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  • self antigens
  • Mice deficient in the expression of the autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene, which are defective in thymic expression of self antigens and central tolerance, develop spontaneous prostatitis. (jci.org)
  • Recent findings indicate that the ability of these two receptors to bind sialic acids might be important to induce tolerance to self-antigens. (frontiersin.org)
  • cellular
  • The immune system relies on the highly orchestrated action of many cellular and humoral components to maintain homeostasis and to fend off immunologic non-self intruders. (cancer.gov)
  • The ligands for NKG2D are usually expressed only poorly or not at all by normal cells, but their expression is up-regulated in response to cellular distress such as transformation ( 15 ), infection ( 16 , 17 ), heat shock ( 18 ), and DNA damage ( 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • immunity
  • stimulation of acquired immunity in inbred strains of mice. (springer.com)
  • Our team believes that the extensive investigation of alarmins, including their number, generation, and mode of action, will help elucidate their roles in immunity, with the hope of modulating immune responses using alarmins as targets. (cancer.gov)
  • In experiment 2 , testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol all enhanced cell-mediated immunity in vitro, suggesting that sex steroid hormones may be enhancing immune function through direct actions on immune cells. (physiology.org)
  • Contrary to evidence in many species such as rats, mice, and humans, these data suggest that sex steroid hormones enhance immunity in both male and female Siberian hamsters. (physiology.org)
  • Although estradiol treatment has immunoenhancing effects on humoral immunity, both cell-mediated immunity and natural killer cell activity are depressed following estradiol treatment in rats and mice ( 33 , 46 ). (physiology.org)
  • lymphocyte
  • eosinophilia and the development of lymphocyte blastogenesis in response to soluble egg antigen in inbred mice. (springer.com)
  • This research identified immune responses characterized by lymphocyte infiltration of genetically dissimilar grafts (but not of autografts, which healed in and remained) as being responsible for rejection in both species, and by implication in others. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • peptide
  • TSHR peptide epitopes bound to HLA-class II are presented by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to CD4+ T cells (Figure 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • inhibitory
  • Inhibitory receptors of the members of the mouse Ly49 and human killer Ig-related receptor families recognize self-MHC class I molecules on target cells ( 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Additionally
  • Additionally, although serum IgG1 responses (indicated as a Th2 response) remained unchanged for DOTAP/DC-chol liposomes and CpG ODN-loaded DOTAP/DC-chol liposomes, the CpG ODN-loaded DOTAP/DC-chol liposomes synergistically induced the production of serum IgG2a (indicated as a Th1 response) than that by the individual liposomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, females display a higher splenocyte blastogenic response to T and B cell mitogens than males ( 31 ). (physiology.org)
  • dendritic
  • A TLR4 agonist synergizes with dendritic cell-directed lentiviral vectors for inducing antigen-specific immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • In mice, NKG2D is expressed on NK cells, activated CD8 + αβ T cells, subsets of γδ T cells, subsets of NK T cells, macrophages, and IFN-producing killer dendritic cells ( 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • cytokine
  • Hormones may alter immunologic factors and responses, including antigen expression and presentation, and cytokine production, as well as the expression of apoptotic factors and cell death ( 27 ). (physiology.org)
  • transgenic
  • Furthermore, the plant-expressed antigens were evaluated for their immunogenicityin mice fed the transgenic plants. (diva-portal.org)
  • After oral intake of fresh transgenic plant material, a proportionof the mice elicited specific IgG antibody responses, as compared to the control animals that were fedwild-type plants and of which none sero-converted. (diva-portal.org)
  • Research into immunisation strategies involving transgenic AD mouse models has subsequently been refocused to determine the mechanisms by which plaque clearance and reduced memory deficits are attained, and to establish safer therapeutic approaches that may reduce potentially harmful brain inflammation. (springer.com)
  • parasite
  • Patterns of susceptibility and resistance to T. cruzi are dependent on the parasite and mouse strains 12 20 . (scielo.br)
  • I. Parasite biomass and antibody response in three strains of inbred mice against graded doses of Echinococcus multilocularis cyst. (springer.com)
  • rats
  • A comparative study of Schistosoma mansoni infections in mice, gerbils, multimammate rats and hamsters. (springer.com)
  • Those images are provided not just by a series of 20 colour plates showing skin graft recipient mice, rats, rabbits, chickens and duck, bearing fur or plumage of donor origin, but by his choice of metaphor, simile and analogy to express the questions being addressed and the interpretation of their results, along with those of relevant published data and his prescient ideas of what the results might portend. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Estradiol also has immunoenhancing effects on antibody production in vivo, whereas testosterone has immunosuppressive effects on B and T cell differentiation, as well as macrophage activation in rats and mice ( 7 , 43 , 51 ). (physiology.org)
  • deficient
  • Albumin-deficient mouse models for studying metabolism of human albumin and pharmacokinetics of albumin-based drugs. (nih.gov)
  • IgG1
  • The levels of IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3 were high in CRA immunized mice. (scielo.br)
  • humans
  • Moreover, SVS2 and semenogelin are among the relevant autoantigens in mice and humans, respectively. (jci.org)
  • receptors
  • Immunology: Toll-like receptors and antibody responses. (nih.gov)
  • To achieve an appropriate response, the BCR signal is interpreted in the context of other stimuli and several additional receptors on the B cell surface participate in the modulation of the signal. (frontiersin.org)
  • experimental
  • On the basis of experimental data, a hypothesis was advanced that thre eloci in the IXth linkage group are involved in genetic control of the response to ϑ-AKR antigen. (jimmunol.org)
  • doi:10.1038/172603a0 )) had provided initial evidence with experimental results from a small number of neonatal mice, with mention of similar findings in chicks. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • cell
  • We also found peptides with ability to inhibit the T-cell response to OVA323-339 among the panel of analog peptides. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Therefore, we examined the potential use of urinary neopterin, a sensitive marker of cell-mediated immune system activation, as a disease marker and unspecific screening tool to facilitate informed pathogen analysis in great ape health monitoring. (springer.com)
  • titers
  • This trend-high efficacy when antibody titers are above a threshold coupled with variability in how many animals reach such a threshold-is seen throughout immunocontraception and immune-based birth control research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female mice have higher titers of immunoglobulins (e.g. (physiology.org)