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  • oxygen
  • The Space Shuttle Main Engine burnt hydrogen with oxygen, producing a nearly invisible flame at full thrust. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen, like all fuel, needs oxygen to burn, so the shuttle has a tank of liquid hydrogen and a tank of liquid oxygen. (factmonster.com)
  • The cars contain tanks of hydrogen that combine with oxygen from the air to drive them. (factmonster.com)
  • Bonded with oxygen, hydrogen forms the single most important compound on Earth , and the most important complex substance other than air: water. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since it requires more energy to separate hydrogen from oxygen than would be gained from burning the hydrogen produced in this method, the concept of such a device is often stated to be in direct violation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydrogen autoignition temperature, the temperature of spontaneous ignition in air, is 500 °C (932 °F). Pure hydrogen-oxygen flames emit ultraviolet light and with high oxygen mix are nearly invisible to the naked eye, as illustrated by the faint plume of the Space Shuttle Main Engine, compared to the highly visible plume of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, which uses an ammonium perchlorate composite. (wikipedia.org)
  • The visible orange flames in that incident were the result of a rich mixture of hydrogen to oxygen combined with carbon compounds from the airship skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of lesser importance is the Degussa process (BMA process) in which no oxygen is added and the energy must be transferred indirectly through the reactor wall: CH4 + NH3 → HCN + 3H2 This reaction is akin to steam reforming, the reaction of methane and water to give carbon monoxide and hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • CH4 + H2O → CO + 3 H2 In a second stage, additional hydrogen is generated through the lower-temperature, exothermic, water gas shift reaction, performed at about 360 °C: CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 Essentially, the oxygen (O) atom is stripped from the additional water (steam) to oxidize CO to CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is, however widely regarded as an ideal energy storage medium, due to the ease with which electric power can convert water into its hydrogen and oxygen components through electrolysis and can be converted back to electrical power using a fuel cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen sulfide burns in oxygen with a blue flame to form sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen gas and normal air can ignite at as low as 4% air due to the oxygen in the air and the simplicity and chemical properties of the reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flammability limits based on the volume percent of hydrogen in oxygen at 14.7 psia (1 atm, 101 kPa) are 4.0 and 94.0. (wikipedia.org)
  • reacts
  • It reacts with most common metals, releasing hydrogen and forming the metal chloride with most metal oxides and hydroxides it reacts to form water and the metal chloride. (infoplease.com)
  • Hydrogen bromide reacts with dichloromethane to give bromochloromethane and dibromomethane, sequentially: HBr + CH2Cl2 → HCl + CH2BrCl HBr + CH2BrCl → HCl + CH2Br2 Allyl bromide is prepared by treating allyl alcohol with HBr: CH2=CHCH2OH + HBr → CH2=CHCH2Br + H2O Although not widely used industrially, HBr adds to alkenes to give bromoalkanes, an important family of organobromine compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • At high temperatures or in the presence of catalysts, sulfur dioxide reacts with hydrogen sulfide to form elemental sulfur and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen sulfide reacts with metal ions to form metal sulfides, which are insoluble, often dark colored solids. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • 2007 - Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid 2009 - Mazda 5 Hydrogen RE Hybrid Mitsubishi: 2004 - Mitsubishi FCV Morgan: 2005 - Morgan LIFEcar-hybrid vehicle-concept car Nissan: 2002 - Nissan X-Trail FCHV-hybrid vehicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Japan Japan had a number of hydrogen filling stations under the JHFC project from 2002 to 2010 to test various technologies of hydrogen generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mixtures
  • The storage and use of hydrogen poses unique challenges due to its ease of leaking as a gaseous fuel, low-energy ignition, wide range of combustible fuel-air mixtures, buoyancy, and its ability to embrittle metals that must be accounted for to ensure safe operation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen-air mixtures can ignite with very low energy input, 1/10 that required igniting a gasoline-air mixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • electron
  • The ground state of neutral hydrogen consists of an electron bound to a proton . (wikipedia.org)
  • With its single electron, hydrogen is the simplest element of all. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The ground state energy level of the electron in a hydrogen atom is −13.6 eV, which is equivalent to an ultraviolet photon of roughly 91 nm wavelength. (wikipedia.org)
  • The energy levels of hydrogen can be calculated fairly accurately using the Bohr model of the atom, which conceptualizes the electron as "orbiting" the proton in analogy to the Earth's orbit of the Sun. However, the atomic electron and proton are held together by electromagnetic force, while planets and celestial objects are held by gravity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more accurate description of the hydrogen atom comes from a purely quantum mechanical treatment that uses the Schrödinger equation, Dirac equation or even the Feynman path integral formulation to calculate the probability density of the electron around the proton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike in the hydrogen atom, where the binding between electron and proton is dominated by the electromagnetic interaction, kaons and protons interact also to a large extent by the strong interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/selenium.html, US Environmental Protection Agency, Air Toxins website https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/idlh/7783075.html, Documentation of Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations: Hydrogen Selenide, The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/81-123/pdfs/0336.pdf Occupational Health Guideline for Hydrogen Selenide, The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1978 Levy, D. E. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gasoline
  • Hydrogen fuel enhancement from electrolysis (utilizing automotive alternators) has been promoted for use with gasoline-powered and diesel trucks, although electrolysis-based designs have repeatedly failed efficiency tests and contradict widely accepted laws of thermodynamics (i.e. conservation of energy). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997 - Mazda Demio FC-EV Methanol-Reducing Fuel Cell 2001 - Mazda Premacy FC-EV - First public street test of the Methanol-Reducing Fuel Cell vehicle in Japan 2003 - Mazda RX-8 Hydrogen RE Hydrogen \ Gasoline hybrid Wankel Rotary. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2004 analysis asserted that "most of the hydrogen supply chain pathways would release significantly less carbon dioxide into the atmosphere than would gasoline used in hybrid electric vehicles" and that significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions would be possible if carbon capture or carbon sequestration methods were utilized at the site of energy or hydrogen production. (wikipedia.org)
  • An Otto cycle internal-combustion engine running on hydrogen is said to have a maximum efficiency of about 38%, 8% higher than a gasoline internal-combustion engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis
  • New Applications of the Borrowing Hydrogen Methodology - Selective Synthesis of Amines and Mechanistic Studies (PDF) (Dr. rer. (wikipedia.org)
  • doi: 10.1002/adsc.200600638 A. J. A. Watson, A. C. Maxwell, J. M. J. Williams, Borrowing Hydrogen Methodology for Amine Synthesis under Solvent-Free Microwave Conditions Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2011, 76, 2328-2331. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combustion
  • Arvin Meritor, a Tier 1 supplier of automotive technology, at one time, was experimenting with a plasma reformer technology which would use hydrogen produced from the fuel to enhance engine combustion efficiency and reduce emissions of NOx. (wikipedia.org)
  • The destruction of the Hindenburg airship was a notorious example of hydrogen combustion and the cause is still debated. (wikipedia.org)
  • This station will be used for the refueling of a hydrogen fuel cell driven passenger boat as well as for that of a hydrogen internal combustion bus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen leaks can support combustion at very low flow rates, as low as 4 micrograms/s. (wikipedia.org)
  • compound
  • Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen selenide is an inorganic compound with the formula H2Se. (wikipedia.org)
  • The British English spelling of this compound is hydrogen sulphide, but this spelling is not recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) or the Royal Society of Chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • anhydrous
  • Although anhydrous (water-free) hydrogen chloride is commercially available as a high-pressure compressed gas in steel cylinders, most of the gas produced is dissolved in water to form hydrochloric acid (see acids and bases ), a commercially important chemical. (infoplease.com)
  • carbon dioxide
  • Hydrogenosomes are anaerobic mitochondria that produce ATP by, as a rule, converting pyruvate into hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proponents of a world-scale hydrogen economy argue that hydrogen can be an environmentally cleaner source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications, without release of pollutants (such as particulate matter) or carbon dioxide at the point of end use. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • If the putative hydrogen bond involves a small-molecule ligand, check that the ligand donors and acceptors have been correctly assigned (hydroxyl vs. ketone, amine vs. imine, etc. (proteopedia.org)
  • They dryly observe "Hydrogen is a very small molecule with low viscosity, and therefore prone to leakage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen cyanide is a linear molecule, with a triple bond between carbon and nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen's
  • However, given hydrogen's tendency to rise quickly, a hydrogen leak indoors would briefly collect on the ceiling and eventually move towards the corners and away from where any nose might detect it. (wikipedia.org)
  • world's
  • which account for 48%, 30% 18% and 4% of the world's hydrogen production respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • As NASA has been one of the world's largest users of hydrogen, this evolved from NASA's earlier guidelines, NSS 1740.16 (8719.16). (wikipedia.org)
  • chloride
  • Hydrogen chloride is prepared commercially by the reaction of sulfuric acid with sodium chloride (common salt) niter cake, a mixture of sodium bisulfite and sulfuric acid that is a byproduct of nitric acid manufacture, is sometimes used in place of sulfuric acid. (infoplease.com)
  • Hydrogen chloride is also produced as a byproduct of the manufacture of chlorinated organic chemicals. (infoplease.com)
  • Most hydrochloric acid produced has a concentration of 30% to 35% hydrogen chloride by weight. (infoplease.com)
  • In dilute solutions of the acid the hydrogen chloride is almost completely dissociated into hydrogen and chloride ions . (infoplease.com)
  • A solution containing 20.24% hydrogen chloride by weight is azeotropic, boiling at a constant temperature of 110°C at atmospheric pressure. (infoplease.com)
  • Hydrogen chloride also forms monohydrates, dihydrates, and trihydrates that are liquids at room temperature. (infoplease.com)
  • Hydrogen can react spontaneously and violently at room temperature with chlorine and fluorine to form the corresponding hydrogen halides, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, which are also potentially dangerous acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • fuel
  • Most hydrogen is used near the site of its production, the two largest uses being fossil fuel processing (e.g., hydrocracking ) and ammonia production, mostly for the fertilizer market. (wikipedia.org)
  • Six years ago I discussed the infrastructural changes that will be necessary to support a hydrogen vehicle economy, at the Fuel Cells Summit V meeting at the University of Maryland in the summer of 2001. (newscientist.com)
  • Due to the inherent complexity of these subsystems, a necessity of modern engine design and emissions standards, such claims made by proponents of hydrogen fuel enhancement are difficult to substantiate and always disputed. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, hydrogen fuel enhancement products have not been specifically addressed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as no research devices or commercial products have reports available as per the "Motor Vehicle Aftermarket Retrofit Device Evaluation Program. (wikipedia.org)
  • The partial oxidation reaction occurs when a substoichiometric fuel-air mixture is partially combusted in a reformer, creating a hydrogen-rich syngas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen is not a primary energy source, because it is not naturally occurring as a fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The potential environmental impact depends primarily on the methods used to generate the hydrogen fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • blue Hyfish Smartfish Tupolev Tu-155-hydrogen-powered version of Tu-154 Antares DLR-H2 -The first aircraft capable of performing a complete flight on fuel-cell power only Possible future aircraft using precooled jet engines include Reaction Engines Skylon and the Reaction Engines A2. (wikipedia.org)
  • netinform: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells netinform: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells netinform: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells netinform: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells "Ford Motor Company Business Plan", December 2, 2008 netinform: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells netinform: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells netinform: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells First Drive: hydrogen-powered Kia Borrego FCEV and Nissan X-Trail FCV netinform: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Dennis, Lyle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nissan Swears Off Hydrogen and Will Only Build Electric Cars", All Cars Electric, February 26, 2009 netinform: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Hydrogen Powered Tupolev Tu-155 Archived 2010-11-26 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vehicles use hydrogen as fuel in one of several ways, including fuel cells and mixed fuels like HCNG. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydrogen fuel dispensers dispense the fuel by the kilogram. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germany As of September 2013, there are 15 publicly available hydrogen fuel station in operation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proponents of a hydrogen economy advocate hydrogen as a potential fuel for motive power (including cars and boats) and on-board auxiliary power, stationary power generation (e.g., for the energy needs of buildings), and as an energy storage medium (e.g., for interconversion from excess electric power generated off-peak). (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, hydrogen engine conversion technology is more economical than fuel cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For over 40 years, industry has used hydrogen in vast quantities as an industrial chemical and fuel for space exploration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen gas is an extremely high-powered fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen codes and standards are codes and standards (RCS) for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, stationary fuel cell applications and portable fuel cell applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Standard for the installation of stationary fuel cell power systems (National Fire Protection Association) The current ANSI/AIAA standard for hydrogen safety guidelines is AIAA G-095-2004, Guide to Safety of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, all known odorants contaminate fuel cells (a popular application for hydrogen). (wikipedia.org)
  • quantities
  • The mass of this number-one element is not, however, 1: it is 1.008 amu, reflecting the small quantities of deuterium, or "heavy hydrogen," present in a typical sample. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Hydrogen cyanide is currently produced in great quantities by several processes, as well as being a recovered waste product from the manufacture of acrylonitrile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smaller quantities of "merchant" hydrogen are manufactured and delivered to end users as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • unstable
  • In kaonic hydrogen this strong contribution was found to be repulsive, shifting the ground state energy by 283 ± 36 (statistical) ± 6 (systematic) eV, thus making the system unstable with a resonance width of 541 ± 89 (stat) ± 22 (syst) eV (decay into Λπ and Σπ). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • The hydrogen hypothesis is a model proposed by William F. Martin and Miklós Müller in 1998 that describes a possible way in which the mitochondrion arose as an endosymbiont within an archaeon (without doubts classified as prokaryote at then times), giving rise to a symbiotic association of two cells from which the first eukaryotic cell could have arisen (symbiogenesis). (wikipedia.org)