• Although not classically considered mucosal, the mammary gland has a mucin-containing barrier to the external environment and is at increased risk of infection during nursing. (jimmunol.org)
  • We review here some of the mucosal events associated with HIV infection that are most relevant in an African setting. (www.gov.uk)
  • Mucosal immunity to reinfection with a highly virulent virus requires the accumulation and persistence of memory CD8 T cells at the site of primary infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • These data suggest that SMAD3 has an important role in TGF‐β‐mediated regulation of T cell activation and mucosal immunity, and that the loss of these functions is responsible for chronic infection and the lethality of Smad3 ‐null mice. (embopress.org)
  • Pigs vaccinated with CNPs-KAg exhibited an enhanced IgG serum antibody and mucosal secretory IgA antibody responses in nasal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, and lung lysates that were reactive against homologous (H1N2), heterologous (H1N1), and heterosubtypic (H3N2) influenza A virus strains. (frontiersin.org)
  • The oligomeric forms of IgA in the external (mucosal) secretions also contain a polypeptide of a much larger molecular mass (70 kD) called the secretory component that is produced by epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, IL-17 can also contribute to inflammatory responses at mucosal sites. (ovid.com)
  • Currently used inactivated SwIAV vaccines administered by intramuscular injection provide homologous protection, but limited heterologous protection against constantly evolving field viruses, attributable to the induction of inadequate levels of mucosal IgA and cellular immune responses in the respiratory tract. (frontiersin.org)
  • In summary, chitosan SwIAV nanovaccine delivered by IN route elicited strong cross-reactive mucosal IgA and cellular immune responses in the respiratory tract that resulted in a reduced nasal viral shedding and lung virus titers in pigs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Purpose of review Compelling evidence suggests that the Th17 lineage and other IL-17-producing cells play critical roles in host defense against pathogens at mucosal sites. (ovid.com)
  • In our voyage to discover these mechanisms, mucosal interactions with opportunistic commensal organisms such as the fungus Candida albicans provide insights that are invaluable. (hindawi.com)
  • Further anecdotal evidence for mucosal classification is the dependence of the mammary epithelium on immune cells during development. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mucosal Immunity and the Gut Epithelium: Interactions in Health and Disease: Symposium, Capri, April 1994. (foyles.co.uk)
  • In this study, we examined the effects of maternal smoking as a major adverse exposure in early life, on mucosal immune function and allergen sensitization in the first year of life. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We aim to understand the feed-forward and feedback mechanisms between microbiota and the immune system at the mucosal barrier. (riken.jp)
  • HIV prevention mandates an understanding of the mechanisms of mucosal immunity with attention to some unique features of the epidemic and mucosal environment in the developing world. (www.gov.uk)
  • Nonetheless, immunological hallmarks predictive of mucosal function have not been demonstrated in the mammary gland, including immune tolerance to foreign Ags under homeostasis. (jimmunol.org)
  • We find a baseline mucosal program of RORγT + CD4 + T cells that is elevated within lactating and involuting mammary glands and is extended during involution to include tolerogenic dendritic cell phenotypes, barrier-supportive antimicrobials, and immunosuppressive Foxp3 + CD4 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • HVEM therefore represents a critical signal for MPECs and development of protective mucosal CD8 T cell memory. (jimmunol.org)
  • The amount of IgA produced in association with mucosal membranes is greater than all other types of antibody combined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, in addition to secretion of antibodies and presentation of antigens, B cells are important for organogenesis of the mucosal immune barriers. (sciencemag.org)
  • Prevention might also be complemented by microbicides and circumcision, two alternative approaches to mucosal protection. (www.gov.uk)
  • Candida species also cause mucosal diseases in the elderly and edentulous individuals, such as Candida -associated denture stomatitis. (hindawi.com)
  • The second section applies these new insights to knowledge of pathogenesis and treatment of a number of disease states which are sustained by an aberrant immune response at mucosal sites. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Our findings support the classification of the mammary gland as a temporal mucosal organ and open new avenues for exploration into breast pathologic conditions, including compromised lactation and breast cancer. (jimmunol.org)