• mRNA levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3), palmitoyl transferase 1α (CPT-1α), acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (AOX1), D-bifunctional protein (DBP), 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase A (THLA), uncoupling protein (UCP) 2 and UCP3 were investigated by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. (springer.com)
  • These observations have lead to another mechanistic proposal, in which Tyr294 acts as a general acid and facilitates ring cleavage directly from the stable gem-diamine intermediate ( 3 ). (utexas.edu)
  • If the acyl CoA contains a cis-Δ 3 bond , then cis-δ 3 -Enoyl CoA isomerase will convert the bond to a trans-Δ 2 bond, which is a regular substrate. (bionity.com)
  • 3. The system of claim 1 wherein the diaphorase catalyzes the reduction of the competing substrate and the chromogen with similar efficiency. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. The system of claim 3 wherein said competing substrate causes the amount of color generated by said chromogen to be linearly related to the concentration of the NAD(P)H. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • However, recent crystal structures of ACC deaminase in complex with ACC and its analogues have revealed the presence of a gem-diamine intermediate ( 3 ) in the active site, where both the Schiff base-forming lysine residue and the substrate amino group are covalently linked to the PLP cofactor (Figure 1). (utexas.edu)
  • One involves an α-ketol rearrangement (Scheme 3, route A), and the other utilizes a retroaldolization/aldolization mechanism (Scheme 3, route B). Our investigation of DXR involves the synthesis of fluorinated substrate and product analogues. (utexas.edu)
  • 5. The recombinant microorganism of claim 3, wherein the polypeptides that catalyze substrate to product conversion do not exist in a natural biological system. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Exercise can increase free radical production by 2- to 4-fold [ 3 ] and produce changes in redox status which may exert oxidative stress on muscles and other tissues leading to alteration of lipids, proteins, and genetic material [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Other important functions of fatty acids include: 1) serving as building blocks of Phospholipids and glycolipids: 2) acting (as derivatives) as hormones and intracellular messengers: 3) modifying proteins through covalent attachment, and so affecting their cellular targeting and functioning. (healthdocbox.com)
  • The HIV-1 coreceptors are especially attractive in the perspective of determining new antiviral substances, being that they are WIN 55,212-2 mesylate manufacture seven-transmembrane-domain G protein-coupled WIN 55,212-2 mesylate manufacture receptors, a family group of proteins that is clearly a well-validated focus on for medication advancement (31). (gasyblog.com)
  • The 1st such inhibitors to become studied had been the CC-chemokines macrophage inflammatory proteins 1 and 1 and RANTES (3). (gasyblog.com)
  • The term lipids includes a divers group of structurally distinct hydrophobic and amphipathic molecules. (whatislife.com)
  • Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are a diverse group of molecules that can induce growth arrest, differentiation, apoptosis and autophagocytic cell death of cancer cells. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The synthase from E. coli catalyzes the incorporation of a methylene group, derived from S -adenosyl methionine ( 4 , S -AdoMet), across the C 9 -C 10 double bond of the unsaturated membrane phospholipids ( 5 , Scheme 2) to form a cyclorpropylfatty acyl chain ( 6 ). (utexas.edu)
  • The next step is the hydration of the bond between C-2 and C-3. (bionity.com)
  • The present invention relates to a method for preparing bile acid derivatives with a protected hydroxyl group in position 3, the method comprising the contacting of a bile acid derivative, having an unprotected 3-alpha-hydroxyl group, wi. (sumobrain.com)
  • The mechanism involves the linking malonyl-coa to an acyl carrier protein, followed by a decarboxylation and condensation reaction that extends the hydrocarbon chain. (healthdocbox.com)
  • As in the above case, this compound is converted into a suitable intermediate by cis-Δ 3 -Enoyl CoA isomerase. (bionity.com)
  • 3S)-3-Hydroxyadipyl-CoA is an intermediate in producing (3S)-3-Hydroxyadipyl-CoA. (hmdb.ca)
  • The present invention relates to a method for preparing ursodeoxycholic acid by using a biological enzyme catalysis technique and a 7β-steroid dehydrogenase for use in the preparation thereof. (sumobrain.com)
  • The present invention relates to a method utilizing a biological enzyme catalysis technique for preparing 3α-hydroxy-7-oxo-5β-cholanoic acid and a 7α-steroid dehydrogenase for use in preparation thereof. (sumobrain.com)
  • The metabolism of VPA was monitored following induction by quantitating the microsomal formation of 4- ene VPA, 3-OH VPA, 4-OH VPA, 4-keto VPA and 5-OH VPA. (ubc.ca)
  • An antibody directed against rat cytochrome P-450b was effective in completely inhibiting the metabolism of VPA to 4-ene VPA by microsomal protein isolated from PB or CBZ 3 day treated rats. (ubc.ca)
  • The metabolism of (E)-2-ene VPA to (E)-2,4-diene VPA by microsomal protein from PB or CBZ 3 day treatment groups was inhibited 89 % and 85 % respectively, in the presence of the anti-rat cytochrome P-450b antibody. (ubc.ca)
  • During exercise, the aerobic metabolism of skeletal muscle increases by 20- to 50-fold of the baseline rate ( 3 ). (physiology.org)
  • 0.05) between the two groups, with sphingolipid metabolism identified as the top-ranking affected canonical pathway. (springer.com)
  • 33. One or more bacterial cells, wherein each cell expresses one or more enzymes selected from the group consisting of: a. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • UV-B not only generates directly DNA photoproducts, but also produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), superoxide and hydroxyl radicals that can induce single- and double- strand breaks, apurinic sites and base damage ( Demple and Harrison, 1994 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • More specifically, it produces a homopolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)(P3HB) on glucose and/or acetic acid, a copolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)(P3HB3HV) on propionic acid or a mixture of acetic and propionic acids, and a terpolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxyvalerate)(P3HB3HV4HV) on levulinic acid [ 11 - 13 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Third, the causticity of sodium PB can result in esophagal and/or gastric distress, even when it is administered as a powder suspended in water (this has been extensively debated on the Internet discussion group Metab-L at http://lists.franken.de/mailman/listinfo/metab-L ). Neither the biochemical mechanism(s) of PB toxicity nor the identity of the missing metabolites of PB is known. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We studied the mechanism of PHB formation from PB in perfused rat livers and identified two additional metabolites, 4-phenyl- trans- crotonate (P t C) and 4-phenyl-3-ketobutyrate (PKB). (aspetjournals.org)
  • For example, α-Linolenic acid is classified as a n −3 or omega-3 fatty acid, and so it is likely to share a biosynthetic pathway with other compounds of this type. (wikibooks.org)
  • The most commonly researched fatty acid biosynthetic pathways are n −3 and n −6, which are hypothesized Template:By whom to increase or decrease [ citation needed ] inflammation. (wikibooks.org)
  • Adult male Long Evans rats (4/group) were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with one of the following: CBZ 100 mg/kg or CBZE 50 mg/kg every 12 h for 3, 7, 10 or 14 days, CFB 350 mg/kg for 7 days, or PB 75 mg/kg for 4 days. (ubc.ca)