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  • membrane
  • In their active GTP-bound form, Arf proteins are tightly associated with the membrane bilayer. (frontiersin.org)
  • Results indicate that AP-2 is not essential for clathrin -coated vesicle formation at the plasma membrane, but that it is one of several endocytic adaptors required for the uptake of certain cargo proteins. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Proteins of the kidney microvillar membrane. (genome.jp)
  • Staphylococcus aureus secretes a variety of membrane-damaging toxins, including the α-hemolysin and the bicomponent leukotoxins, the active toxin of which comprises the combination of two similar subtype proteins. (asmscience.org)
  • The formation of coat protein complex I (COPI)-coated vesicles is regulated by the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) adenosine diphosphate ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1), which in its GTP-bound form recruits coatomer to the Golgi membrane. (rupress.org)
  • In their GTP-bound form, Arf proteins recruit a specific set of protein effectors to the membrane surface. (biologists.org)
  • Beyond fundamental membrane trafficking roles, Arf proteins also regulate mitosis, plasma membrane signaling, cilary trafficking and lipid droplet function. (biologists.org)
  • These secretory and endosomal membrane systems intersect at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and are maintained by recycling pathways ( Saraste and Goud, 2007 ), in which Arf proteins play a major role. (biologists.org)
  • The functional organization of eukaryotic cells requires the exchange of proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides between membrane compartments through transport intermediates. (mdpi.com)
  • To analyze the involvement of the endosomal/lysosomal system in the processing of APP695 into βA4, we created APP695 chimeras by exchanging the cytoplasmic domain of APP695 with that of the human lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (hLAMP-1) and the human cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CD-MPR). (jneurosci.org)
  • Other epididymal proteins may act directly in the process of gamete recognition and interaction, by remaining on spermatozoa to mediate sperm binding to the zona pellucida and oocyte plasma membrane. (scielo.cl)
  • GAPs
  • In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we discuss the unique features of Arf small G proteins, their functions in vesicular and lipid trafficking in cells, and how these functions are modulated by their regulators, the GEFs and GAPs. (biologists.org)
  • GTPases are inactivated through either the intrinsic capability of the GTPase to hydrolyze GTP to GDP+Pi or an interaction with another protein group, the GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). (mdpi.com)
  • leucine-rich r
  • The sensor involved determines the specificity of the inflammasome and is typically a member of two conserved protein families: NLRs (nucleotide-binding domain [NBD]- and leucine-rich repeat [LRR]-containing proteins), and ALRs (AIM2-like receptors). (rupress.org)
  • Ribonuclease inhibitor (RI) is a large (~450 residues, ~49 kDa), acidic (pI ~4.7), leucine-rich repeat protein that forms extremely tight complexes with certain ribonucleases . (wikipedia.org)
  • RI is the classic leucine-rich repeat protein, consisting of alternating α-helices and β-strands along its backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arf1
  • Arf1 is the founding member of the family, and was originally identified as a protein factor required for the ADP-ribosylation of the adenylate cyclase activator Gsα by cholera toxin ( Kahn and Gilman, 1986 ). (biologists.org)
  • Among the small GTP-binding proteins, ARF1 (ADP-ribosylation factor 1) and SAR1 (Secretion-Associated RAS super family 1) are commonly conserved among all eukaryotes with respect to both their functional and sequential characteristics. (mdpi.com)
  • The ARF1 and SAR1 GTP-binding proteins are involved in the formation and budding of vesicles throughout plant endomembrane systems. (mdpi.com)
  • ARF1 has been shown to play a critical role in COPI (Coat Protein Complex I)-mediated retrograde trafficking in eukaryotic systems, whereas SAR1 GTPases are involved in intracellular COPII-mediated protein trafficking from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. (mdpi.com)
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • A variety of PFTs were also shown to trigger the release of calcium from intracellular stores (e.g., staphylococcal PFTs, aerolysin, and streptolysin O). By unknown mechanisms, these toxins lead to activation of G proteins, production of inositol(1,4,5)-triphosphate, and opening of calcium channels in the endoplasmic reticulum. (asmscience.org)
  • Moreover, retention of APP695 proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum led to neither βA4 secretion nor to processing by β-secretase in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • cilia
  • In addition to their fundamental roles in vesicular and non-vesicular lipid trafficking, we will highlight more specialized roles of Arf proteins, including functions in lipid droplet metabolism, the cytoskeleton, cell division and trafficking to cilia ( Box 1 ). (biologists.org)
  • amino-terminal
  • The existence of this characteristic Rel similarity domain allowed us to divide NFAT family proteins into three distinct regions: an amino-terminal region, a carboxyl-terminal region, and a middle region containing the Rel similarity domain. (jimmunol.org)
  • molecular
  • Moreover, the identification of a series of neurodegenerative diseases as protein unfolding/misfolding disorders highlights the importance of a detailed characterisation of the molecular events driving the unfolding and misfolding processes in proteins. (igi-global.com)
  • Considering the central role of the hydrophobic effect in protein folding, we show here the application of two data mining methods - hierarchical clustering and association rules - for the analysis and comparison of the solvent accessible surface area (SASA) variation profiles of each one of the 127 amino-acid residues in the amyloidogenic protein Transthyretin, across multiple molecular dynamics protein unfolding simulations. (igi-global.com)
  • Molecular dynamics (MD) is one of the most realistic simulation techniques available to study protein folding in silico . (igi-global.com)
  • Mechanism of ribonuclease inhibition by ribonuclease inhibitor protein based on the crystal structure of its complex with ribonuclease A". Journal of Molecular Biology . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the last ten years, the field of research on epididymal proteins and their function has advanced to the molecular level. (scielo.cl)
  • vesicles
  • Moelleken, J. 2006-10-14 00:00:00 COPI-coated vesicles are protein and liquid carriers that mediate transport within the early secretory pathway. (deepdyve.com)
  • GEFs
  • Guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), GDP dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), and GTPase-activating proteins are regulators of small GTP-binding proteins ( Figure 1 ). (mdpi.com)
  • recruit
  • Such binding sites normally recruit Mg2+, Mn2+, or Ca2+, but upon binding of Fe3+, the protein was rendered vulnerable to ROS modifications and loss of the metal binding site. (nih.gov)
  • Golgi
  • APP695 proteins were constructed also, which carried sorting signals responsible for recycling between the trans -Golgi network (TGN) and the cell surface. (jneurosci.org)
  • structure of a protein
  • Unlocking the three-dimensional structure of a protein is crucial to help scientists understand how it functions in our bodies and how it can cause devastating diseases if it becomes disrupted or interacts in the wrong way. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • However, figuring out the structure of a protein in three-dimensional space can be very challenging. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • proteolytic
  • Generation of βA4 by proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is thought to occur in a pathway that includes the activity of two as yet unknown proteases, with β-secretase cleaving at the N terminus and γ-secretase releasing the C terminus of βA4. (jneurosci.org)
  • cargo
  • In this Topical Review, we present their main protein components and discuss current models for cargo sorting. (deepdyve.com)
  • gene
  • However, the individual roles of NFAT family proteins in regulating gene expression are still unclear. (jimmunol.org)
  • function
  • Ts mutants provide an extremely powerful tool for studying protein function and assembly in vivo and in cell culture ( 1 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • We suggest that ArfGAP2 and ArfGAP3 are coat protein-dependent ArfGAPs, whereas ArfGAP1 has a more general function. (rupress.org)
  • There is direct relation between proteins structure and their function. (ukessays.com)
  • species
  • Although reactive oxygen species are usually promiscuous in their reactivity, Dr. Levine and his colleagues found that this modification was localized to the metal binding sites of proteins that contained them. (nih.gov)
  • regulation
  • In this Cell Science at a Glance and accompanying poster, we will describe the distinctive features of Arf small G proteins and important themes in their regulation. (biologists.org)
  • Insulin
  • Protein (ovotransferrin, α-lactalbumin and insulin) can be denatured and aggregated in vitro by adding DTT (reducing agent). (ukessays.com)
  • activate
  • All four NFAT proteins can activate transcription driven by the NFAT site from the IL-2 promoter ( 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • cell
  • One type of PQC is ubiquitin-proteasome mediated degradation, where misfolded proteins are eliminated from the cell. (washington.edu)
  • Although the production of isolated domains of multimeric ectodomain proteins has proven difficult, we report a method to rapidly produce the properly folded HA stem domain protein from influenza virus A/California/05/2009 (H1N1) by using Escherichia coli -based cell-free protein synthesis and a simple refolding protocol. (pnas.org)