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  • thickness data
  • Dr. Ian Willis and Toby Benham from SPRI were able to reproduce these contours using ice thickness data. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The weight of the snow tends to push the ice floes lower into the water, so that CryoSat, which translates the height of the ice surface above the waterline into ice thickness data, would underestimate the true thickness of the ice. (esa.int)
  • This will be compared with ice thickness data derived using the radar altimeter on board the aircraft to determine overall accuracy. (esa.int)
  • measurements
  • An exceptional type of comparison between measurements was carried out on Wednesday off the East Greenland coast, where "Polarstern" met the British research icebreaker "James Clark Ross": for the very first time in the history of sea ice research, sea ice topography was measured simultaneously from above and below. (innovations-report.com)
  • Since July 16th, scientists of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research have been working as part of an international team carrying out atmospheric chemical measurements, gathering data from the ocean and sea ice and collecting rock samples from the sea floor. (innovations-report.com)
  • In this coordinated effort, valuable information on sea ice properties and CryoSat validation measurements were collected from the surface of the ice, and from the air using the AWI Dornier 228 and HUT SC7 Skyvan aircrafts. (esa.int)
  • In addition, a helicopter suspending an electromagnetic sensor known as EM-bird, took many kilometres worth of ice thickness measurements underlying the airborne flight path. (esa.int)
  • Because sea ice drifts as it floats in the sea, one of the most challenging tasks was to collect coincidence aircraft and helicopter measurements. (esa.int)
  • Firstly, the data collected during the campaign will help us quantify, and eventually improve the accuracy of the CryoSat sea ice measurements, and secondly, this campaign saw the first successful flights with ASIRAS at low altitude. (esa.int)
  • Can we extend local sea-ice measurements to satellite scale? (npolar.no)
  • algal
  • We surveyed benthic communities in Commonwealth Bay approximately 3 years after continuous sea-ice cover began and found algal bed communities in severe decline. (springer.com)
  • As we lose ice cover, we're in danger of never having understood how much algal production is happening under the ice and its importance to the overall lake food web," said Bramburger. (umn.edu)
  • extent
  • It is regrettable that the claimed drastic reduction in the extent of ice in Greenland has created headline news around the world. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Events leading to the September ice extent minima of recent years exemplify these processes. (springer.com)
  • Climate processes are not only affected by the horizontal extent of sea ice, but also by its thickness. (innovations-report.com)
  • The broad extent of lakes and rivers throughout the northern high-latitudes provides good spatial coverage necessary to make the timing of lake and river ice freeze-up and breakup an effective indicator of climate change, and how such change might be affecting these important aquatic ecosystems. (caff.is)
  • seasonal
  • Finally, it was found that seasonal change, ice covered versus non-ice covered operation and a comparison between a H 2 S emitting pond and non-emitting pond all did not promote a measurable proliferation of sulfate-reducing bacteria nor a community shift in the sulfate-reducing bacterial population. (rsc.org)
  • Climate change is making periods with ice cover shorter and shorter in temperate lakes that experience seasonal changes. (umn.edu)
  • Algae
  • Algae are melting away the Greenland ice sheet. (arctichealth.org)
  • The aim of this study was to assess the phylogenetic relationships, ecology and ecophysiological characteristics of the dominant planktic algae in ice-covered lakes on James Ross Island (northeastern Antarctic Peninsula). (springer.com)
  • Immotile green algae are thus apparently capable to become the dominant primary producer in the extreme environment of Antarctic lakes with extensive ice-cover. (springer.com)
  • And it turns out that ice cover and the snowpack on top of it are both important for a specific species of algae that has found its frozen niche. (umn.edu)
  • But as far as Bramburger's area of study - algae that supplies energy up the food chain - it was assumed that they were mostly dormant until ice-out in the spring. (umn.edu)
  • Have 'under-ice' algae species become more or less common through time? (umn.edu)
  • If the scientists know how much photosynthesis is taking place, they know how active and productive the algae are under the ice. (umn.edu)
  • This species frequently attaches itself to the bottom of the ice, accessing the limited light resources very early in the season, in advance of other algae species. (umn.edu)
  • airborne
  • In order to determine ice thickness, the sea ice research group of the Alfred Wegener Institute has, over the past years, developed an airborne ice thickness sensor. (innovations-report.com)
  • In addition to contributing to CryoSat validation of sea ice, the Bay of Bothnia provided the first occasion to test the ASIRAS airborne radar altimeter using a new Low Altimeter Mode (LAM) recently implemented by Radar Systemtechnik (RST). (esa.int)
  • winter
  • Unknown to many people, the lakes evaporate more in winter - before ice forms - than they do in summer because of the greater disparity between water and air temperatures. (toledoblade.com)
  • The benefit of ice extends beyond winter well into spring. (toledoblade.com)
  • Because of the extensive open water in recent Septembers, ice cover in the following spring is increasingly dominated by thin, first-year ice (ice formed during the previous autumn and winter) that is vulnerable to melting out in summer. (springer.com)
  • The winter spatial pattern of sea ice concentration is collocated with patterns of surface heat flux anomalies. (hindawi.com)
  • Winter minimum sea ice thickness occurs in the ice pack interior above the AW path, clearly indicating AW influence on ice thickness. (hindawi.com)
  • You know, considering the ecology, for instance, whitefish require a stabilized cover over their spawning beds during the winter. (ktep.org)
  • Their eggs incubate during the winter under ice and hatch the following April or May as the ice melts, said Hannah Lachance, aquatic ecology and watershed science graduate student at the University of Vermont. (ijc.org)
  • CO2 production was predicted by the initial rate of loss of oxygen near the sediments at ice-on and by the full water column loss of oxygen throughout the winter. (lternet.edu)
  • Ice fishermen have long been interested in fish activity during winter months. (umn.edu)
  • While discussing aspects of winter limnology with Large Lakes Observatory scientist Ted Ozersky, the two decided they'd better do ice research sooner rather than later… "before we don't have a long enough ice period to study," Bramburger added. (umn.edu)
  • Greenland Ice S
  • The Scott Polar Research Institute points out that the volume of ice contained in the Greenland Ice Sheet is approximately 2.9 million cubic kilometers and the current rate at which ice is lost is roughly 200 cubic kilometers per year. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The Greenland ice sheet is vast, majestic, pristine. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • So, a group of microbial ecologists wondered if this was impacting the local flora - the diverse collection of microbes that call the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) home. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • I am not surprised to see evidence of bacteria that can degrade contaminants on the Greenland ice sheet because I have been to Greenland and have personally seen how dirty the surface ice is on some regions of the ice cap, and how contaminants are concentrated. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • They concluded: "Since the genetic potential of contaminant resistance and degradation usually indicates the presence of the relevant contaminants, the Greenland ice sheet should not be considered a pristine environment, and more attention should be paid to the potential release of anthropogenic contaminants from this fast-changing environment," i.e., due to climate change. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • In Jansson's view, the results "convincingly show that the Greenland ice sheet harbours microorganisms that have genes typical of microbes from other contaminated environments on our planet and therefore the Greenland ice sheet is not pristine. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • However, the extra heat energy trapped by these clouds can push temperatures above freezing, which is exactly what happened in July 2012 over large parts of the Greenland ice sheet. (redorbit.com)
  • Clouds play a big role in the surface mass and energy budgets over the Greenland Ice Sheet. (redorbit.com)
  • topography
  • The calibration line covered ice of varying thickness, from as little as 19 centimetres to as much as 20 metres and also included ice featuring different topography, from the smooth and level to very rough ridged forms. (esa.int)
  • CryoSat
  • Starting in March 2005, "CryoSat" will measure sea ice thickness continually from a height of 700 kilometres in both polar regions. (innovations-report.com)
  • The experiment examined the possible sources of error that could arise in the sea-ice thickness maps that will be generated using data from ESA's ice mission CryoSat. (esa.int)
  • they provide the only means to reach a comprehensive assessment of how accurate CryoSat-derived ice thickness maps are. (esa.int)
  • sediments
  • We'll be able to look at the historical records to see if what we see blooming under the ice are well represented in sediments from the past," said Bramburger. (umn.edu)
  • Thinning
  • However, long-term preconditioning occurred during three decades of steady ice thinning [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • rock debris
  • A few thousand years ago, rock debris embedded in an ice sheet had cut parallel grooves and had polished the surface of this outcrop in southern Ontario. (coursehero.com)
  • Hemisphere
  • We simulate the evolution of cliff systems with different aspects, show that south-facing ice cliffs disappear within a few weeks in the Northern Hemisphere, and explain the processes driving this. (pnas.org)
  • We use a 3D model of cliff evolution coupled to very high-resolution topographic data to demonstrate that ice cliffs facing south (in the Northern Hemisphere) disappear within a few months due to enhanced solar radiation receipts and that aspect is the key control on cliffs evolution. (pnas.org)
  • At its maximum about 20 thousand years ago, an ice sheet covered most of Canada and part of the northernmost U. S. Today in the Northern Hemisphere an extensive ice sheet covers only Greenland. (coursehero.com)
  • concentration
  • Analysis of 1979-2011 ice properties revealed a general tendency of decreasing ice concentration that commenced after the mid-1990s. (hindawi.com)
  • By making composite maps of pressure fields in terms of sea-ice concentration in Kara and Barents Seas, it has been found that when the sea ice cover is more extensive towards the low latitudes than the normal year, the jet stream at 500 hPa level splits in to two branches and the jet stream at 200hPa is located at more southern latitudes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • waters
  • GEORGE LESHKEVICH: The ice covers the waters. (ktep.org)
  • Lachance said ciscoes might adapt to less ice cover and more light by spawning in deeper, darker waters, adding that more research will be needed to understand what the fish face in coming decades. (ijc.org)
  • climatic
  • Paleoecological data were compared with independent climatic reconstructions to assess ecosystem responses of the forest tundra boundary to Little Ice Age (LIA) climatic fluctuations. (arctichealth.org)
  • snow
  • Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. (springer.com)
  • This summer was the fourth in a row with icecap areas sharply below the long-term average, said Mark C. Serreze, a senior scientist at the snow and ice center and a professor at the University of Colorado, Boulder. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Lachance, along with fellow grad student Taylor Stewart, were interested in doing a pilot study on the impact of light on cisco egg and larval mortality, as reduced ice cover and snow would lead to more light filtering down to the eggs. (ijc.org)
  • Errors can arise, for example, where a snow layer is present on top of the sea ice. (esa.int)
  • Snow thickness and snow properties were measured and holes were drilled through the ice to measure the thickness. (esa.int)
  • Typically, low-level clouds and snow cover reflect solar energy back into space from the surface of the Earth. (redorbit.com)
  • But they found that the first meaningful burst of photosynthesis does happen under the ice, but not until most of the snow has melted and sunlight can get through. (umn.edu)
  • oxygen
  • Granger, J. , M. G. Prokopenko , C. W. Mordy , and D. M. Sigman ( 2013 ), The proportion of remineralized nitrate on the ice-covered eastern Bering Sea shelf evidenced from the oxygen isotope ratio of nitrate , Global Biogeochem. (wiley.com)
  • Calories
  • How many calories are there in Ice cream cone, chocolate covered, with nuts, flavors other than chocolate ? (acaloriecounter.com)
  • Here you will find the full nutrition facts for Ice cream cone, chocolate covered, with nuts, flavors other than chocolate including calories, protein, carbs, fat and much more. (acaloriecounter.com)
  • Cream
  • So today's treat: Chocolate Covered Espresso Bean Ice Cream. (blogspot.com)
  • I got a hold of a huge bag of chocolate covered espresso beans in bulk last week and naturally they were involved in the ice cream making spree. (blogspot.com)
  • I took my favorite super-rich chocolate ice cream recipe, from Fran's Pure Chocolate cookbook, tarted it up with a little instant espresso powder and the chopped chocolate beans. (blogspot.com)
  • Then it is ready to be added to your ice cream maker. (blogspot.com)
  • However, if you're impatient like myself, you can pour the mixture into a stainless steel bowl sitting in an ice bath and stir occasionally until the mixture is chilled (10-15 minutes) and add to your ice cream maker. (blogspot.com)
  • Freeze the mixture in an ice cream maker according to the manufacturer's instructions. (blogspot.com)
  • I can't imagine that the texture of crunching coffee beans works in anything other than ice cream. (blogspot.com)
  • How strong is the coffee flavor in the ice cream with one tablespoon? (blogspot.com)
  • This option will ensure that the nutrition facts shown are 100% accurate for your specific amount of Ice cream cone, chocolate covered, with nuts, flavors other than chocolate. (acaloriecounter.com)
  • heavily
  • We have used this system for several years with Twin Otter fixed wing aircraft as part of the Switchyard Project, sampling a line of stations annually in the heavily ice covered region between Ellesmere Island and the North Pole. (arcus.org)
  • found
  • Nevertheless, after three days of crashing through the ice we found an ice researcher's paradise. (esa.int)
  • Historically
  • Historically, katabatic winds have kept Commonwealth Bay ice-free for most of each year, but since 2010, a massive grounded iceberg has resulted in year-round sea-ice cover. (springer.com)
  • circulation
  • The time series data also showed the lake-size and time dependent contribution of sediment respiration to under-ice circulation and the decreased near-bottom flows enabling anoxia and CH4 accumulation. (lternet.edu)
  • lake
  • It should not be interpolated to a period shorter than the time series of the data from which the trends are derived, since there are decadal and multi-decadal changes in lake ice cover. (desdemonadespair.net)
  • vast
  • I mean just the vast expanse of the ice cover is just, you know, fascinating to see and it's fascinating to hear. (ktep.org)