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  • hydrolysis
  • The development and attributes of several established and emerging industrial applications for immobilized enzymes, including high- fructose corn syrup production, pectin hydrolysis , debittering of fruit juices, interesterification of food fats and oils, biodiesel production, and carbon dioxide capture are reviewed herein, highlighting factors that define the advantages of enzyme immobilization. (rsc.org)
  • The resulting biocatalyst exhibited significantly higher stability (over a period of almost one month) than the native enzyme in the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate (Figure 1). (docme.ru)
  • IMER
  • In this respect, it must be kept in mind that there is no universal support for all enzymes and the best suitable material depends on the enzyme characteristics and IMER application. (springer.com)
  • For this application, human recombinant AChE was covalently immobilized onto an ethylenediamine (EDA) monolithic Convective Interaction Media (CIM) disk and on-line studies were performed by inserting this IMER into a HPLC system. (biaseparations.com)
  • Short analysis time, absence of backpressure, low nonspecific matrix interactions and immediate recovery of enzyme activity were the best characteristics of this AChE-CIM-IMER. (biaseparations.com)
  • catalysis
  • The most appealing benefits offered by IMERs include very low sample consumption (usually 10-50 μL of sample at micromolar concentration is injected when chromatographic systems are used while few microliters are required for capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based systems), increased stability of the immobilized enzyme, efficient catalysis, and short analyses (usually within minutes). (springer.com)
  • The application of this novel procedure simplifies the number of steps required for the isolation of F1 used for studying the molecular mechanism of catalysis and regulation of the enzyme. (nih.gov)
  • stability
  • More commonly the benefit realized from enzyme immobilization relates to the process advantages that an immobilized catalyst offers, for example, enabling continuous production, improved stability and the absence of the biocatalyst in the product stream. (rsc.org)
  • However, even when an enzyme is identified as being useful for a given reaction, its application is often hampered by its lack of long-term stability under process conditions, and also by difficulties in recovery and recycling. (docme.ru)
  • An appreciation of the molecular interactions between enzyme and surface support has allowed the surface chemistry and method of enzyme attachement to be fine-tuned such that activity and stability can be greatly enhanced. (rsc.org)
  • However, a method of immobilizing enzymes which is accompanied by a high degree of safety, high enzyme activity, high stability and the potential for wide-ranging applications still needs to be developed. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • To increase stability and conversion efficiency with easy separations, the first two enzymes were immobilized onto methacrylate resin. (osti.gov)
  • Covalently immobilized ADH exhibited long-term stability and efficient conversion of aldehyde to alcohol over multiple batch cycles without fusions. (osti.gov)
  • The immobilized enzyme displays high stability towards its working range pH's, organic solvents, high flow rates, temperatures and back pressures. (orachrom.net)
  • It is widely acknowledged that analytical sensing at electrodes modified with polymeric materials results in low detection limits, high sensitivities, lower applied potential, good stability, efficient electron transfer and easier immobilization of enzymes on electrodes such that sensing and biosensing of environmental pollutants is made easier. (mdpi.com)
  • proteins
  • Since crystallization of proteins is not an easy task, cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEA), which are obtained by precipitation of proteins followed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde, might represent an easy alternative. (docme.ru)
  • substrate
  • Enzymes are adsorbed on an adsorbent powder in an aqueous medium and a water-miscible monomer is added thereto, and said monomer is polymerized to form a porous gel lump through which a substrate solution can freely pass. (google.com)
  • However, these polymers remarkably swell with water and therefore the inclusion mass is in the state of a gel lump that has no pores or voids, and therefore it is necessary to dry up the lump and pulverize it in order to convert it to a form in which the enzyme can contact with a substrate substance. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates to a method of immobilizing an enzyme using a cross-linking agent selected from iridoids to facilitate immobilization of the enzyme on a substrate. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In order to produce such an immobilized enzyme, the invention utilizes an iridoid which facilitates the polymerization of an enzyme through intermolecular cross-linking and/or helps to form the cross-linkage between the enzyme and the support or substrate. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In the previous system, three types of protease-immobilized potato chips (trypsin, chymotrypsin, and ArgC had been immobilized, respectively) had been prepared and utilized to process BSA being a model substrate. (techtasys.com)
  • enzymatic
  • Heretofore, in most enzymatic reactions, enzymes are used in an aqueous phase and they are discarded together with waste liquids after the reaction. (google.com)
  • So, if a method to insolubilize enzymes and immobilize them in a form in which substrates can be continually contacted with them, enzymes can be used repeatedly and enzymatic reaction processes can be carried out continuously. (google.com)
  • The total phenol contents ranged from 4 to 152 mg GAE per g of dried sample for pure solvents and ranged from 19 to 763 mg GAE per g of dried sample for acidic extracts using the immobilized enzymatic method. (rsc.org)
  • The enzymatic (free/immobilized) methods are more specific and rapid than the Folin method. (rsc.org)
  • The optimum pH for an enzymatic reaction may shift by as much as 3 pH units upon immobilization.24 This shift is a result of both the charge of the support material and the chemical modification of the enzyme. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • catalyst
  • It is well known that enzymes are used as the catalyst that effectively promotes many chemical reactions which cannot be carried out with ordinary chemical catalysts and are indispensable materials in the fields of food industry, pharmaceutical industry and other industries. (google.com)
  • membrane
  • The most frequently used immobilization techniques fall into four categories: * noncovalent adsorption or deposition, * covalent attachment, * entrapment in a polymeric gel, membrane, or capsule, * cross-linking of an enzyme. (docme.ru)
  • In the present study, we report that the selection of operation mode is important to take the full advantage of nanofibrous membrane in enzyme immobilization. (jisikworld.com)
  • The immobiliza-tion of enzymes can be achieved by the formation ofan enzyme-polymeric membrane on the inner wall ofthe microchannel through cross-linking polymeri-zation in a laminar flow. (vdocuments.mx)
  • aqueous
  • 16, 609, 1974) and a method which comprises cross-linking polyvinyl alcohol in its aqueous solution containing an enzyme (H. Maeda et al. (google.com)
  • An enzyme immobilisation method based on the His6-tag for attachment on modified silica oxide beads, and it's employment in aqueous and organic medium for synthesis applications. (diva-portal.org)
  • reaction
  • Lefever R. "Dissipative Structure in Reaction-Diffusion Systems" pp.17-39 in "Analysis and Control of Immobilized Enzyme Systems" Ed. D. Thomas and J.P. Kernevez, North Holland, (1976). (springer.com)
  • The thus formed enzyme composition has long-lasting activity and thus the enzymes can be easily separated from the reaction system and can be used repeatedly. (google.com)
  • In most cases, it is very difficult from both technical and economic viewpoints to recover enzymes from the reaction mixture for repeated use thereof. (google.com)
  • But in this method, the enzyme adsorbed thereon is easily desorbed as it is repeatedly used for reaction. (google.com)
  • Moreover, the immobilized enzyme can be easily separated from the reaction mixture by application of a magnetic field, which either holds the immobilized enzyme in place or removes it, as the nanoparticles show very high magnetization values. (docme.ru)
  • Keywords: mass spectrometry, immobilized enzyme, protein, glycochain, micro level reaction Introduction Analyses of the protein structure and post-translational changes (PTM) such as glycochain, are probably one of 177355-84-9 IC50 the most important issues in biomarker finding and drug development. (techtasys.com)
  • aminoacylase as a model for an electronegativeenzyme, the reaction conditions for the enzyme-cross-linked aggregation were optimized. (vdocuments.mx)
  • substrates
  • The use of such system, indeed, allows one to overcome some drawbacks of in-solution assays related to the use of fluorogenic substrates or tandem enzymes that can lead to some false positive results. (springer.com)
  • When an enzyme is immobilized onto a support material, a diffusion layer is created around the particle so that, even with vigorous stirring, substrates must be transported from the bulk of the solution across this stagnant layer to reach the enzyme. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • Steric factors are particularly significant for enzymes that have high molecular weight substrates, since accessibility of the active site is less easily achieved following immobilization. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • molecular
  • However, the activity of enzymes is very sensitive to change in the molecular structure thereof, and in most cases enzymes are remarkably deactivated by such chemical fixation. (google.com)
  • polymeric
  • Ionic groups on polymeric supports have been shown to interact with enzymes, and also to affect local pH in the microenvironment of the polymer network. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • Various methods have been used, for example from direct adsorption, covalent bonding, crossing-linking with glutaraldehyde on composites to mixing the enzymes or use of functionalized beads for the design of sensors and biosensors using these polymeric materials in recent years. (mdpi.com)
  • Preparation
  • Cross-linked enzyme crystals (CLECs) were reported to give an increase in enantioselectivity relative to the native enzyme, but this was mostly attributed to the removal of a lessselective isoenzyme during CLEC preparation. (docme.ru)
  • We previously developeda facile and inexpensive preparation method for anenzyme-immobilized microreactor. (vdocuments.mx)
  • Therefore, a novel preparation methodusing poly-l-lysine [poly ACHTUNGTRENNUNG(Lys)] as a booster and anadjunct for the effective polymerization of electro-negative enzymes was developed in this study. (vdocuments.mx)
  • methods
  • We also will use scanning electron microscopy and transition electron microscopy methods to investigate the distribution of the immobilized lipases within the supporting matrix. (unl.edu)
  • The obtained values were found in agreement with those obtained with the classical methods with the free enzyme. (biaseparations.com)
  • More simple methods using carrierswith immobilized enzymes have also been proposed.The carriers were constructed by forming monolithsof a sol-gel and a polymer, and simply incorporatingcommercial beads and membranes in a microchan-nel. (vdocuments.mx)
  • Moreover
  • Moreover, the absence of a tandem enzyme (i.e., luciferase used for kinases inhibition assay) obviates the possibility for the tested compounds to interact with the secondary enzyme. (springer.com)
  • chromatography
  • F1 was extracted from the yeast mitochondria by chloroform treatment and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. (nih.gov)
  • The enzyme Alanine racemase (AlaR) from Geobacillus stearothermophilus was cloned, overexpressed and then immobilized on a silica-coated thin-layer chromatography plate to create an enzyme surface. (diva-portal.org)
  • Biocatalysis
  • Although this reflects the [*] Prof. Dr. U. T. Bornscheuer Institut fr Chemie und Biochemie Technische Chemie & Biotechnologie Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universit(t Greifswald Soldmannstrasse 16 17487 Greifswald (Germany) Fax: (+ 49) 3834-86-4346 E-mail: uwe.bornscheuer@uni-greifswald.de 3336 importance of biocatalysis, it also exemplifies that a general, broadly applicable method for enzyme immobilization still needs to be discovered. (docme.ru)
  • carriers
  • Two recent trends are based on 1) the use of new reagents and/or carriers and 2) approaches that take into account the increasing knowledge of enzyme structure and mechanism. (docme.ru)
  • sensitivity
  • The higher ratio of enzyme/antibody than conventional ELISA improved both the sensitivity and dynamic range. (rsc.org)
  • method
  • This method is unpractical because of short life of the enzyme composition. (google.com)
  • For instance, a method which comprises polymerizing a water-soluble monomer suh as acrylamide in a solution containing an enzyme (K. Kawashima et al. (google.com)
  • 6. The immobilized enzyme obtained by the method of claim 1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A new method for determination of total phenolic content of four Prunella L. species was developed by immobilizing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on styrene -divinylbenzene-polygluteraldehyde (STY-DVB-PGA) polymer . (rsc.org)
  • We have also developed a method for immobi-lizing enzymes on a glass-capillary surface using achemical modification containing sol-gel techniques. (vdocuments.mx)
  • FREE
  • To overcome these challenges, an alternate simplified biofuel production scheme was tested based on a cell-free immobilized enzyme system. (osti.gov)
  • surface
  • The properties of the enzymes are due to the surface charge of the activated supports. (springer.com)
  • In the last mentioned program, trypsin and glycopeptidase F (NGF), an enzyme that cleaves N-glycans from glycoproteins, had been immobilized on a single glass surface area and utilized to eliminate the glycochains from individual immunoglobulin G (IgG). (techtasys.com)