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  • trypsin
  • Monolithic Convective Interaction Media (CIM) have been activated with epoxide and imidazole carbamate functionalities and used as supports for covalent immobilization of protein A, deoxyribonuclease I, and trypsin. (biaseparations.com)
  • The respective biological activities of trypsin and the binding capacity of protein A immobilized via imidazole carbamate groups were 11.45 and 2.25 times higher than those obtained for epoxide matrix while they were practically equal for deoxyribonuclease I. The kinetics of immobilization was studied in detail for trypsin under dynamic conditions and revealed that the enzyme immobilized via imidazole carbamate groups already reached its highest activity in 5 min. (biaseparations.com)
  • The enzymes investigated in this study were trypsin, chymotrypsin. (massey.ac.nz)
  • All preparations retained significant activity after immobilisation at room temperature as judged by the chromogenic substrate specific for trypsin N-α-benzoyl-DL-arginine-p-nitroanilide.HC1 (BAPNA). (massey.ac.nz)
  • Comparisons of the CDI activations with the diol/aldeyde chemistry showed better performance by the latter in trypsin immobilisation and similar performance for chymotrypsin immobilisation. (massey.ac.nz)
  • substrate
  • A standard substrate is selected to test the activity of the immobilized enzyme. (rsc.org)
  • Thus, immobilization is 'the imprisonment of an enzyme in a distinct phase that allows exchange with, but is separated from the bulk phase in which the substrate, effector or inhibitor molecules are dispersed and monitored' (Trevan, 1980). (biocyclopedia.com)
  • (i) reuse (ii) continuous use (iii) less labor intensive (iv) saving in capital cost (v) minimum reaction time (vi) less chance of contamination in products, (vii) more stability (viii) improved process control and (ix) high enzyme : substrate ratio. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • Each preparation showed significant retention of activity after immobilisation as judged by the chromogentic substrate N-glutaryl-L.-phenylalanine-p-nitroanilide (GAPNA). (massey.ac.nz)
  • electron transfer
  • The aim is to provide chemical functions and functionalities to enable or to facilitate an electron transfer between the enzymes and the electrode material to reach the maximum efficiency of the electrocatalytic process. (rsc.org)
  • Focusing on the molecular strategies to improve the bio/nano-interface is a response to the dual challenge of increasing the number of wired enzymes per surface unit while increasing the electron transfer rates during electrocatalysis. (rsc.org)
  • Biomimetic and bioinspired approaches to redox enzyme wiring involve borrowing structures and strategies found in biological electron transfer systems for use in engineered devices. (rsc.org)
  • This review is intended to be both "tutorial" and comprehensive in that we provide a guide to understand, design, and improve electrode interfaces for redox enzyme electron transfer processes in devices. (rsc.org)
  • enzymatic
  • We report the usage of DNA hydrogels for enzyme entrapment in an enzymatic biobattery. (rsc.org)
  • The fascinating topic of converting chemical energy into electric power using biological catalysts, called enzymes, and sustainable fuels motivates a large community of scientists to develop enzymatic fuel cells. (rsc.org)
  • Enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs) are a subclass of fuel cells, relying on purified redox enzymes instead of metal catalysts to achieve the electrocatalytic oxidation of the fuel and the reduction of the oxidant ( Fig. 1 ). (rsc.org)
  • Furthermore, the most famous enzyme families used for enzymatic fuel cell applications will be focused. (rsc.org)
  • free enzyme
  • Applying less aggressive activation procedures, remaining activities of similar to 60% were received when immobilising enterokinase on either Estapor paramagnetic microspheres or hexamethylamino Sepabeads(R). In case of hexamethylamino Sepabeads(R) we were able to increase the half-life time 4.3-fold at 23 degrees C and 3.8-fold at 4 degrees C compared to the free enzyme at the same temperatures. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • aqueous
  • Enzymes are immobilized by dissolving in water a photo-crosslinking resin containing stilbazolium groups, vinyl alcohol units and vinyl acetate units, adding an enzyme to the resultant aqueous solution and exposing the enzyme-containing resin solution to light to induce a crosslinking reaction of the. (google.ca)
  • 4. The method according to claims 1 or 2, wherein the exposure to light is carried out after the enzyme-containing aqueous solution has been caused to flow and spread over a smooth surface. (google.ca)
  • 5. The method according to claims 1 or 2, wherein the exposure to light is carried out after the enzyme-containing aqueous solution has been applied to a smooth surface and allowed to dry in air to form a film. (google.ca)
  • 7. The method according to claim 6, wherein the exposure to light is carried out after the enzyme-containing aqueous solution spread over the reinforcing material has been caused to dry in air to form a film. (google.ca)
  • In this study, a one-step and facile immobilization of enzymes by self-assembly of zinc ions and adenine in aqueous solution with mild conditions was reported. (mdpi.com)
  • For good aqueous dispersity, low price and other unique properties, citric acid-modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (CA-Fe 3 O 4 NPs) have been widely used for immobilizing enzymes. (mdpi.com)
  • polymer
  • Garnett J.L., Jankiewicz S.V., Long M.A., Sangster D.F. (1987) Polymer Modification by Radiation Grafting in the Presence of Salt Additives and its Application in Enzyme Immobilization. (springer.com)
  • Imprisonment refers to arresting the enzyme by certain means where polymer matrix is formed. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • Diffusion limited faradaic response, with current densities of 0.8 mA/cm2, was observed when the enzyme modified electrode was stabilized with a layer the P017-epoxy polymer. (ul.ie)
  • bovine
  • Kubitzki T, Noll T, Luetz S. Immobilisation of bovine enterokinase and application of the immobilised enzyme in fusion protein cleavage. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • T. Kubitzki, T. Noll, and S. Luetz, "Immobilisation of bovine enterokinase and application of the immobilised enzyme in fusion protein cleavage", BIOPROCESS AND BIOSYSTEMS ENGINEERING , vol. 31, 2008, pp. 173-182. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • processes
  • Enzymes provide the advantage of catalytic oxidation and reduction processes under ecologically friendly conditions and even in complex media due to their unique specificity. (rsc.org)
  • catalytic
  • However, this specificity represents a constant challenge since every enzyme has its own distinguished structure and catalytic behaviour. (rsc.org)
  • stable
  • Herein, we report a facile and universal strategy for enzyme immobilization using highly stable hierarchically porous metal-organic frameworks (HP-MOFs). (rsc.org)
  • In addition, the enzyme immobilized on an internal surface is protected from abrasion, inhibitory bulk solutions and microbial attack, and a more stable and active enzyme system may be achieved. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • With the aim of obtaining stable antibody immobilization on the poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA channel surface, PMMA substrates were activated with O2 plasma treatment to introduce surface polar groups on it. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • selectivity
  • Furthermore, the use of this system as a glucose biosensor was also demonstrated by co-immobilization of two enzymes, detecting glucose down to 1.84 µM with excellent selectivity. (mdpi.com)
  • With respect to the high selectivity of enzymes in contrast to metal-based catalysts, enzymes are, for now, the sole type of catalysts which would be able to work in such an environment. (rsc.org)
  • Strategies
  • This review is devoted to describing the strategies that have been developed in order to study this aspect of enzyme wiring. (rsc.org)
  • This review focuses on the different achievements of enzyme immobilization and wiring on specifically modified surfaces using molecular technological strategies. (rsc.org)
  • successfully
  • To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, an acrylate based polyHIPE material is used for the binding of enzymes in the active form and successfully applied under flow conditions. (rsc.org)
  • Nevertheless all three enzymes were successfully immobilised onto Perloza™-CDI-ACA and Perloza™-Diol/Aldehyde. (massey.ac.nz)
  • operational
  • In this context, great efforts have been invested to understand the operational modes of promising enzymes for the bioconversion of energy. (rsc.org)
  • high
  • Original and high performance examples are summarized here in a non-exhaustive manner focusing on the wiring strategy for a series of enzymes described in the literature. (rsc.org)