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  • cross-linked enz
  • Since crystallization of proteins is not an easy task, cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEA), which are obtained by precipitation of proteins followed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde, might represent an easy alternative. (docme.ru)
  • In this study, a novel biocatalyst consisting of magnetic combined cross-linked enzyme aggregates (combi-CLEAs) of 3-quinuclidinone reductase (QNR) and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) for enantioselective synthesis of ( R )-3-quinuclidinolwith regeneration of cofactors in situ was developed. (mdpi.com)
  • electrode
  • The combined study indicates that by a two-step immobilization procedure the hydrogenase can be inserted via its lipidic tail onto a phospholipidic bilayer formed over the gold surface, allowing only mediated electron transfer between the enzyme and electrode. (csic.es)
  • This latter method has allowed for the first time efficient electron transfer between a membrane-bound enzyme in its native conformation and an electrode. (csic.es)
  • This review is intended to be both "tutorial" and comprehensive in that we provide a guide to understand, design, and improve electrode interfaces for redox enzyme electron transfer processes in devices. (rsc.org)
  • The present invention relates to an enzyme electrode for transporting electric charge formed by an oxidation-reduction reaction in an enzyme to a conductive member at a high speed. (google.com)
  • The enzyme electrode specifically has a π-conjugated metal complex molecule immobilized on the conductive member and the enzyme immobilized on the conductive member through the π-conjugated metal complex molecule. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates to an enzyme electrode, and more particularly relates to an enzyme electrode having an enzyme immobilized on a conductive member through a π-conjugated metal complex molecule and an application field thereof. (google.com)
  • If an electric charge produced through the reaction due to the oxidoreductase could be taken out into a conductive member, a highly selective electrode with a low overpotential can be produced by making use of characteristic of the enzyme. (google.com)
  • The history of biosensor started in 1962 with the development of first enzyme-based glucose sensing device by Clark and Lyons using a thin layer of glucose oxidase (GOx) entrapped over an oxygen electrode via semipermeable dialysis membrane for the measurements of the O 2 consumed by the enzyme-catalyzed reaction [ 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • redox
  • The interaction of redox enzymes with electrodes is of great interest for studying the catalytic mechanisms of redox enzymes and for bioelectronic applications. (csic.es)
  • The immobilized redox enzyme is the Ni-Fe-Se hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, which catalyzes H(2)-oxidation reversibly and is associated with the cytoplasmic membrane by a lipidic tail. (csic.es)
  • Biomimetic and bioinspired approaches to redox enzyme wiring involve borrowing structures and strategies found in biological electron transfer systems for use in engineered devices. (rsc.org)
  • The review describes the challenges of constructing and applying redox enzyme devices, including the poor electrical contact between electrodes and enzymes and low lifetime and scalability of devices. (rsc.org)
  • 1992, 96, 3579 to 3587 describes a technique of delivering a mediator molecule into a protein of the enzyme and making the mediator molecule transfer electrons between itself and the redox center of the enzyme only after the mediator molecule has approached to a thoroughly close point to the redox center of the enzyme. (google.com)
  • catalyst
  • It is well known that enzymes are used as the catalyst that effectively promotes many chemical reactions which cannot be carried out with ordinary chemical catalysts and are indispensable materials in the fields of food industry, pharmaceutical industry and other industries. (google.com)
  • An enzyme which is a protein biocatalyst made in a living cell strongly acts under a milder condition than a normal catalyst. (google.com)
  • recombinant
  • D-phenylglycine methyl ester or amide for Ampicillin and Cephalexin) and nucleophile (6-APA or 7-ADCA) catalyzed by PA obtained from recombinant E.coli BL21 CCM 7394 as the biocatalyst. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Subsequent cloning and characterization of the recombinant enzyme revealed that lipoamidase is an 80 kDa protein composed of an amidase domain containing a classic Ser-Ser-Lys catalytic triad and a carboxy-terminal domain of unknown function. (jove.com)
  • proteins
  • Here, we present the use of atomic force spectroscopy (AFS) as an innovative solution to indirectly characterize immobilized proteins on porous materials and monitor the immobilization process in real time. (rsc.org)
  • We investigate the mechanical properties of porous agarose microbeads immobilizing proteins by indenting a colloidal probe (silica microparticle) into a single bead. (rsc.org)
  • Interestingly, we discovered that irreversible and multivalent immobilizations that make microbeads stiffer also stabilize the immobilized proteins against the temperature. (rsc.org)
  • Its possible applications include in situ delivery of proteins to a host, based on its ability to persist at mucosal surfaces of the human intestine, and the production of food-related enzymes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The attempts in supplementing cellulase with other enzymes, accessory proteins, and chemical additives have also been discussed. (springeropen.com)
  • Efficient electron transport between the biocatalysts and the electrodes has achieved more success with soluble enzymes than with membrane enzymes because of the higher structural complexity and instability of the latter proteins. (csic.es)
  • aqueous
  • Numerous examples of a broad range of enzymes and reaction systems (both aqueous systems and organic solvents) have been documented in the literature. (docme.ru)
  • For good aqueous dispersity, low price and other unique properties, citric acid-modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (CA-Fe 3 O 4 NPs) have been widely used for immobilizing enzymes. (mdpi.com)
  • Enzymes are immobilized by dissolving in water a photo-crosslinking resin containing stilbazolium groups, vinyl alcohol units and vinyl acetate units, adding an enzyme to the resultant aqueous solution and exposing the enzyme-containing resin solution to light to induce a crosslinking reaction of the. (google.ca)
  • 4. The method according to claims 1 or 2, wherein the exposure to light is carried out after the enzyme-containing aqueous solution has been caused to flow and spread over a smooth surface. (google.ca)
  • 5. The method according to claims 1 or 2, wherein the exposure to light is carried out after the enzyme-containing aqueous solution has been applied to a smooth surface and allowed to dry in air to form a film. (google.ca)
  • 7. The method according to claim 6, wherein the exposure to light is carried out after the enzyme-containing aqueous solution spread over the reinforcing material has been caused to dry in air to form a film. (google.ca)
  • Enzymes are adsorbed on an adsorbent powder in an aqueous medium and a water-miscible monomer is added thereto, and said monomer is polymerized to form a porous gel lump through which a substrate solution can freely pass. (google.com)
  • Heretofore, in most enzymatic reactions, enzymes are used in an aqueous phase and they are discarded together with waste liquids after the reaction. (google.com)
  • 16, 609, 1974) and a method which comprises cross-linking polyvinyl alcohol in its aqueous solution containing an enzyme (H. Maeda et al. (google.com)
  • soluble
  • This invention relates to a method for the immobilization of an enzyme by use of a water-soluble photo-crosslinking resin of high sensitivity. (google.ca)
  • For instance, a method which comprises polymerizing a water-soluble monomer suh as acrylamide in a solution containing an enzyme (K. Kawashima et al. (google.com)
  • Industrial application of enzymes or microorganisms has been accomplished by using intact microorganisms or soluble enzyme preparations. (justia.com)
  • chromatography
  • Up to now, a variety of catechol detection methods have been invented and applied, like gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, enzyme immunoassays, and so forth [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Various methods used for the determination of a variety of desired analytes (without use of biocatalyst) are gas chromatography, colorimetric and flourimetric analysis, and so forth. (hindawi.com)
  • substrate
  • However, these polymers remarkably swell with water and therefore the inclusion mass is in the state of a gel lump that has no pores or voids, and therefore it is necessary to dry up the lump and pulverize it in order to convert it to a form in which the enzyme can contact with a substrate substance. (google.com)
  • Compounds having two reactive functional groups are described that can be used as a tethering compound to immobilize an amine-containing material to a substrate. (google.com.au)
  • The invention also provides articles and methods for immobilizing amine-containing materials to a substrate. (google.com.au)
  • The enzyme also has specificity to a substrate, and each enzyme generally catalyzes only a specific reaction of a specific substrate. (google.com)
  • Among enzymes, an enzyme as referred to as an oxidoreductase catalyzes the oxidation-reduction reaction of a substrate. (google.com)
  • Cells
  • By displaying different enzymes on the surface of L. plantarum cells these could be used as whole-cell biocatalysts for the production of oligosaccharides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immobilized cells are also more applicable to catalyzing sequential reactions and provide a means of regenerating in situ the necessary cofactors. (justia.com)
  • Further, if it should be possible to continuously utilize a multiple enzyme system in the immobilized state, it would mean that the traditional fermentation process could be replaced with one employing immobilized cells. (justia.com)
  • The disadvantages associated with immobilized cells are the cost of the supporting matrix and the loss of catalytic activity or the difficulty to maintain the integrity of the cells during immobilization. (justia.com)
  • The use of chitosan fibers as a matrix for immobilizing hybridoma cells was investigated. (springer.com)
  • Preparation of immobilized animal cells. (springer.com)
  • This gives the possibility of using selective methods of cell breaking so that without too much of energy consumption, the respective enzyme can be released from the cells with relatively high specific purity. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Breaking of cells can be done by classical mechanical methods like high pressure homogenization or disintegration in Beadmill, of which more often homogenization is followed at industrial level Alternatively, organic solvents could be used to break the cells and to extract the product, There are reports of using a combination of solvents to enhance cell lysis yield and purit of enzyme. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Moreover
  • Moreover, the immobilized enzyme can be easily separated from the reaction mixture by application of a magnetic field, which either holds the immobilized enzyme in place or removes it, as the nanoparticles show very high magnetization values. (docme.ru)
  • Moreover, the description of enzyme systems and emerging paradigms with high prospects, for example, the cell-surface display system has been ill-captured in the literature. (springeropen.com)
  • invention
  • This invention relates to, in part, compositions of beta-lactamases and methods of using these enzymes in, for example, gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). (patents.com)
  • The present invention relates to new enzymes with improved properties and to compositions comprising these enzymes suitable for use in the production of a. (patents.com)
  • METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF L-AMINO ACID - The present invention has its object to provide a method for producing an L-amino acid comprising reacting a keto acid with an amino acid dehydrogenase and an enzyme having coenzyme regenerating ability to convert to a L-amino acid, wherein a coenzyme is added in two or more portions in the reaction. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • This invention relates to chemical sensors, more particularly, to a method of making a indicator attached to a macromolecule immobilized in sol-gel glass. (google.com)
  • electron transfer
  • In order to enable the direct electron transfer, a technique has been widely used which electrically connects the enzyme to the conductive member with a material referred to as a mediator. (google.com)
  • polymer
  • A sensor made of porous matrix or sol-gel glass and non-enzymatic macromolecular polymer immobilized in the sol-gel glass. (google.com)
  • chemically
  • So far, it has been attempted to chemically combine enzymes with water-insoluble substances such as synthetic macromolecules so as to fix them. (google.com)
  • processes
  • So, if a method to insolubilize enzymes and immobilize them in a form in which substrates can be continually contacted with them, enzymes can be used repeatedly and enzymatic reaction processes can be carried out continuously. (google.com)
  • This approach, with the enzyme of interest being displayed on the cell surface of a food-grade organism, may also be applied in production processes relevant for food industry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, few easily and widely utilized immobilizing processes have been developed. (justia.com)
  • chemistry
  • The enzyme β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae has been immobilized in aminated (MANAE)-agarose beads via glutaraldehyde chemistry using different strategies. (mdpi.com)
  • catalytic
  • The minimal telomerase enzyme consists of two core components: the protein subunit (TERT), which comprises the catalytic subunit of the enzyme and an integral RNA component (TER), which contains the template TERT uses to synthesize telomeres 8,9 . (jove.com)
  • Preparation
  • Cross-linked enzyme crystals (CLECs) were reported to give an increase in enantioselectivity relative to the native enzyme, but this was mostly attributed to the removal of a lessselective isoenzyme during CLEC preparation. (docme.ru)
  • Jiang
  • The enzyme that caused this lipoamidase activity remained unidentified until Jiang and Cronan discovered the gene encoding lipoamidase (Lpa) through the screening of an expression library. (jove.com)
  • method
  • In immobilizing a particular enzyme, therefore, it has been necessary to examine all the methods and select the optimum method by the principle of trial and error. (google.ca)
  • The methods of the type involving the entrapment of a given enzyme are sub-divided into a method which entraps the enzyme in a high-molecular matrix and a method which seals the enzyme in micro-capsules. (google.ca)
  • But in this method, the enzyme adsorbed thereon is easily desorbed as it is repeatedly used for reaction. (google.com)
  • This method is unpractical because of short life of the enzyme composition. (google.com)
  • synthetic
  • Similar Penicillin acylases are reported from Kluyvera cryocrescens and Providencia rettgeri but the synthetic potential of these enzymes are not well documented. (allindianpatents.com)
  • thereof
  • However, the activity of enzymes is very sensitive to change in the molecular structure thereof, and in most cases enzymes are remarkably deactivated by such chemical fixation. (google.com)
  • remarkably
  • Consequently, various reviews focusing on lignocellulose-degrading enzymes, structure, and mode of actions have been remarkably reported (Rabinovich et al. (springeropen.com)