• ###### Monosaccharides
• Biological Molecules - 6 Carbohydrates The word carbohydrate is one of convention, derived from carbon and water, the component elements of the carbohydrate monomers (subunits) or monosaccharides. (coursehero.com)
• ###### functional groups
• This pairing of functional groups is pervasive, and many subcategories have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
• A different monomer with two identical functional groups, such as a dioyl dichloride or dioic acid is required to continue the process of polymerization through repeated esterification processes. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### Alcohol
• Diols where the alcohol groups are separated by several carbon centers are generally prepared by hydrogenation of diesters of the corresponding dicarboxylic acids. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### acetyl group
• The introduction of an acetyl group (CH 3 CO-) into a compound. (wcrf.org)
• The loading module tethers an acetyl group to the ACP that then condenses with one of three tandem ACPs present in the adjacent module of CurA. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### carboxylic
• Orthocarbonic acid is one of the group of carboxylic ortho acids that have the general structure of RC(OH)3.The term ortho acid is also used to refer to the most hydroxylated acid in a set of oxoacids. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### phosphate groups
• Phosphate groups can exist in three different forms depending on a solution's pH. (wikipedia.org)
• The binding of phosphate groups to the inositol ring is accomplished by phosphor-ester binding (see phosphoric acids and phosphates). (wikipedia.org)
• This gives IP3 a net negative charge, which is important in allowing it to dock to its receptor, through binding of the phosphate groups to positively charged residues on the receptor. (wikipedia.org)
• Using a modified form of IP3, it was discovered that all three phosphate groups interact with the receptor, but not equally. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### covalent bond
• In the molecular bonding of the deoxyribonucleotide (DNA) and ribonucleotide(RNA), phosphodiester bond is a strong covalent bond between a phosphate group and two 5-carbon ring. (wikibooks.org)
• ###### reaction
• The reaction mechanism for a direct immobilization using the epoxide group is shown in Figure 1 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
• The immobilization via a Schiff base mechanism requires reaction of the epoxide group to form an aldehyde. (sigmaaldrich.com)
• In contrast, 2,3-CTD utilizes Fe2+ as a cofactor to cleave the carbon-carbon bond adjacent to the phenolic hydroxyl groups of catechol, thus yielding 2-hydroxymuconaldehye as its product. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### typically
• The numbering reflects the recommended 1988 numbering based on the fact that the isomer is typically phosphorylated at the hydroxyl group associated with the #1 carbon when used as the hydrated sodium receptor. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### form
• Secondly, they serve as carbon skeletons that can be rearranged to form other molecules necessary for biological structures and functions. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
• They form a large group of polymethine dye. (wikipedia.org)
• The pH of the solution, and thus the form of the phosphate group determines its ability to bind to other molecules. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### organic
• Any of a class of highly reactive organic chemical compounds characterized by the common group CHO and used in the manufacture of resins, dyes, and organic acids. (eurelectric.org)
• ###### amino
• Disclosed herein are protecting groups for exocyclic amino groups of the base cytosine for use in the synthesis of oligonucleotides and oligonucleoside phosphorothioates, the protecting groups being represented by the formula: --CO--(CH2)0-9 --CH3. (google.com)
• ###### alpha
• Next, DOPA decarboxylase removes the COOH group from the alpha carbon to create dopamine. (reference.com)
• ###### different
• As shown in the figure below, the phenyl group at the 2-position can carry different substituents. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### positions
• Phosphates at the 4th and 5th positions interact more extensively than the phosphate at the 1st position and the hydroxyl group at the 6th position of the inositol ring. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### energy
• Most bacteria are unable to use sorbitol for energy, but it can be fermented slowly by a group of orally found bacteria called "mutans streptococci" thus potentially causing tooth decay unlike xylitol which is considered to be non-acidogenic. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### forms
• A group of aquatic, photosynthetic, eukaryotic organisms ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms, and generally possess chlorophyll but lack true roots, stems and leaves characteristic of terrestrial plants. (eurelectric.org)
• BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The use of yeast in food production is the oldest and most extensive contribution made by any group of microorganisms. (markedbyteachers.com)
• in this case the hydration is made favorable by the electron-withdrawing trifluoromethyl groups. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### However
• However, the net negative charge of the phosphate group must be stabilized by metal ions, such as magnesium or manganese. (wikibooks.org)
• ###### process
• In the process of deprotonating the C3 hydroxyl group, Tyr200 dissociates from the catalytic complex. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### solid
• An emissions control device that removes VOCs from a gas stream as a result of the gas attaching (adsorbing) onto a solid matrix such as activated carbon. (eurelectric.org)
• ###### found
• Lead is found in group 14 on the periodic table. (reference.com)
• ###### Carbons
• A new experimental carbon black pigment from Orion Engineered Carbons, XPB 255, features colorimetric properties ideal for high-jet automotive coatings as well as both solventborne and waterborne polyurethane (PU) coating systems. (coatingsworld.com)
• Δ12-PGJ2 undergoes a spontaneous dehydration reaction across its 15-hydroxyl-carbon 14 region to form a new double bound between carbons 14 and 15 thereby becoming 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 with retained electrophilic sites at carbons 9 and 13. (wikipedia.org)
• Both PGs undergo a dehydration reaction across their 11-hydroxyl-carbon 10 regions to form a new double bond between carbons 10 and 11 to become PGA2 and PGA1, respectively, with a cyclopenenone ring replacing the cyclopentaonon rings or their recursors and a newly established electrophilic site at carbon 11. (wikipedia.org)
• This electrophilic site is probably less electrophilic that the carbon 9 sites of Δ12-PGJ2 and 15-deoxy-Δ12-PGJ2 The cyclopentenone structures of PGA2, PGA1, PGJ2, Δ12-PGJ2, and 15-d-Δ12,14-PGJ2 possess α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups (see Carbonyl group#α,β-Unsaturated carbonyl compounds) which serve to establish high levels of chemical reactivity at nearby carbons 9, 11, and/or 13. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### oxygen
• But if the bond between the oxygen and the carbon would have been coordinating, not covalent, and the copper would have been +2, then it was fine. (blogspot.com)
• One loses a hydrogen and oxygen from its carboxyl group (COOH) and the other loses a hydrogen from its amino group (NH2). (wikipedia.org)
• These enzymes use both molecular oxygen and two NADPH's to dehydrate one of the hydroxyl groups on the anthraquinone and open the quinine with the molecular oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
• The oxidation of the alpha-C allows for a position where electrons (in the next step) will be coming down from the carboxyl group and pushing the electrons (making the double bonded oxygen) back up on the oxygen or grabbing a nearby proton off a nearby Lysine amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
• The possibility that the entire molecule is assembled as a single polyketide with a Baeyer-Villiger oxidation inserting an oxygen into the carbon backbone has been ruled out because C1 of monic acid and C9' of 9-hydroxy-nonanoic acid are both derived from C1 of acetate. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### reactive
• Carbon 9 thereby becomes chemically reactive as an electrophilic center. (wikipedia.org)
• The enzyme is initially primed into a reactive state by the transfer of a methyl group from N5-MeTHF to Co(I) in enzyme-bound cobalamin (Cob), forming methyl-cobalamin(Me-Cob) that now contains Me-Co(III) and activating the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### nitrogen
• This is in line with a proposed mechanism with an initial N-O acyl shift, involving transient protonation of the amide nitrogen, and subsequent hydroxyl-mediated hydrolysis of the resulting ester. (openthesis.org)
• Significant delocalisation of the lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom gives the group a partial double bond character. (wikipedia.org)
• However, the activation energy can be lowered (and the isomerization catalyzed) by changes that favor the single-bonded form, such as placing the peptide group in a hydrophobic environment or donating a hydrogen bond to the nitrogen atom of an X-Pro peptide group. (wikipedia.org)
• Arginine can be methylated once (monomethylated arginine) or twice, with either both methyl groups on one terminal nitrogen (asymmetric dimethylarginine) or one on both nitrogens (symmetric dimethylarginine), by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). (wikipedia.org)
• ###### amide
• The amide bond is synthesized when the carboxyl group of one amino acid molecule reacts with the amino group of the other amino acid molecule, causing the release of a molecule of water (H2O), hence the process is a dehydration synthesis reaction (also known as a condensation reaction). (wikipedia.org)
• The partial double bond renders the amide group planar, occurring in either the cis or trans isomers. (wikipedia.org)
• Amide groups can isomerize about the C'-N bond between the cis and trans forms, albeit slowly ( τ ∼ {\displaystyle \tau \sim } 20 seconds at room temperature). (wikipedia.org)
• ###### methyl
• In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group. (wikipedia.org)
• Methylation is a form of alkylation, with a methyl group, rather than a larger carbon chain, replacing a hydrogen atom. (wikipedia.org)
• The overall reaction transforms 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (N5-MeTHF) into tetrahydrofolate (THF) while transferring a methyl group to Hcy to form Met. (wikipedia.org)
• The activated methyl group is transferred from Me-Cob to the Hcy thiolate, which regenerates Co(I) in Cob, and Met is released from the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### carboxyl group
• This is a two-step process, which involves oxidation of isocitrate (a secondary alcohol) to oxalosuccinate (a ketone), followed by the decarboxylation of the carboxyl group beta to the ketone, forming alpha-ketoglutarate. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### aromatic
• Acetonitriles containing an extra stabilizing electron-withdrawing group (such as an aromatic ring) can usually be deprotonated using hydroxide or alkoxide bases. (organicreactions.org)
• NB: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Threonine 'Tyrosine is not an alcohol but a phenol, since its hydroxyl group is bonded directly to an aromatic ring, giving it different acid/base and oxidative properties). (openwetware.org)
• Urushiols are naturally existing organic compounds that have the catechol skeleton structure and diphenol functionality but with alkyl groups substituted onto the aromatic ring. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### glucose
• Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
• In glucose, the -OH group on the first carbon is in the axial position, the direction opposite the -OH group on carbon C-4. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### dioxide
• The products of the reaction are alpha-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH + H+/NADPH + H+. (wikipedia.org)
• The contaminant materials are converted to a large extent into stable inorganic compounds such as water, carbon dioxide and salts, i.e. they undergo mineralization. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### phosphate
• Several variations on this basic structure exist, including alternate backbones such as sphingosine in the sphingolipids, and hydrophilic groups such as phosphate as in phospholipids. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### reacts
• In fact, while amino acid s are in solution they are not in this form: the proton from the carboxylic acid group reacts with the basic amine group, to form a -COO - group and a -NH3 + group. (everything2.com)
• ###### phenyl
• Another difference is that its methyne centers are occupied by phenyl groups. (wikipedia.org)
• Catecholamines are biochemically significant hormones/neurotransmitters that are phenethylamines in which the phenyl group has a catechol skeleton structure. (wikipedia.org)
• 13. The epoxy paste adhesive of claim 1 additionally comprising from at least one inorganic particulate additive selected from the group consisting of calcium oxide and calcium rarbonate. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
• ###### nitrile
• Nitrile anions are nitriles lacking a proton at the position α to the nitrile group. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### compounds
• In cyclical compounds like these, the -OH group on C-1 may lie in opposite directions as well. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### alcohol
• In this process, the alcohol group off the alpha-carbon (C#2) is deprotonated and the electrons flow to the alpha-C forming a ketone group and removing a hydride off C#2 using NAD+/NADP+ as an electron accepting cofactor. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### double
• H2O]) across its 9-hydroxyl-carbon 10 region to form a new 9,10 double bond to become PGJ2 possessing a cyclopentenone ring (i.e. the ring contains one double bond) replacing the cyclopentanone ring (i.e. the ring has no double bonds) of PGD2. (wikipedia.org)
• Also present in mupirocin are pseudomonic acid B with an additional hydroxyl group at C8, pseudomonic acid C with a double bond between C10 and C11, instead of the epoxide of PA-A, and pseudomonic acid D with a double bond at C4 and C5 in the 9-hydroxy-nonanoic acid portion of mupirocin. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### position
• Furthermore, the carbon at position 6 has been methylated, as is the case in clarithromycin, to achieve better acid-stability. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### plants
• In plants, algae, bacteria (except for the α-proteobacteria group) and archaea, it is produced from glutamic acid via glutamyl-tRNA and glutamate-1-semialdehyde. (wikipedia.org)
• Plants produce flavonoids and isoflavones with methylations on hydroxyl groups, i.e. methoxy bonds. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### structure
• High dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with a 22-carbon chain (for structure, see Fig. S1 ) is considered to promote good health in numerous and diverse ways, potentially protecting the immune, nervous, and cardiovascular systems ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
• ###### Chemical
• It is one of several rock-forming minerals in the Pyroxene group, which are physically-related as their chemical content is quite similar and forms a chain. (gem5.com)
• ###### either
• The amino group bears either an acetyl or a glycolyl group. (wikipedia.org)
• A nonnative isomer of some peptide groups can disrupt the conformational folding significantly, either slowing it or preventing it from even occurring until the native isomer is reached. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### exist
• Since the C α carbon has four different groups bonded to it, it can exist in two different three-dimensional spatial arrangements. (everything2.com)
• ###### diverse group
• Thus, the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) presented by a diverse group of infectious organisms results in a innate immune response involving certain cytokines, chemokines and growth factors followed by a precise adaptive immune response tailored to the infectious pathogen via antigen presentation resulting in antibody production and cytotoxic T cell generation. (allindianpatents.com)
• Lipids are the most diverse group of biochemicals. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### large
• When found in groups of large bright crystals, it is usually called "diamond tin. (gem5.com)
• ###### often
• Serpentine may refer to a single mineral but more often to a group of minerals including antigorite, chrysotile, clinochrysotile, and lizardite, which are altered products of basic and ultra-basic rocks. (gem5.com)
• ###### wrong
• They are also not sugar anomers, since the wrong carbon is involved in the stereochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### main
• What are the four main groups of biological macromolecules? (cram.com)
• ###### least
• 10. The epoxy paste adhesive of claim 1 comprising at least one epoxy resin selected from the group consisting of diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol A and bisphenol F. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
• 17. The epoxy paste adhesive of claim 1 additionally comprising at least one impact modifier/toughening agent selected from the group consisting of epoxy-based prepolymers obtained by reacting one or more amine-terminated polymers with one or more epoxy resins. (patentsencyclopedia.com)