Loading...
  • tissues
  • Composed of lymphatic vessels (conduct flow of liquid called lymph) and lymphatic cells, tissues, and organs which are directly involved in AI. (brainscape.com)
  • The good news is that YOU put the garbage in (whether you knew it or not) and YOU can clean up the garbage and make a new health promoting cellular environment which means the cells, tissues, glands, organs and systems will respond to the pure environment by restoring your health and vitality. (totalhealthinstitute.com)
  • Oligoclonal T-cells in blood and target tissues of patients with anti-Hu syndrome. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Only some T-cell clones found in target tissues were also detected in blood or non-target tissues, and likely corresponded to TCUS. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Noncytotoxic biological agents act on specific molecular pathways to target cancer cells while sparing normal tissues, and therefore do not generally cause alopecia, vomiting, and myelosuppression that are characteristic of cytotoxic drugs. (hindawi.com)
  • A layer, usually regarded as one or two cells thick, of persistently meristematic tissue between the xylem and phloem tissues, and which gives rise to secondary tissues, thus resulting in an increase in diameter. (fao.org)
  • Advocates support development of therapeutic cloning in order to generate tissues and whole organs to treat patients who otherwise cannot obtain transplants, to avoid the need for immunosuppressive drugs, and to stave off the effects of aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opponents of cloning have concerns that technology is not yet developed enough to be safe, that it could be prone to abuse (leading to the generation of humans from whom organs and tissues would be harvested), and have concerns about how cloned individuals could integrate with families and with society at large. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advocates of human therapeutic cloning believe the practice could provide genetically identical cells for regenerative medicine, and tissues and organs for transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such cells, tissues, and organs would neither trigger an immune response nor require the use of immunosuppressive drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Aubrey de Grey's proposed SENS (Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence), one of the considered options to repair the cell depletion related to cellular senescence is to grow replacement tissues from stem cells harvested from a cloned embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term regenerative medicine is often used synonymously with tissue engineering, although those involved in regenerative medicine place more emphasis on the use of stem cells or progenitor cells to produce tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientific advances in biomaterials, stem cells, growth and differentiation factors, and biomimetic environments have created unique opportunities to fabricate tissues in the laboratory from combinations of engineered extracellular matrices ("scaffolds"), cells, and biologically active molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reproductive cloning would involve making an entire cloned human, instead of just specific cells or tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maintenance of these levels results from a balance between production of eosinophils by bone marrow eosinophil precursor cells termed CFU-Eos and the emigration of circulating eosinophils out of the blood through post-capillary venules into tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clonal hypereosinophilia, also termed Primary hypereosinophelia or clonal eosinophilia, is a grouping of hematological disorder characterized by the development and growth of a pre-malignant or malignant population of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, in the bone marrow, blood, and/or other tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • A DNA library is a collection of DNA fragments that have been cut by restriction enzymes and cloned into vectors so that researchers can identify and isolate the DNA fragments that interest them for further study. (brainscape.com)
  • Phages such as λ also can be used as vectors for cloning DNA in bacterial systems. (prezi.com)
  • However, a number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein production, affinity tagging, single stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern cloning vectors include selectable antibiotic resistance markers, which allow only cells in which the vector has been transfected, to grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the cloning vectors may contain colour selection markers, which provide blue/white screening (alpha-factor complementation) on X-gal medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is, these plasmids could serve as cloning vectors to carry genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Bacteria generally have cell walls, like plant and fungal cells , but with a very different composition (peptidoglycans). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • As prokaryotes , all bacteria have a relatively simple cell structure lacking either a cell nucleus or membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Bacteria can be divided into two groups (gram-positive and gram-negative) based on differences in cell wall structure as revealed by Gram staining. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Many bacteria contain other extracellular structures such as flagella , fimbriae, and pili, which are used respectively for motility (movement), attachment, and conjugation (transmission of DNA between bacterial cells by contact other than fusion). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Most bacteria are relatively small and possess distinctive cell and colony morphologies (shapes) as described below. (citizendium.org)
  • Gram positive bacteria possess a cell wall containing a thick peptidoglycan (called Murein in older sources) layer and teichoic acids while Gram negative bacteria have an outer, lipopolysaccharide -containing membrane and a thin peptidoglycan layer located in the periplasm (the region between the outer and cytoplasmic membranes). (citizendium.org)
  • The blue-white screen is a screening technique that allows for the rapid and convenient detection of recombinant bacteria in vector-based molecular cloning experiments. (brainscape.com)
  • For larger pieces, or for protein production, DNA is almost always cloned in bacteria. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This single cell can then be expanded exponentially to generate a large amount of bacteria, each of which contain copies of the original recombinant molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • biologically
  • Scientists generally agree that all cloned animals are biologically flawed. (eurekalert.org)
  • Article 11 of UNESCO's Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights asserts that the reproductive cloning of human beings is contrary to human dignity, that a potential life represented by the embryo is destroyed when embryonic cells are used, and there is a significant likelihood that cloned individuals would be biologically damaged, due to the inherent unreliability of cloning technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • The genetic material, in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), continues to shorten with each cell division, and cells eventually stop dividing when they sense that their DNA is critically shortened. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a female DNA donor would be the clone's genetic twin, rather than mother, complicating the genetic and social relationships between mother and child as well as the relationships between other family members and the clone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic cells have also been collected in the practice of cryoconservation of animal genetic resources as a means of conserving animal genetic material, including to clone livestock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development of biotechnology has allowed for the genetic manipulation of somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of the term typically implies that there is some method to distinguish between the cells of the original population from which the single ancestral cell is derived, such as a random genetic alteration, which is inherited by the progeny. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering in an article in The American Naturalist in 1966 and again, the following year, in The Washington Post. (wikipedia.org)
  • In somatic cell nuclear transfer ("SCNT"), the nucleus of a somatic cell is taken from a donor and transplanted into a host egg cell, which had its own genetic material removed previously, making it an enucleated egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen
  • [ 16 ] Collectively, these observations implicate an antigen-driven, MHC class I-restricted, cytotoxic T-cell-mediated process directed against myofibers. (medscape.com)
  • [ 8 ] Moreover, an analysis of antigen receptor H chain gene transcripts of B and plasma cells isolated from s-IBM muscle showed evidence of clonal expansion and variation, isotype switching, and somatic hypermutation, indicative of a local antigen-driven humoral response. (medscape.com)
  • When a B-cell encounters its antigen, it begins to divide rapidly to form mature plasma cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When a B cell encounters an antigen, it is bound to the receptor and taken inside by endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • later when these memory B cells encounter the same antigen due to reinfection, they divide and form Plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • For a viable fetus to develop, the egg needs to reprogram the genome of the skin cell, shutting off genes specific for skin tissue and turning on genes needed for embryonic development, genes that are normally dormant in tissue-specific cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • With a series of microarray chips, Brambrink measured which genes were active and which were silent in both kinds of cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization classifies these disorders into a) Myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and abnormalities of PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGFR1 (i.e. high eosinophil blood counts caused by mutations in the eosinophil cell line of one of these three genes), 'b) Chronic eosinophilic leukemia, and c) the Idiopathic hypereosinophiic syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clone of eosinophils bear a mutation in any one of several genes that code for proteins that regulate cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • These fusion genes encode fusion proteins that continuously stimulate cell growth, proliferation, prolonged survival, and/or differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Commonly a virus that has been altered to carry human DNA is used to deliver the healthy gene to the targeted cells of the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Analyzing the complete gene-expression profiles of both cloned and fertilization-derived stem cells in mice, scientists at Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research now have concluded that the two are, in fact, indistinguishable. (eurekalert.org)
  • Tobias Brambrink, a postdoctoral researcher in the Jaenisch lab, tried a different approach, comparing gene expression in cloned and fertilization-derived stem cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • If a gene is active in fertilized stem cells, it's also active in cloned stem cells, and at the same level of activity. (eurekalert.org)
  • A vector is any DNA molecule which is capable of multiplying inside the host to which our gene of interest is integrated for cloning. (prezi.com)
  • Using Recombinant DNA technology, we can isolate and clone single copy of a gene or a DNA segment into an indefinite number of copies, all identical. (prezi.com)
  • The DNA fragment containing the gene sequence to be cloned (also known as ('insert') is isolated. (prezi.com)
  • Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, only the B cell-myeloma hybrids survive, since the HGPRT gene coming from the B cells is functional. (wikipedia.org)
  • A common source is E.coli cells carrying a cloned nuc gene encoding Staphylococcus aureus extracellular nuclease (micrococcal nuclease). (wikipedia.org)
  • clonal colony
  • A somewhat similar concept is that of clonal colony (also called a genet), wherein the cells (usually unicellular) also share a common ancestry, but which also requires the products of clonal expansion to reside at "one place", or in close proximity. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • Type Ap spermatogonia repeatedly divide mitotically to produce identical cell clones linked by cytoplasmic bridges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type B spermatogonia undergo mitosis to produce diploid intermediate cells called primary spermatocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proponents claim that human reproductive cloning also would produce benefits to couples who cannot otherwise procreate. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is used when the type of objects to create is determined by a prototypical instance, which is cloned to produce new objects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, unfused myeloma cells die, as they cannot produce nucleotides by the de novo or salvage pathways because they lack HGPRT. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in mammals, somatic cells make up all the internal organs, skin, bones, blood and connective tissue, while mammalian germ cells give rise to spermatozoa and ova which fuse during fertilization to produce a cell called a zygote, which divides and differentiates into the cells of an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • To create a clone, a scientist removes the nucleus from a donor cell, then places it into an egg from which the nucleus has been removed. (eurekalert.org)
  • The original donated nucleus may have come from, say, a skin cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • Unlike cells of animals and other eukaryotes, bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and rarely harbour membrane-bound organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the nucleus of virtually every animal cell contains the entire genome of the animal, it might seem easy enough to clone an animal by placing the nucleus in an egg cell from which the nucleus has been removed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Dolly was the first mammal created using the nucleus from a cell of a mature adult mammal. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In this technique, nuclei from cells of an early embryo are extracted using a very fine glass pipette and placed in egg cells that have been shed by a female amphibian such as a frog (after removing the unfertilized egg cell nucleus). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The resulting animal will be a nearly genetically identical clone to the animal from which the nucleus was taken. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only difference is caused by any mitochondrial DNA that is retained in the ovum, which is different from the cell that donated the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was created using SCNT - a nucleus was taken from a man's leg cell and inserted into a cow's egg from which the nucleus had been removed, and the hybrid cell was cultured, and developed into an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dolly
  • In practice, this technique has so far been problematic, although there have been a few high-profile successes, such as Dolly the Sheep and, more recently, Snuppy, the first cloned dog. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning - Dolly the sheep was the first mammal ever cloned from adult animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the cloning of a sheep known as Dolly in 1996 by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the idea of human cloning became a hot debate topic. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2018, the first successful cloning of primates using somatic cell nuclear transfer, the same method as Dolly the sheep, with the birth of two live female clones (crab-eating macaques named Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua) was reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • In other words, the egg needs to erase all tissue-specific memories from the skin cell and revert it into a genomic blank slate. (eurekalert.org)
  • As the authors note, better predictions will rely in part on testing BE samples at multiple points in time, and an examination of cells extracted from different locations in the esophageal tissue. (asu.edu)
  • Cross-reactive T-cell receptors in tumor and paraneoplastic target tissue. (semanticscholar.org)
  • For example, some sea anemones go through the process of pedal laceration in which a genetically identical individual is asexually produced from tissue broken off from the anemone's pedal disc. (wikipedia.org)
  • A protective tissue, consisting of parenchyma cells, that develops over a cut or damaged plant surface. (fao.org)
  • 3. Actively dividing non-organized masses of undifferentiated and differentiated cells often developing from injury (wounding) or in tissue culture in the presence of growth regulators. (fao.org)
  • Because the hepatitis C virus can specifically enter liver cells, it causes inflammation that destroys healthy cells, leaving behind fibrous scar tissue in its wake that then leads to loss of liver function. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Doris Taylor's heart in a jar Tissue-engineered airway Tissue-engineered vessels Artificial skin constructed from human skin cells embedded in a hydrogel, such as in the case of bioprinted constructs for battlefield burn repairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • successfully
  • Adult amphibians, though, have been successfully cloned for many years from embryo nuclei. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As the aforementioned procedures are of particularly low efficiency, there is a need to identify the cells that have been successfully transfected with the vector construct containing the desired insertion sequence in the required orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • copies
  • An example of this is the modern cultivated species of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., a hexaploid species whose somatic cells contain six copies of every chromatid. (wikipedia.org)
  • involve
  • Because no reliable means exist at present to distinguish progressors from non-progressors, the only cautionary measures available involve repeated surveillance of BE esophageal cells through endoscopy and biopsy to try to catch EAC-linked abnormalities at an early stage, or methods to burn away the lining of the esophagus. (asu.edu)
  • mutations
  • The frequency of spontaneous mutations is significantly lower in advanced male germ cells than in somatic cell types from the same individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings appear to reflect employment of more effective mechanisms to limit the initial occurrence of spontaneous mutations in germ cells than in somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic cells
  • There are approximately 220 types of somatic cells in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in sponges, non-differentiated somatic cells form the germ line and, in Cnidaria, differentiated somatic cells are the source of the germline. (wikipedia.org)
  • As multicellularity evolved many times, sterile somatic cells did too. (wikipedia.org)
  • The evolution of an immortal germline producing specialized somatic cells involved the emergence of mortality, and can be viewed in its simplest version in volvocine algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those species with a separation between sterile somatic cells and a germ line are called Weismannists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all cells, somatic cells contain DNA arranged in chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in humans, somatic cells contain 46 chromosomes organized into 23 pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female germ cells also show a mutation frequency that is lower than that in corresponding somatic cells and similar to that in male germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • divide
  • Most other cells cannot divide indefinitely as after a few cycles of cell division the cells stop expressing an enzyme telomerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B cell waits for the TH cell to bind to the complex and this binding will activate TH cell and it releases cytokines that induce B cells to divide rapidly which make thousands of identical clones of B cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Before this, laboratory cultures of healthy, noncancerous mammalian cells would only divide a fixed number of times, up to the Hayflick limit, before dying. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Although the possibility of cloning humans had been the subject of speculation for much of the 20th century, scientists and policy makers began to take the prospect seriously in the mid-1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • T cell clone 37 recognizes the TEC, whereas it is stimulated poorly by the TPO loaded to autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). (ox.ac.uk)
  • There are approximately 39 trillion bacterial cells in the human microbiota as personified by a "reference" 70 kg male 170 cm tall, whereas there are 30 trillion human cells in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • Theoretically, the possibilities include (1) a primary T-cell mediated autoimmune response causing muscle damage, (2) a primary degenerative process involving abnormal protein processing leading to a secondary inflammatory response, and (3) separate and independent immune and degenerative processes caused by an external trigger. (medscape.com)
  • different
  • Fine epitope mapping using nested peptides showed that clones using identical TCR beta chains, identical V alpha, but a different J alpha recognized distinct, nonoverlapping epitopes in the TPO 535-551 region. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To confirm that clones 37 (and its sisters) and 43 recognize different epitopes, the T cell clones were stimulated with a TPO-transfected autologous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) cell line (TPO-EBV) that presents TPO epitopes afer endogenous processing. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Receptors
  • Understanding of the molecular interactions between T cell receptors (TCR) and self-epitopes may explain how T cells escape thymic education and initiate an autoimmune reaction. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Various chemokines, cytokines, and chemokine receptors are upregulated in the inflammatory cell infiltrates, blood vessels, and myofibers in s-IBM. (medscape.com)
  • mononuclear
  • s-IBM is characterized by the presence of non-necrotic myofibers invaded by mononuclear inflammatory cells, which, as a pathologic phenomenon, is significantly more common than vacuolated, congophilic, and necrotic fibers. (medscape.com)