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  • predicts
  • The Trojan exosome hypothesis predicts that retroviral particles and exosomes will contain a similar array of host cell lipids and proteins, use the same protein targeting and vesicle biogenesis pathway, and move between cells in the absence of a retroviral Env protein. (pnas.org)
  • The hypothesis further predicts that these competitive interactions between mRNAs and ribosomal subunits may be modulated by ribosome heterogeneity, manifested as differences in the affinity for mRNAs of various sites on the ribosomal subunits. (pnas.org)
  • Main
  • In an effort to reconcile these observations with the main body of data on retroviral biology, we propose the Trojan exosome hypothesis. (pnas.org)
  • The overview is then used by key stakeholders to help them determine the main reasons why the problem exists i.e. the hypotheses. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • particles
  • This Trojan exosome hypothesis reconciles current paradigms of retrovirus-directed transmission with the unique lipid composition of retroviral particles, the host cell proteins present in retroviral particles, the complex cell biology of retroviral release, and the ability of retroviruses to infect cells independently of Envelope protein-receptor interactions. (pnas.org)
  • The Trojan exosome hypothesis states that retroviruses use the preexisting, nonviral exosome biogenesis pathway for the formation of infectious particles, and the preexisting, nonviral pathway of exosome uptake for a receptor-independent, Env-independent mode of infection. (pnas.org)
  • An example of a famous hypothetico-deduction is Joseph John Thomson's (1856-1940) hypothesis that cathode rays are streams of subatomic negatively-charged particles that we now call electrons . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, the controversial part of Thomson's hypothesis was that cathode rays were composed of particles instead of waves. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • content
  • This one-day masterclass looks at using a hypothesis testing methodology to improve the explanatory content of crime and intelligence analysis . (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We'll discuss the current good and bad things about analysis production (its content and commissioning) and examine how a hypothesis testing approach can improve the explanatory substance of analytical materials. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • mothers
  • It builds on the previously postulated "mother hypothesis" which states that as mothers age, the costs of reproducing become greater, and energy devoted to those activities would be better spent helping her offspring in their reproductive efforts. (wikipedia.org)
  • 'For the past few years I've been challenging the 'obstetric dilemma' hypothesis --the idea that hominin mothers' bipedal pelves have shortened our species' gestation length and caused infant helplessness, and that antagonistic selection between big-brained babies and constrained bipedal mothers' pelves explains childbirth difficulty too. (metafilter.com)
  • describe
  • The mesopredator release hypothesis is an ecological theory used to describe the interrelated population dynamics between apex predators and mesopredators within an ecosystem , such that a collapsing population of the former results in dramatically-increased populations of the latter. (wikipedia.org)
  • We propose that ribosomal filters may be important in cell differentiation and describe experimental tests for the filter hypothesis. (pnas.org)
  • test
  • After formulating the hypotheses needed to answer our study question, we draw a random sample from the population of interest and use the information in this sample to calculate a test statistic. (ahajournals.org)
  • If there is evidence that the sample could not have come from a population with the postulated value of the parameter, as determined by a comparison of the magnitude of the test statistic with the critical values of the probability distribution, we reject the null hypothesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • The probability value is the probability of observing a test statistic as large as we got, or even larger, given that the null hypothesis is true. (ahajournals.org)
  • If the probability value of the test is large, we fail to reject the null hypothesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • A test of Tamara's hypothesis would be simple. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In this session we demonstrate that no extra skills or training in new techniques are required to test hypotheses - as analysts you can use your existing knowledge. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Research
  • A 2008 New Scientist article by Tim Callaway reports that research of ADHD and related traits in different cultures offers some support for the hunter vs. farmer hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research Hypotheses This research considered following Hypothesis Hypothesis No. there are more than hundreds of television channels in India broadcasting over 3 million television commercials each year in India. (scribd.com)
  • notion
  • This is sure to disappoint researchers who have been hanging onto the "amyloid hypothesis" of Alzheimer's-the notion that amyloid-beta accumulating in the brain is what drives the disease. (forbes.com)
  • General
  • Methods of statistical inference fall into 2 general categories: estimation and hypothesis testing. (ahajournals.org)
  • I ask, "the special Riemann Hypothesis or the general Riemann Hypo... ? (everything2.com)
  • In panic , I remember what I've been ignoring all along: While I stand a fair chance of formulating the special Riemann Hypothesis reasonably well and maybe showing something easy about it, I haven't the slightest clue what the general Riemann Hypothesis is! (everything2.com)
  • Another
  • The hypothesis that Eukarya arose from one Prokaryote engulfing another Prokaryote to form organelles like the nucleus , mitochondria , chloroplasts , and possibly flagella . (everything2.com)
  • researchers
  • The purpose of this website is to increase the awareness among management researchers of the severe limitations of Null Hypothesis Significance Tests (NHSTs) and to introduce alternative approaches. (google.com)
  • friends
  • Notably, the "old friends" hypothesis places an emphasis on the ancient microbes that were present throughout human evolution, rather than childhood infections that reduced in incidence greatly throughout the same time period. (news-medical.net)
  • Rook GAW (2010) 99th Dahlem conference on infection, inflammation and chronic inflammatory disorders: darwinian medicine and the 'hygiene' or 'old friends' hypothesis. (springer.com)
  • Testing
  • With hypothesis testing, we begin by claiming that the population parameter of interest is equal to some postulated value (or, in the situation in which we are comparing 2 populations, that the 2 parameters are equal to each other). (ahajournals.org)
  • We then introduce the concept of hypothesis testing and illustrate it using examples from other fields of popular science. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We also discuss how a hypothesis testing analysis process can fit into existing police/CSP National Intelligence Model (NIM) processes and the problem-solving SARA process, and suggest a structure for problem profiles that use a hypothesis testing approach. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We'll look at the production of an overview, which is the first stage in the process for constructing a problem profile following the hypothesis testing approach. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In this session you'll look at how the results from hypothesis testing can be interpreted and critiqued. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We finish by reviewing how a problem profile can be written by following the hypothesis testing approach. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • results
  • While the results of Expedition3 were not what we had hoped they would be, we believe the amyloid hypothesis should continue to be studied," she said in an e-mailed statement. (forbes.com)
  • term
  • During the eighteenth century, physicists (or "natural philosophers" as they were called) began to use the term 'hypothesis' in a pejorative sense, suggesting that hypothetico-deduction (explained later) was an inferior form of scientific reasoning. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • supports
  • In this Opinion article, we critically assess the available literature that supports this hypothesis, which may provide a novel conceptual basis for the development of targeted diagnostics and treatments for complex dysbiotic diseases. (nih.gov)
  • important
  • Finally, the Trojan exosome hypothesis has important implications for the fight against HIV and AIDS, including how to develop new antiretroviral therapies, assess the risk of retroviral infection, and generate effective antiretroviral vaccines. (pnas.org)
  • helps
  • We also recommend a process that helps you qualify and shortlist the hypotheses that you'll then select for directing the analysis. (ucl.ac.uk)