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  • vaccine
  • Our strategy in designing an efficient vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) relies on the assumptions that the subunit vaccine is based on proteins involved in the very first contact of Ct and host-cell, the chosen route via the ocular mucosa mimics the natural infection, and its application is needle-free and safe. (arvojournals.org)
  • Our observations that antibodies targeting LPS can actually impede the protective immune response to Salmonella would caution against this, suggesting that such a vaccine could do more harm than good. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • The findings from this study suggest that the outer membrane proteins could potentially serve as alternative vaccine targets and this is an area that the team is currently investigating. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • To that end, outer membrane proteins have been identified and are being evaluated as potential vaccine antigens. (buffalo.edu)
  • receptors
  • PTI receptors are receptor-like kinases (RLKs) or receptor-like proteins (RLPs) possessing extracellular ligand-binding domains ( Zipfel, 2014 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • PRR Function of Innate Immune Receptors in Recognition of Bacteria or Bacterial Ligands. (nih.gov)
  • Cell surface receptors are responsible for regulating cellular function on the front line, the cell membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we introduce several representative examples of paired receptors, focusing on two major structural superfamilies, the immunoglobulin-like and the C-type lectin-like receptors, and explain how these receptors distinguish self and non-self ligands to maintain homeostasis in the immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast, the activating receptors have short cytoplasmic regions and a positively charged residue (Arg or Lys) in the transmembrane domain to associate with an adaptor protein possessing the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). (frontiersin.org)
  • The immune system is considered to be tightly regulated by the balance between the activating and inhibitory signals through these paired receptors, and dysregulation of this balance often causes autoimmunity, allergy, and various infectious diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Most well-characterized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including Xanthomonas resistance 21, flagellin sensitive 2, and elongation factor-Tu receptor, possess intrinsic protein kinase activity and regulate downstream signaling through phosphorylation events. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we focus primarily on phosphorylation events mediated by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that play important roles in the immune response. (frontiersin.org)
  • lipids
  • Rietveld, A. and Simons, K. (1998) The differential miscibility of lipids as the basis for the formation of functional membrane rafts. (scirp.org)
  • Infections
  • Since HIV causes significant defects in the immune system, the team examined whether a lack of these antibodies might account for the absence of killing and explain why HIV infected adults are particularly susceptible to Salmonella infections. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Contrary to expectations, the team found that blood from HIV-infected adults harboured high levels of antibodies to Salmonella, molecules that normally help the immune system to fight infections. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • We normally think of HIV patients as being more susceptible to bacterial infections because of deficiencies in their immune systems, and often they have problems making antibodies when given vaccinations. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • eukaryotes
  • Protein phosphorylation in eukaryotes predominantly occurs on serine (Ser) and threonine (Thr) residues, whereas phosphorylation on tyrosine (Tyr) residues is much less abundant ( de la Fuente van Bentem and Hirt, 2009 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Endocytosis and membrane trafficking in eukaryotes. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • immunoglobulin
  • The 55K, 28K and 18K proteins were greatly reduced when antibody was absent, but the 55K protein was distinguishable from immunoglobulin G (IgG) heavy chain, since it could be detected in low amounts even in the absence of antibody. (biologists.org)
  • response
  • and examined the adjuvantic influence of Lactobacillus rahmnosus (LB) on the characteristics of the promoted immune response in a BALB/c mouse model system. (arvojournals.org)
  • The data resulting from this direct comparison suggested that important aspects of the immune response can be manipulated by altering the form of the antigen and its delivery. (asm.org)
  • The plant immune system recognizes invading pathogens and responds by activating an immune response. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we focus on the phosphorylation events of plant PRRs that play important roles in the immune response. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cell adhesion molecules are (glyco)proteins expressed on the cell surface and play a critical role in a wide array of biologic processes that include hemostasis, the immune response, inflammation, embryogenesis, and development of neuronal tissue. (genome.jp)
  • interaction
  • A specific cell surface interaction for CD5 has been difficult to define at the molecular level because of the susceptibility of CD5 protein to denaturation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, it is inferred that the self-assembly induced by dimerization is unlikely in situ, and that some interaction between proteins is required for cluster formation. (scirp.org)
  • Although we cannot directly test whether the unique 28S rRNA structure contributes to the increased fidelity of translation, we speculate that it may change the folding or dynamics of the large ribosomal subunit , altering the rate of GTP hydrolysis and/or interaction of the large subunit with tRNA during accommodation, thus affecting the fidelity of protein synthesis. (fightaging.org)
  • differentially
  • The differentially expressed genes belong to the bone morphogenetic pathway (BMP) and, in addition, include the osteoblast markers integrin-binding sialoprotein ( Ibsp ), bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein ( Bglap1 ), and secreted phosphoprotein 1 ( Spp1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pregnancy-associated protein A ( Pappa ) and periostin ( Postn ), differentially expressed in the early disease phase, are proposed to participate in bone formation, and we suggest that they play a role in early bone formation in the CIA model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Self-Assembly
  • It was claimed that a cluster is formed by the self-assembly induced by protein dimerization with a high binding speed (Woolf and Linderman, Biophys. (scirp.org)
  • immunity
  • Protein phosphorylation is a common and intensively studied form of these PTMs and regulates many plant processes including plant growth, development, and immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • system
  • Discover A Natural, Safe Effective Way To Boost Your Immune System Using Ingredients From Your Kitchen Cupboard. (barnardhealth.us)
  • Membrane Proteins and the Immune System: from MHC to BCR and TLRs. (harvard.edu)
  • Many members of the TNF family fulfill important roles related to the organization, function, and/or homeostasis of the immune system ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • Although the observed reduction of chicken colonization by Campylobacter resulting from vaccination was rather moderate, the experiments showed that LAB strains can be considered as an alternative vector to deliver heterologous antigens to the bird immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • cell
  • Horejsi, V. (2003) The roles of membrane microdomains (rafts) in T cell activation. (scirp.org)
  • Simons, K. and Ikonen, E. (1997) Functional rafts in cell membranes. (scirp.org)
  • Characterization of human BCMA identified it as a type I membrane protein primarily expressed in immune organs and mature B cell lines ( 7 )( 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • BCMA protein was localized to the Golgi apparatus in the U266 plasmacytoma cell line, which expresses high levels of BCMA ( 9 ). (rupress.org)
  • This strategy ensures a cell surface location of both analyzed proteins, which was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. (frontiersin.org)
  • that the composition of important cell membranes in this species, such as those in mitochondria , makes them more resistant to oxidative damage. (fightaging.org)
  • kinase
  • We also discuss the role of phosphorylation in regulating mitogen-associated protein kinase cascades and transcription factors in plant immune signaling. (frontiersin.org)
  • transmembrane
  • This regulator is a type one transmembrane protein that serves as a cofactor for the factor I-mediated proteolytic cleavage and inactivation of C3b and C4b deposited on self tissue. (barnardhealth.us)
  • immunogenicity
  • Additionally, the analysis of the structure and immunogenicity of the generated rCjaAD hybrid protein showed that the CjaA antigen can be considered as a starting point to construct multiepitope anti- Campylobacter vaccines. (frontiersin.org)
  • contrast
  • In contrast to algorithms in previous simulations, our results suggest that it is more appropriate that proteins move to the same direction for a while and reflect when the collision occurs. (scirp.org)
  • molecular level
  • We use a wide range of biophysical tools, which an emphasis on applying solid state and solution NMR spectroscopy to achieve a molecular-level understanding of protein structure and dynamics. (utoronto.ca)