR-amplified V gene DNA fragments can be selectively cloned into vectors, even in the presence of nonspecifically amplified PCR products. (biomedcentral.com)
  • lymphoma
  • That amounts to a 16-fold increased risk for aggressive B-cell lymphoma in patients receiving JAK inhibitors, said study coauthor Ulrich Jäger, MD, of the Medical University of Vienna. (eurekalert.org)
  • Further investigation suggested that this clone was the same that later transformed into lymphoma. (eurekalert.org)
  • By replicating this link between this B-cell clone and aggressive lymphoma, we hope to speed the discovery of an alternative therapy for myelofibrosis," said study coauthor Veronica Sexl, MD, of the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna. (eurekalert.org)
  • Preferential selection of B-cell clones by a limited set of antigens has been suggested to drive lymphoma development. (springer.com)
  • Küppers R (2005) Mechanisms of B-cell lymphoma pathogenesis. (springer.com)
  • mutation
  • When compared to normal BM and PB B cells, AL clones showed significant but incomplete impairment of antigenic selection, which could not be detected by conventional R and S mutation analysis. (springer.com)
  • repertoire
  • This combined engagement of the BCR and the TLR4 can lead to selective replication of members of the B-cell repertoire and ultimately to clonality ( 15 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • maturation
  • Plasmodium sporozoites mature in the liver to merozoites, the stage that infects red blood cells, this maturation step is CD81-dependent. (stanford.edu)
  • Production of a viable heavy chain is a key step in B cell maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A March 2006 online paper in Vaccine showed, in animal models, that IMP321 could immunopotentiate therapeutic vaccines by inducing dendritic cell maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • MCII
  • However, not surprisingly, a reduction in MCII symptoms was shown also after anti-B-cell treatment (e.g. rituximab) suggesting a concomitant role of the pathogen and the host in the establishment of this autoimmune disorder [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Moreover, the same IgV subfamilies are frequently observed in HCV-transformed malignant B-cell clones occasionally complicating MCII. (hindawi.com)
  • mononuclear cells
  • Real-time PCR detected a high copy number of EBV DNA in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at the time of hospital admission. (paperity.org)
  • Specifically, successful reprogramming was demonstrated from a single vial of blood or less using cells expressing the early lineage marker CD34 as well as from unpurified peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (jove.com)
  • Briefly, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are isolated from routine phlebotomy samples and then cultured in defined growth factors to yield a highly proliferative erythrocyte progenitor cell population that is remarkably amenable to reprogramming. (jove.com)
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells stained with FITC-conjugated mouse anti-human myeloperoxidase (MPO). (antikoerper-online.de)
  • membrane
  • In polarized epithelial cells, syntaxin 3 localizes to the apical plasma membrane and is involved in membrane fusion of apical trafficking pathways. (rupress.org)
  • For example, epithelial cells face the outside world or lumen of an organ on one side, and the interstitial environment and basement membrane on the other. (rupress.org)
  • Epithelial cells generally contain at least two different plasma membrane syntaxins. (rupress.org)
  • Also at first, the mature B cell expresses membrane-bound IgD and IgM. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a member of the GAB/DOS family localized on the internal membrane of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PH domain of GAB2 recognizes phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate(PIP3) in the membrane and is responsible for localizing the GAB protein on the intracellular surface of the membrane and in regions where the cell contacts another cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • FLNB regulates intracellular communication and signalling by cross-linking the protein actin to allow direct communication between the cell membrane and cytoskeletal network, to control and guide proper skeletal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • myeloid
  • At the other end of this spectrum, detection of the myeloid protein indicates the presence of a hematological malignancy, i.e. multiple myeloma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, or other B cell-associated neoplasm, that derives stepwise from its MGUS precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow plasma cells
  • this disorder is a form of plasma cell dyscrasia in which no myeloma protein is detected in serum or urine (at least as determined by conventional laboratory methods) of individuals who have clear evidence of an increase in clonal bone marrow plasma cells and/or evidence of clonal plasma cell-mediated tissue injury (e.g. plasmacytoma tumors). (wikipedia.org)
  • mouse CD79a Ser191, Ser197, Thr203), and play a role in limiting formation of bone marrow plasma cells secreting IgG2a and IgG2b. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • They divide rapidly and are still capable of internalizing antigens and presenting them to T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma cells develop from B lymphocytes which are stimulated to undergo this maturational development by T lymphocytes during the latter cells' processing of these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • These cells exhibit functional and structural asymmetry in their apical and basolateral plasma membranes that is essential to their function. (rupress.org)
  • As they are stimulated to become plasma cells, B cells refashion parts of their genome in efforts to create a new gene that encodes a functional antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • If these gene alterations are successful in coding for a functional antibody (termed Ig for immunoglobulin), the maturing B cells and to a greater extent their plasma cell descendants make and secrete an intact antibody, initially IgM but after class switch recombinations, either IgG, IgA, IgE, or IgD. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loss of only one of the two functional CD79a/b ITAMs resulted in impaired B cell development but B cell functions such as the T cell independent type II response and BCR mediated calcium flux in the available B cells were intact. (wikipedia.org)
  • mast
  • A perturbation occurs that brings about the release of histamine and proteases from the granules in the cytoplasm of the mast cell and leads to the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes-potent effectors of the hypersensitivity response. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Glycosylation of Asn-526 and Asn-575 seems to be necessary for the expression of TLR4 on the cell surface and the LPS-response. (abcam.com)
  • One way of enhancing protein expression is by optimising the codon usage of pathogenic mRNAs for eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Association of the CD79a/b heterodimer with the immunoglobulin heavy chain is required for surface expression of the BCR and BCR induced calcium flux and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • actin
  • In cell signaling, HEPACAM directly interacts with F-actin and calveolin 1, and is capable of inducing senescence-like growth arrest via a p53/p21-dependent pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • heavy chain
  • The CD79a/b heterodimer associates non-covalently with the immunoglobulin heavy chain through its transmembrane region, thus forming the BCR along with the immunoglobulin light chain and the pre-BCR when associated with the surrogate light chain in developing B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in the lymphoid cell, a partial rearrangement of the heavy-chain gene occurs which is followed by complete rearrangement of heavy-chain gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here at this stage, Pre-B cell, mμ heavy chain and surrogate light chain are formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoid
  • Upon stimulation by a T cell, which usually occurs in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs like the spleen and lymph nodes , the activated B cell begins to differentiate into more specialized cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • stain
  • Cells were washed, stained with LIVE/DEAD® Fixable Near-IR dead cell stain, washed, and fixed with FIX & PERM® Reagent A. Cells were then washed, permeabilized with FIX & PERM® Reagent B, stained with MPO-FITC conjugate, and washed. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Because even on B-cell precursors, it can be used to stain a wider range of cells than can the alternative B-cell marker CD20, but the latter is more commonly retained on mature B-cell lymphomas, so that the two are often used together in immunohistochemistry panels. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescent
  • First evidence of intraclonal genetic exchange in trypanosomatids using two Leishmania infantum fluorescent transgenic clones. (springer.com)
  • Cotransfection of an episome that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) allows for easy identification of transfected cells. (jove.com)
  • surface
  • The CD79a protein is present on the surface of B-cells throughout their life cycle, and is absent on all other healthy cells, making it a highly reliable marker for B-cells in immunohistochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • Plasma cell with distinct clear perinuclear region of the cytoplasm containing a large number of Golgi bodies . (wikipedia.org)
  • specificity
  • An important question is whether SNAREs, indeed, contribute to specificity of trafficking in living cells. (rupress.org)
  • The clear distinction between apical and basolateral trafficking pathways makes epithelial cells a good system in which to test the central prediction of the SNARE hypothesis on their contribution to the overall specificity of trafficking pathways. (rupress.org)
  • Clones are predominantly defined based on the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) of BCR heavy chains or TCR beta chains [ 1 , 9 , 13 ], which contributes most to the BCR/TCR binding specificity. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Adhesion
  • The main biological functions of HEPACAM include a) modulating cell adhesion and migration, and b) inhibiting cancer cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell Adhesion & Migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tight junctions represent one mode of cell-to-cell adhesion in epithelial or endothelial cell sheets, forming continuous seals around cells and serving as a physical barrier to prevent solutes and water from passing freely through the paracellular space. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • From these experiments, we also show that proliferation and cell identity play a role in the number of iPSCs per input cell number. (jove.com)
  • Cloning experiments also revealed that GPI is identical to the protein known as autocrine motility factor (AMF). (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidative
  • And thus one possible explanation is that cancer cells are under considerable oxidative stress compared to normal cells and unregulation of SMUG1 is essential for the repair of oxidative base damage and survival in cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • Following chromosome segregation at mitosis, the sister cells express two different and complementary mating‐type alleles ( Arcangioli and Thon, 2003 ). (embopress.org)