• Hydrogen bonds ("hbonds") are non-covalent bonds that occur when a donor atom donates its covalently bonded hydrogen atom to an electronegative acceptor atom. (proteopedia.org)
  • As the only neutral atom for which the Schrödinger equation can be solved analytically, study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom has played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics . (wikipedia.org)
  • As the simplest atom known, the hydrogen atom has been of theoretical use. (princeton.edu)
  • For example, as the only neutral atom with an analytic solution to the Schrödinger equation , the study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics . (princeton.edu)
  • A hydrogen bond (often informally abbreviated H-bond ) is a partial intermolecular bonding interaction between a lone pair on an electron rich donor atom, particularly the second-row elements nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and the antibonding orbital of a bond between hydrogen (H) and a more electronegative atom or group. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hydrogen atom attached to a relatively electronegative atom is the hydrogen bond donor . (wikipedia.org)
  • C-H bonds only participate in hydrogen bonding when the carbon atom is bound to electronegative substituents, as is the case in chloroform , CHCl 3 . (wikipedia.org)
  • He referred this to Hendrik van de Hulst who, in 1944, predicted that neutral hydrogen could produce radiation at a frequency of 1420.4058 MHz due to two closely spaced energy levels in the ground state of the hydrogen atom . (wikipedia.org)
  • This is an outstanding example of a successful empirical fit (like Bode's Law in astronomy) for a class of physical phenomena that was not based on any underlying physical model or theory, i.e., no reason was known for why wavelengths of light emitted from a hydrogen atom should exhibit this pattern. (archive.org)
  • In classical terms a hydrogen atom consists of a proton and an electron bound together by their mutual electrical attraction. (archive.org)
  • In 1913 Niels Bohr developed a new representation of the hydrogen atom by combining classical ideas with a few additional postulates that were suggested by the nascent quantum concepts of Planck and Einstein. (archive.org)
  • Hydrogen ion , strictly, the nucleus of a hydrogen atom separated from its accompanying electron . (britannica.com)
  • In: Bassani G.F., Inguscio M., Hänsch T.W. (eds) The Hydrogen Atom. (springer.com)
  • Hydrogen chloride dissociates readily in water to chloride and hydronium ions (an ion is an electrically charged atom or molecule), which ultimately lowers the pH of the water (makes it more acidic). (cdc.gov)
  • The hydrogen atom is a concrete example of the general case of a two-body problem, in which two interacting bodies are considered without any external forces. (springer.com)
  • Pade J. (2018) The Hydrogen Atom. (springer.com)
  • The ground state energy level of the electron in a hydrogen atom is −13.6 eV, which is equivalent to an ultraviolet photon of roughly 91 nm wavelength. (wikipedia.org)
  • The energy levels of hydrogen can be calculated fairly accurately using the Bohr model of the atom, which conceptualizes the electron as "orbiting" the proton in analogy to the Earth's orbit of the Sun. However, the atomic electron and proton are held together by electromagnetic force, while planets and celestial objects are held by gravity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more accurate description of the hydrogen atom comes from a purely quantum mechanical treatment that uses the Schrödinger equation, Dirac equation or even the Feynman path integral formulation to calculate the probability density of the electron around the proton. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hydrogen atom is an atom of the chemical element hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atomic hydrogen" and "hydrogen atom" in ordinary English use have overlapping, yet distinct, meanings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attempts to develop a theoretical understanding of the hydrogen atom have been important to the history of quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
  • When ionized hydrogen is written as "H+" as in the solvation of classical acids such as hydrochloric acid, the hydronium ion, H3O+, is meant, not a literal ionized single hydrogen atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydrogen atom has special significance in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory as a simple two-body problem physical system which has yielded many simple analytical solutions in closed-form. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1913, Niels Bohr obtained the energy levels and spectral frequencies of the hydrogen atom after making a number of simple assumptions in order to correct the failed classical model. (wikipedia.org)
  • CH4 + H2O → CO + 3 H2 In a second stage, additional hydrogen is generated through the lower-temperature, exothermic, water gas shift reaction, performed at about 360 °C: CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 Essentially, the oxygen (O) atom is stripped from the additional water (steam) to oxidize CO to CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hydrogen ion is created when a hydrogen atom loses or gains an electron. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hydrogen atom is made up of a nucleus with charge +1, and a single electron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen atom (center) contains a single proton and a single electron. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydrogen anion, with its loosely held two-electron cloud, has a larger radius than the neutral atom, which in turn is much larger than the bare proton of the cation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen chloride is a diatomic molecule, consisting of a hydrogen atom H and a chlorine atom Cl connected by a polar covalent bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chlorine atom is much more electronegative than the hydrogen atom, which makes this bond polar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, the molecule has a large dipole moment with a negative partial charge (δ−) at the chlorine atom and a positive partial charge (δ+) at the hydrogen atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hydrogen bond is an electrostatic attraction between two polar groups that occurs when a hydrogen (H) atom, covalently bound to a highly electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), experiences the electrostatic field of another highly electronegative atom nearby. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a hydrogen bond, the electronegative atom not covalently attached to the hydrogen is named proton acceptor, whereas the one covalently bound to the hydrogen is named the proton donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the donor molecule, the electronegative atom attracts the electron cloud from around the hydrogen nucleus of the donor, and, by decentralizing the cloud, leaves the atom with a positive partial charge. (wikipedia.org)
  • The partially covalent nature of a hydrogen bond raises the following questions: "To which molecule or atom does the hydrogen nucleus belong? (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxygen atom at each end of this oxygen skeleton is attached to a hydrogen atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kaonic hydrogen is an exotic atom consisting of a negatively charged kaon orbiting a proton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike in the hydrogen atom, where the binding between electron and proton is dominated by the electromagnetic interaction, kaons and protons interact also to a large extent by the strong interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hydrogen maser, also known as hydrogen frequency standard, is a specific type of maser that uses the intrinsic properties of the hydrogen atom to serve as a precision frequency reference. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the proton and electron of a hydrogen atom have spins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This requires a higher hydrogen atom density and a higher quality factor for the cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, with advanced microwave cavities made out of silver-plated ceramic, the gain factor can be much higher, thereby requiring less hydrogen atom density. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows the use of lower hydrogen atom density and lower cavity quality factor, which reduces the cost. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another possible route, is sulfur monoxide reacting with atomic hydrogen to form HOS and HSO which in turn can add another hydrogen atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main role of these is to transport hydrogen atom to electron transport chain which will change ADP to ATP by adding one phosphate during metabolic processes (e.g. photosynthesis and respiration). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen astatide, also known as astatine hydride, astatane, or astidohydrogen, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HAt, consisting of an astatine atom covalently bonded to a hydrogen atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydrogen anion, H−, is a negative ion of hydrogen, that is, a hydrogen atom that has captured an extra electron. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding energy of H− equals the binding energy of an extra electron to a hydrogen atom, called electron affinity of hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Except for the hydrogen atom itself (which is neutral), these ions carry the positive charge e ( Z − 1 ) {\displaystyle e(Z-1)} , where Z {\displaystyle Z} is the atomic number of the atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its common name suggests that it contains an acidic hydrogen atom, as in sodium hydrogen carbonate. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this name is misleading as the hydrogen atom is not acidic, being bonded to phosphorus rather than oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen and other elements within iron act as softening agents that promote the movement of dislocations that naturally exist in the iron atom crystal lattices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen-deuterium exchange (also called H-D or H/D exchange) is a chemical reaction in which a covalently bonded hydrogen atom is replaced by a deuterium atom, or vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • As hydrogen bridges discussed here are 3 center (3 atom) - 2 electron bonds, the investigations over the possibilities of such systems laid an important framework from which to understand this bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ground state of neutral hydrogen consists of an electron bound to a proton . (wikipedia.org)
  • With its single electron, hydrogen is the simplest element of all. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Following Gaffron and Rubin's work, basic studies on the mechanisms involved in hydrogen production have determined that the reducing power (electron donation) of hydrogenase does not always come from water, but may sometimes originate intracellularly from organic compounds such as starch. (fao.org)
  • Even when organic compounds are involved in hydrogen production, an electron source can be derived from water, since organic compounds are synthesized by oxygenic photosynthesis. (fao.org)
  • The most abundant isotope, hydrogen-1, protium, or light hydrogen, contains no neutrons and is simply a proton and an electron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen is not found without its electron in ordinary chemistry (room temperatures and pressures), as ionized hydrogen is highly chemically reactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ionized hydrogen without its electron, or free protons, are common in the interstellar medium, and solar wind. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is now well understood that such reactions take place at the metal surface via one-electron reduction, and the concept of nascent hydrogen is discounted, even ridiculed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount of energy needed to reverse the spin of the electron is equivalent to a photon at the frequency of 1,420,405,751.786 hertz (Hz), which corresponds to the 21 cm line in hydrogen spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the interstellar medium there is a hypothesis that hydrogen thioperoxide is formed in a reaction of sulfur monoxide with the trihydrogen cation, dihydrogen and an electron. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hydrogen-like ion is any atomic nucleus with one electron and thus is isoelectronic with hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The solutions are one-electron functions and are referred to as hydrogen-like atomic orbitals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the solution to the Schrödinger equation, which is non-relativistic, hydrogen-like atomic orbitals are eigenfunctions of the one-electron angular momentum operator L and its z component Lz. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interspecies hydrogen transfer (IHT) is a form of interspecies electron transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen has an active electron, and therefore behaves somewhat like a halogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • I've read before that the military wants flexibility in its vehicles, so that if the troops are in a location where natural gas is in abundance, they could tap into it to produce hydrogen instead of shipping petroleum everywhere. (wired.com)
  • Now researchers at GE say they've come up with a prototype version of an easy-to-manufacture apparatus that they believe could lead to a commercial machine able to produce hydrogen via electrolysis for about $3 per kilogram - a quantity roughly comparable to a gallon of gasoline - down from today's $8 per kilogram. (technologyreview.com)
  • A machine of that scale could be attached to small electricity sources to produce hydrogen on the side. (technologyreview.com)
  • Pragma also sells refueling stations that produce hydrogen through the electrolysis of water as well cheaper tank-based stations. (voanews.com)
  • With bike's range limited by the size of the hydrogen tank, Pragma is also working on a bike that will convert plain water into hydrogen aboard the bike, using a chemical reaction between water and aluminum or magnesium powder to produce hydrogen gas. (voanews.com)
  • Thermal processes for hydrogen production typically involve steam reforming, a high-temperature process in which steam reacts with a hydrocarbon fuel to produce hydrogen. (energy.gov)
  • Photobiological processes use the natural photosynthetic activity of bacteria and green algae to produce hydrogen. (energy.gov)
  • Biological processes use microbes such as bacteria and microalgae and can produce hydrogen through biological reactions. (energy.gov)
  • In microbial biomass conversion, the microbes break down organic matter like biomass or wastewater to produce hydrogen, while in photobiological processes the microbes use sunlight as the energy source. (energy.gov)
  • The bacteria produce hydrogen when they are exposed to unabsorbed food, particularly sugars and carbohydrates, but not proteins or fats . (medicinenet.com)
  • On the other hand, if the individual does not digest and absorb the lactose completely, that is, he or she is lactose intolerant, the lactose travels through the small intestine and enters the colon where the bacteria digest it and produce hydrogen. (medicinenet.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) have designed very efficient ceramic microreactors for on-site reforming of fuels, such as propane, to produce hydrogen to be used in fuel cells. (zdnet.com)
  • Microreactors have already been used for on-site reforming of fuels, such as methanol or propane, to produce hydrogen to be used in fuel cells. (zdnet.com)
  • The large demand for cyanides for mining operations in the 1890s was met by George Thomas Beilby, who patented a method to produce hydrogen cyanide by passing ammonia over glowing coal in 1892. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many studies have shown that some patients (approximately 35% or more) do not produce hydrogen but actually produce methane. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have no tailpipe emissions and, if hydrogen is produced from renewable sources, can provide truly emission-free mobility. (iso.org)
  • Hydrogen gas is seen as a future energy carrier by virtue of the fact that it is renewable, does not evolve the "greenhouse gas" CO 2 in combustion, liberates large amounts of energy per unit weight in combustion, and is easily converted to electricity by fuel cells. (fao.org)
  • I, too, have traveled here on a journey of sorts to a new world-a world that is powered not by oil, coal, and other polluting fossil fuels, but one that relies primarily on renewable resources for energy and on hydrogen as an energy carrier, producing electricity with only water and heat as byproducts. (worldwatch.org)
  • Today, many experts are watching Iceland closely as a 'planetary laboratory' for the anticipated global energy transition from an economy based predominantly on finite fossil fuels to one fueled by virtually unlimited renewable resources and hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe. (worldwatch.org)
  • We, the undersigned public of Philadelphia, require the City, at this present moment of time, to switch from our present fossil fuel based system to that of River City to Hydrogen, being a clean green renewable source of energy. (ipetitions.com)
  • Dr Sheila Samsatli commented: "Hydrogen is a versatile energy carrier that can complement renewable energy. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Water may serve as a renewable hydrogen fuel source to replace fossil fuels, although such electrolysis requires highly active catalysts. (nature.com)
  • Senator Spark M. Matsunaga, Democrat of Hawaii, has long advocated the exploitation of hydrogen, a gas that can be generated from water using solar energy, ocean thermal power and other renewable energy sources. (nytimes.com)
  • Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic resources, such as natural gas, nuclear power, biomass, and renewable power like solar and wind. (energy.gov)
  • Jennifer Kurtz is a senior engineer and the leader of the Technology Validation Group in the NREL Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Colorado. (npr.org)
  • This book provides an insight into solar hydrogen, renewable hydrogen that is produced using solar energy. (rsc.org)
  • Fuel cell cars can run on infinitely renewable hydrogen gas and emit no harmful tailpipe emissions whatsoever. (emagazine.com)
  • Hydrogen can be produced from natural gas, coal and renewable energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Renewable Energy Laboratory believes that US counties have the potential to produce more renewable hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles than the gasoline they consumed in 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an energy buffer, hydrogen produced via water electrolysis and in combination with underground hydrogen storage or other large-scale storage technologies, could play an important role for the introduction of fluctuating renewable energy sources like wind or solar power. (wikipedia.org)
  • A conceptual design for compressed hydrogen storage in mined caverns Energy technology analysis.Pag.70 ORNL-Pag.20 a life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen Hyunder Storing renewable energy: Is hydrogen a viable solution? (wikipedia.org)
  • The island of Lolland is producing 50% more energy from renewable energy sources than it consumes, and the hydrogen project was seeking to locally store excess wind power in the form of hydrogen, for use in residential and industrial facilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Energy portal Denmark portal Hydrogen economy Renewable energy in Iceland Wind-hydrogen hybrid power system Wind power in Denmark Denmark - Lolland Hydrogen Community starts hydrogen supply to homes Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydrogen that is used in fuel cell vehicles can be made using fossil or renewable resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • If hydrogen were available in quantity from renewable energy sources, its use in aircraft would produce fewer greenhouse gases (water vapor and a small amount of nitrogen oxide) than current aircraft. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, however, very little hydrogen is produced using renewable energy sources, and there are several serious obstacles to the use of hydrogen in aircraft and other vehicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In September 2006, California Senate Bill 1505 required 33% of hydrogen to come from renewable energy, and other initiatives followed. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to CARB, "Assuming business-as-usual based on the funded network", about 45% of refueling hydrogen in California is projected to come from renewable sources, and "projected throughput of the 50 currently funded stations is less than 3.5 million kilograms per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • In ionic compounds , hydrogen can take the form of a negative charge (i.e., anion ) when it is known as a hydride , or as a positively charged (i.e., cation ) species denoted by the symbol H + . The hydrogen cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds are always more complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In ionic compounds it can take a negative charge (an anion known as a hydride and written as H − ), or as a positively charged species H + . The latter cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds always occur as more complex species. (princeton.edu)
  • Hydrogen forms compounds with most elements and is present in water and most organic compounds . (princeton.edu)
  • The hydrogen bond is responsible for many of the anomalous physical and chemical properties of compounds of N, O, and F. In particular, intermolecular hydrogen bonding is responsible for the high boiling point of water (100 °C) compared to the other group 16 hydrides that have much weaker hydrogen bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • On Earth, hydrogen forms compounds (mixture of elements), and is found in almost every living thing. (factmonster.com)
  • The contribution of the decomposition of organic compounds to hydrogen production, is dependent on the algal species concerned, and on culture conditions. (fao.org)
  • compounds that give rise to hydrogen ions (H+) in aqueous solution. (britannica.com)
  • This volume treats the dynamics of hydrogen in intermetallic compounds, surface properties, kinetics, and applications of metal hydrides in energy technology. (springer.com)
  • In ionic compounds, hydrogen can take the form of a negative charge (i.e., anion) when it is known as a hydride, or as a positively charged (i.e., cation) species denoted by the symbol H+. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydrogen cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds are always more complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohols can be temporarily converted into carbonyl compounds by the metal-catalysed removal of hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The metal catalyst, which had borrowed the hydrogen, then returns it to the transformed carbonyl compound, leading to an overall process in which alcohols can be converted into amines, compounds containing C-C bonds and β-functionalised alcohols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) is class of inorganic compounds with the chemical formula [HSiO3/. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods of hydrogen storage for subsequent use span many approaches including high pressures, cryogenics, and chemical compounds that reversibly release H2 upon heating. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since organic compounds do not react with hydrogen gas, which is the normal form of this element, a special, highly reactive state, of hydrogen was postulated to explain this class of hydrogenation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen fluoride and water also form several compounds in the solid state, most notably a 1:1 compound that does not melt until −40 °C (−40 °F), which is 44 °C (79 °F) above the melting point of pure HF. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen bromide and hydrobromic acid are important reagents in the production of inorganic and organic bromine compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen bromide reacts with dichloromethane to give bromochloromethane and dibromomethane, sequentially: HBr + CH2Cl2 → HCl + CH2BrCl HBr + CH2BrCl → HCl + CH2Br2 Allyl bromide is prepared by treating allyl alcohol with HBr: CH2=CHCH2OH + HBr → CH2=CHCH2Br + H2O Although not widely used industrially, HBr adds to alkenes to give bromoalkanes, an important family of organobromine compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the challenges of using hydrogen as a fuel comes from being able to efficiently extract hydrogen from these compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen halides are diatomic inorganic compounds with the formula HX where X is one of the halogens: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term hydride is probably most often used to describe compounds of hydrogen with other elements in which the hydrogen is in the formal −1 oxidation state. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most such compounds the bonding between the hydrogen and its nearest neighbor is covalent. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are capable of constantly producing hydrogen from organic compounds throughout the day and night. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disodium hydrogen phosphate is the name for inorganic compounds with the formula Na2HPO3. (wikipedia.org)
  • This highlights the density problem for pure hydrogen: there is actually about 64% more hydrogen in a liter of gasoline (116 grams hydrogen) than there is in a liter of pure liquid hydrogen (71 grams hydrogen). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because pure hydrogen does not occur naturally on Earth in large quantities, it takes a substantial amount of energy in its industrial production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pure hydrogen is the smallest element and some of it will inevitably escape from any known container or pipe in micro amounts, yet simple ventilation could prevent such leakage from ever reaching the volatile 4% hydrogen-air mixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pure hydrogen, though, causes metal to become brittle, suggesting metal pipes may not be ideal for hydrogen transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydroiodic acid is not pure hydrogen iodide, but a mixture containing it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen ion clusters can be formed in liquid helium or with lesser cluster size in pure hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mass of this number-one element is not, however, 1: it is 1.008 amu, reflecting the small quantities of deuterium, or "heavy hydrogen," present in a typical sample. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Deuterium is stable and makes up 0.0115% of naturally occurring hydrogen and is used in industrial processes like nuclear reactors and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some observations consistent with metallic behavior had been reported earlier, such as the observation of new phases of solid hydrogen under static conditions and, in dense liquid deuterium, electrical insulator-to-conductor transitions associated with an increase in optical reflectivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Egor Babaev predicted that if hydrogen and deuterium have liquid metallic states, they might have quantum ordered states that cannot be classified as superconducting or superfluid in the usual sense. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first thermonuclear bomb, Ivy Mike, used liquid deuterium (Hydrogen-2), for nuclear fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when deuterium is used instead of hydrogen, the deuterium fluoride lases at the wavelength of about 3.8 µm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Undesired deuterium-hydrogen exchange is referred to as back-exchange and various methods have been devised to correct for this. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen and deuterium nuclei are grossly different in their magnetic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis via 13C NMR spectroscopy is also possible: the different spin values of hydrogen (1/2) and deuterium (1) gives rise to different splitting multiplicities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically HSQC spectra are recorded at a series of timepoints while the hydrogen is exchanging with the deuterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2H (or hydrogen-2) isotope is usually called deuterium, while the 3H (or hydrogen-3) isotope is usually called tritium. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2H (atomic mass 7000201410177811000♠2.01410177811(12) u), the other stable hydrogen isotope, is known as deuterium and contains one proton and one neutron in its nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deuterium comprises 0.0026 - 0.0184% (by population, not by mass) of hydrogen samples on Earth, with the lower number tending to be found in samples of hydrogen gas and the higher enrichment (0.015% or 150 ppm) typical of ocean water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Palladium is used in many of these, because it selectively absorbs hydrogen gas and forms the compound palladium hydride . (wikipedia.org)
  • A hydrogen chalcogenide and the simplest hydride of tellurium, it is a colorless gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen anions are formed when additional electrons are acquired: Hydride: general name referring to the negative ion of any hydrogen isotope (H−) Protide: 1H− Deuteride: 2H−, D − Tritide: 3H−, T − Hydrogen ions drive ATP synthase in photosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen telluride decomposes in moisture, in light, and in temperatures above 0 °C. Polonium hydride is unstable, and due to the intense radioactivity of polonium (resulting in self-radiolysis upon formation), only trace quantities may be obtained by treating dilute hydrochloric acid with polonium-plated magnesium foil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydride generation in analytical chemistry and nascent hydrogen: when is it going to be over? (wikipedia.org)
  • This hydrogen chalcogenide is the simplest and most commonly encountered hydride of selenium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydrogen anion is an important constituent of the atmosphere of stars, such as the Sun. In chemistry, this ion is called hydride. (wikipedia.org)
  • In chemistry, the hydride anion is hydrogen that has the formal oxidation state −1. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In the narrow range of mixtures of hydrogen and iron that make an iron hydride at atmospheric pressure, a small number of different metallurgical structures with different properties can form. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inclusion of hydrogen in gamma iron is called austenitic iron hydride. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can dissolve even more hydrogen, as much as 0.001% hydrogen at 1,538 °C (2,800 °F), which reflects the upper hydrogen content of iron hydride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a colorless or pale-blue liquid or gas with a bitter, almond-like odor. (cdc.gov)
  • A hydrogen odorant in any form, is a minute amount of odorant such as ethyl isobutyrate, with a rotting-cabbage-like smell, that is added to the otherwise colorless and almost odorless hydrogen gas, so that leaks can be detected before a fire or explosion occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a colorless compound and a hydrogen halide. (wikipedia.org)
  • of acetylene in air, 2.5% to 82%) Hydrogen is odorless, colorless and tasteless, so most human senses won't help to detect a leak. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be prepared directly by reaction of hydrogen and chlorine gases the reaction is very exothermic and takes place readily in sunlight or at elevated temperatures. (infoplease.com)
  • A gas at ordinary temperatures, hydrogen turns to a liquid at − 423.2 ° F ( − 252.9 ° C), and to a solid at − 434. (encyclopedia.com)
  • At high pressure and temperatures, metallic hydrogen might exist as a liquid rather than a solid, and researchers think it is present in large quantities in the hot and gravitationally compressed interiors of Jupiter, Saturn, and in some extrasolar planets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arguments have been advanced by Neil Ashcroft and others that there is a melting point maximum in compressed hydrogen, but also that there might be a range of densities, at pressures around 400 GPa (3,900,000 atm), where hydrogen would be a liquid metal, even at low temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • In March 1996, a group of scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory reported that they had serendipitously produced the first identifiably metallic hydrogen for about a microsecond at temperatures of thousands of kelvins, pressures of over 1000000 atm (100 GPa), and densities of approximately 0.6 g/cm3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The team did not expect to produce metallic hydrogen, as it was not using solid hydrogen, thought to be necessary, and was working at temperatures above those specified by metallization theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hydrogen valve is a special type of valve that is used for hydrogen at very low temperatures or high pressures in hydrogen storage or for example hydrogen vehicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, high temperatures around 120 °C (248 °F) - 200 °C (392 °F) are required to release their hydrogen content. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen bromide (along with hydrobromic acid) is produced by combining hydrogen and bromine at temperatures between 200-400 °C. The reaction is typically catalyzed by platinum or asbestos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid hydrogen poses additional challenges due to its increased density and the extremely low temperatures needed to keep it in liquid form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen bromide arises when hydrogen and bromine are combined at high temperatures in the presence of a platinum catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the solubility of hydrogen increases at higher temperatures, raising the temperature can increase the diffusion of hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon steels exposed to hydrogen at high temperatures experience hydrogen attack which leads to internal decarburization and weakening. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have surface temperatures from 14,000K to 220,000K. Of-WR(C) stars have strong carbon emission lines and also show hydrogen deficiency in the inner part of their nebulae. (wikipedia.org)
  • and iron-hydrogen phases that exist at extreme temperatures and pressures, such as might be found in the Earth's core. (wikipedia.org)
  • To stay a liquid, hydrogen must be super-cooled and maintained at cryogenic temperatures of, at warmest, −253 °C (−423.4 °F). When not using fuel, the Hydrogen 7's hydrogen tank starts to warm and the hydrogen starts to vaporize. (wikipedia.org)
  • MEMS hydrogen sensor - The combination of nanotechnology and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows the production of a hydrogen microsensor that functions properly at room temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Warm H I regions are cooled by excitation of the n = 2 level of hydrogen, which is at a much higher energy than the lowest level of C + and therefore requires a higher temperature for its excitation. (britannica.com)
  • Moscow disclosed that a special fuel tank installed in the aft part of the plane's cabin had been engineered to hold liquid hydrogen at a temperature below minus 423 degrees Fahrenheit. (nytimes.com)
  • Mr. Tupolev added that the same propulsion system could use liquefied natural gas instead of hydrogen and that liquid natural gas, which can be stored at room temperature, would be much easier to handle. (nytimes.com)
  • You also can check Lab on a Chip which accepted a paper named "Ceramic microreactors for on-site hydrogen production from high temperature steam reforming of propane. (zdnet.com)
  • Solid hydrogen is the solid state of the element hydrogen, achieved by decreasing the temperature below hydrogen's melting point of 14.01 K (−259.14 °C)(−434.45 °F). It was collected for the first time by James Dewar in 1899 and published with the title "Sur la solidification de l'hydrogène" (English: On the solidification of hydrogen) in the Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 7th series, vol. 18, Oct. 1899. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diatomic hydrogen is a gas that, at atmospheric pressure, liquefies and solidifies only at very low temperature (20 degrees and 14 degrees above absolute zero, respectively). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1968, Neil Ashcroft suggested that metallic hydrogen might be a superconductor, up to room temperature (290 K or 17 °C), far higher than any other known candidate material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even with thermally insulated containers it is difficult to keep such a low temperature, and the hydrogen will gradually leak away (typically at a rate of 1% per day). (wikipedia.org)
  • However liquid hydrogen requires cryogenic storage and boils around 20.268 K (−252.882 °C or −423.188 °F). Hence, its liquefaction imposes a large energy loss (as energy is needed to cool it down to that temperature). (wikipedia.org)
  • Slush hydrogen is a combination of liquid hydrogen and solid hydrogen at the triple point with a lower temperature and a higher density than liquid hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen fluoride boils near room temperature, much higher than other hydrogen halides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen bromide prepared by the above methods can be contaminated with Br2, which can be removed by passing the gas through a solution of phenol at room temperature in tetrachloromethane or other suitable solvent (producing 2,4,6-Tribromophenol and generating more HBr in the process) or through copper turnings or copper gauze at high temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the autoignition temperature of hydrogen is higher than those for most hydrocarbons, hydrogen's lower ignition energy makes the ignition of hydrogen-air mixtures more likely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, steam reforming, or combining high-temperature steam with natural gas, accounts for the majority of the hydrogen produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • When burning in air, the temperature is roughly 2000 °C. Historically, carbon has been the most practical carrier of energy, as more energy is packed in fossil fuels than pure liquid hydrogen of the same volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen tetroxide (H2O4) has been synthesized by reaction among peroxy radicals at low temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen pentoxide (H2O5) is a byproduct of trioxidane production and has also been synthesized by reaction among peroxy radicals at low temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen spillover increases with adsorption temperature and metal dispersion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In metals like iron, steel, aluminium, and magnesium, whose hydrogen solubilities increase with increasing temperature, liberation of excess hydrogen during cooling from the melt, (in ingots and castings) produces hydrogen gas porosity. (wikipedia.org)
  • early ultraviolet observations showed a temperature greater than 100,000K, but more recent measurements in far UV show an effective temperature of 50,400K. AM CVn stars are binary pairs of hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs with orbital sizes of only tens of Earth radii. (wikipedia.org)
  • The more open FCC structure of austenitic iron can dissolve somewhat more hydrogen, as much as 0.0009% hydrogen at 1,394 °C (2,541 °F). At this temperature iron transforms into another BCC structure called delta-iron or δ-iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an atmosphere of hydrogen at ambient temperature, α-Fe retains its structure up to 3.5 GPa (35,000 atmospheres), with only small amounts of hydrogen diffusing into it forming a solid interstitial solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potentials of any other electrodes are compared with that of the standard hydrogen electrode at the same temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water vapor partial pressure, current density, operating temperature and hydrogen back diffusion due to the pressure gradient have an effect on the maximum output pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • While best observable in the presence of superacids at room temperature, spectroscopic evidence has suggested that hydrogen-bridged cations exist in ordinary solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike other hydrohalic acids, such as hydrochloric acid, hydrogen fluoride is only a weak acid in dilute aqueous solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen iodide and hydroiodic acid are, however, different in that the former is a gas under standard conditions, whereas the other is an aqueous solution of said gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scattering of positrons by hydrogen-like-ions (He + , Li 2+ , Be 3+ and B 4+ ) has been studied using two variants of the polarized orbital method. (springer.com)
  • The hydrogen ion is recommended by IUPAC as a general term for all ions of hydrogen and its isotopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In connection with acids, "hydrogen ions" typically refers to hydrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • H3O+⋅F−] + HF ⇌ H3O+ + HF− 2 The increase in free H3O+ due to this reaction accounts for the rapid increase in acidity, while fluoride ions are stabilized (and become less basic) by strong hydrogen bonding to HF to form HF− 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of hydrogen-like ions are He+, Li2+, Be3+ and B4+. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because hydrogen-like ions are two-particle systems with an interaction depending only on the distance between the two particles, their (non-relativistic) Schrödinger equation can be solved in analytic form, as can the (relativistic) Dirac equation. (wikipedia.org)
  • That implies that the pressure of hydrogen gas is 1 bar (100 kPa) and the activity of hydrogen ions in the solution is unity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium (name rarely used, symbol 1 H), has one proton and no neutrons . (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common isotope of hydrogen is protium (name rarely used, symbol 1 H) with a single proton and no neutrons . (princeton.edu)
  • In the second talk I shall compare them to other capture experiments on the proton and present the informations that are provided by muon capture in hydrogen, especially for the PCAC hypothesis, the second class currents and the μ-e universality. (springer.com)
  • The hydrogen nucleus is made up of a particle carrying a unit positive electric charge , called a proton ( q.v. ). The isolated hydrogen ion , represented by the symbol H + , is therefore customarily used to represent a proton. (britannica.com)
  • A positively charged hydrogen ion (or proton) can readily combine with other particles and therefore is only seen isolated when it is in a gaseous state or a nearly particle-free space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen ATPase commonly refers to: Hydrogen potassium ATPase, the gastric proton pump. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gastric hydrogen potassium ATPase or H+/K+ ATPase is the proton pump of the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proton has never been observed to decay, and hydrogen-1 is therefore considered a stable isotope. (wikipedia.org)
  • A multi-stage electrochemical hydrogen compressor incorporates membrane-electrode-assemblies (MEAs) separated by proton exchange membranes (PEMs) in series to reach higher pressures, when a current is passed through the MEA protons and electrons are generated at the anode. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen is a significant source of energy which can be burned to produce power with no negative impact on the environment, unlike power produced by burning fossil fuels. (iso.org)
  • Demand for hydrogen, which has grown more than threefold since 1975, continues to rise - almost entirely supplied from fossil fuels, with 6% of global natural gas and 2% of global coal going to hydrogen production. (iea.org)
  • Hydrogen can be extracted from fossil fuels and biomass, from water, or from a mix of both. (iea.org)
  • Using hydrogen as a fuel means cars will emit water rather than exhaust fumes, making it a clean, widely available alternative to fossil fuels. (wired.com)
  • Among the many daunting challenges to replacing fossil fuels with hydrogen is how to make hydrogen cheaply in ways that don't pollute the environment. (technologyreview.com)
  • Fossil fuels are the dominant source of industrial hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, as long as the majority of hydrogen continues to be produced by burning fossil fuels and transported in trucks, pollution is emitted by the hydrogen manufacturing process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the way it is produced, and the relative inefficiencies of its production given current technology, hydrogen is a much more expensive fuel than fossil fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The space shuttle uses liquid hydrogen fuel because hydrogen gives out a lot of power for very little weight. (factmonster.com)
  • In this lecture I will mainly speak about the recent results 1 obtained by the Saclay-CERN-Bologna (SCB) collaboration on the muon capture rate at rest in liquid hydrogen. (springer.com)
  • As the liquid is warmed, it boils into hydrogen gas, which is ducted to the combustion chambers of a turbojet engine. (nytimes.com)
  • Though hydrogen is the very lightest gas known, and though, when uncombined, it has never been condensed to either the liquid or the solid state, some of its properties have led to the conjecture that it is probably a metal. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Compressed hydrogen Liquid hydrogen Metallic hydrogen Slush hydrogen Timeline of hydrogen technologies Correspondence and General A-I DEWAR/Box D I Dewar, James (1899). (wikipedia.org)
  • A hydrogen compressor is a device that increases the pressure of hydrogen by reducing its volume resulting in compressed hydrogen or liquid hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • As gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the volume of hydrogen gas, whereas the main result of a pump raising the pressure of a liquid is to allow the liquid hydrogen to be transported elsewhere. (wikipedia.org)
  • An ionic liquid piston compressor is a hydrogen compressor based on an ionic liquid piston instead of a metal piston as in a piston-metal diaphragm compressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This hydrogen chalcogenide is a pale yellow volatile liquid with a camphor-like odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state of the element hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • To exist as a liquid, H2 must be cooled below hydrogen's critical point of 33 K. However, for hydrogen to be in a fully liquid state without boiling at atmospheric pressure, it needs to be cooled to 20.28 K (−423.17 °F/−252.87 °C). One common method of obtaining liquid hydrogen involves a compressor resembling a jet engine in both appearance and principle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid hydrogen is typically used as a concentrated form of hydrogen storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • liquid hydrogen consists of 99.79% parahydrogen and 0.21% orthohydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first synthesis of the stable isomer form of liquid hydrogen, parahydrogen, was achieved by Paul Harteck and Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer in 1929. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid hydrogen is a common liquid rocket fuel for rocketry applications - both NASA and the United States Air Force operate a large number of liquid hydrogen tanks with an individual capacity up to 3.8 million liters (1 million U.S. gallons). (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid hydrogen can be used as the fuel for an internal combustion engine or fuel cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid hydrogen is also used to cool neutrons to be used in neutron scattering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, superheated liquid hydrogen was used in many bubble chamber experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid hydrogen also has a much higher specific energy than gasoline, natural gas, or diesel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The density of liquid hydrogen is only 70.99 g/L (at 20 K), a relative density of just 0.07. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid hydrogen requires cryogenic storage technology such as special thermally insulated containers and requires special handling common to all cryogenic fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid hydrogen or slush hydrogen may be used, as in the Space Shuttle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid hydrogen has less energy density by volume than hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline by approximately a factor of four. (wikipedia.org)
  • BMW has been working on liquid hydrogen tanks for cars, producing for example the BMW Hydrogen 7. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is formed by bringing liquid hydrogen down to nearly the melting point (14.01 K or −259.14 °C) that increases density by 16-20% as compared to liquid hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is proposed as a rocket fuel in place of liquid hydrogen in order to improve tankage and thus reduce the dry weight of the vehicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The continuous freeze technique used for slush hydrogen involves pulling a continuous vacuum over triple point liquid and using a solid hydrogen mechanical ice-breaker to disrupt the surface of the freezing hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Producing Liquid-Solid Mixtures of Hydrogen Using an Auger. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Energy Network research program of the Japanese New Sunshine Project was divided into 3 phases during the period 1993 to 2002, its goal was to study the distribution of liquid hydrogen with hydrogen tankers based on the LNG carrier technology of self-supporting tank designs such as the prismatic and spherical tank. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen safety covers the safe production, handling and use of hydrogen - particularly hydrogen gas fuel and liquid hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid hydrogen is sometimes used as an extremely condensed hydrogen fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Condensed and solidified atmospheric air, or trace air accumulated in manufacturing, contaminates liquid hydrogen, thereby forming an unstable mixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mixture may detonate with effects similar to those produced by trinitrotoluene (TNT) and other highly explosive materials" Liquid Hydrogen requires complex storage technology such as the special thermally insulated containers and requires special handling common to all cryogenic substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen fuel can provide motive power for liquid-propellant rockets, cars, boats and airplanes, portable fuel cell applications or stationary fuel cell applications, which can power an electric motor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen stations which are not situated near a hydrogen pipeline get supply via hydrogen tanks, compressed hydrogen tube trailers, liquid hydrogen trailers, liquid hydrogen tank trucks or dedicated onsite production. (wikipedia.org)
  • A liquid hydrogen tank-tainer also known as a liquid hydrogen tank container is a specialized type of container designed to carry cryogenic liquid hydrogen (LH2) on standard intermodal equipment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid hydrogen tanktainers are referenced by their size or volume capacity, generally an ISO 40 ft (12.19 m) container. (wikipedia.org)
  • particularly so when you also consider that producing liquid hydrogen requires vast amounts of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydrogen fuel is stored in a large, nearly 170 litre (45 gallon), bi-layered and highly insulated tank that stores the fuel as liquid rather than as compressed gas, which BMW says offers 75% more energy per volume as a liquid than compressed gas at 700 bars of pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • A different approach of the battery relies on laminar flow to separate the two materials instead of a membrane, reacting liquid bromine with hydrogen gas to generate electricity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike most aircraft, which use wings for storing fuel, hydrogen aircraft are usually designed with the liquid hydrogen fuel carried inside the fuselage, in order to minimize surface-area and reduce boil-off. (wikipedia.org)
  • The European Union's research project in cooperation with Airbus and 34 other partner companies dubbed CRYOPLANE assessed the technical feasibility, safety, environmental compatibility and economic viability of using liquid hydrogen as an aviation fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, as with some rockets, cryogenic liquid hydrogen could be employed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid hydrogen is one of the best coolants used in engineering, and it has been proposed to use this property for cooling intake air for very high speed aircraft, or even for cooling the vehicle's skin itself particularly for scramjet-powered aircraft. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Liquid hydrogen has about four times the volume for the same amount of energy of kerosene based jet-fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, most liquid hydrogen aircraft designs store the fuel in the fuselage, leading to a larger fuselage length and diameter than a conventional kerosene fuelled aircraft. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first experimental aircraft in the world operating on liquid hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • When hydrogen dissolved in liquid helium is irradiated with electrons their energy must be sufficient to ionize helium to produce significant hydrogen clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen gas was first artificially produced in the early 16th century by the reaction of acids on metals. (wikipedia.org)
  • He envisions a bladder system that would add or remove water from the reaction in order to start and stop the production of hydrogen. (prweb.com)
  • 10. The method of claim 9 wherein the reaction product is hydrogen gas. (google.com)
  • Microwave heating enables a Borrowing Hydrogen strategy to form C-N bonds from alcohols and amines, removes the need for solvent and reduces the reaction times, while the results are comparable with those using thermal heating. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the previous process, the formation of hydrogen from oil is done with a water-gas shift reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • such a test can be used in beginner chemistry to test for the gases produced by a reaction as hydrogen will burn with a pop. (wikipedia.org)
  • blue Hyfish Smartfish Tupolev Tu-155-hydrogen-powered version of Tu-154 Antares DLR-H2 -The first aircraft capable of performing a complete flight on fuel-cell power only Possible future aircraft using precooled jet engines include Reaction Engines Skylon and the Reaction Engines A2. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a hydrogen dehydrogenase (EC 1.12.1.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction H2 + NAD+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } H+ + NADH Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are H2 and NAD+, whereas its two products are H+ and NADH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, a hydrogen astatide sample can undergo the following reaction: 2 HAt → H+ + At− + H− + At+ → H2 + At2 This results in elemental hydrogen gas and astatine precipitate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, the hydrogen halides react with ammonia (and other bases), forming ammonium halides: HX + NH3 → NH4X In organic chemistry, the hydrohalogenation reaction is used to prepare halocarbons. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the course of a reaction, hydrogen bonding can be used to stabilize anionic intermediates and transition states. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in a typical acyl substitution reaction, the starting carbonyl compound is coordinated to the catalyst through one, two or possibly more hydrogen bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Important reactions that result in hydrogen production start with glucose, which is converted to acetic acid: C6H12O6 + 2 H2O → 2 CH3CO2H + 2 CO2 + 4 H2 A related reaction gives formate instead of carbon dioxide: C6H12O6 + 2 H2O → 2 CH3CO2H + 2 HCO2H + 2 H2 These reactions are exegonic by 216 and 209 kcal/mol, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen electrode is based on the redox half cell: 2 H+(aq) + 2 e− → H2(g) This redox reaction occurs at a platinized platinum electrode. (wikipedia.org)
  • This improves reaction kinetics and maximum possible current Use a surface material that adsorbs hydrogen well at its interface. (wikipedia.org)
  • This also improves reaction kinetics Other metals can be used for building electrodes with a similar function such as the palladium-hydrogen electrode. (wikipedia.org)
  • Care must be taken to keep the reaction conditions below 160 °C on order to prevent hydrogen from escaping. (wikipedia.org)
  • Explosion of a hydrogen-air mixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen fuel enhancement is the process of using a mixture of hydrogen and conventional hydrocarbon fuel in an internal combustion engine, typically in a car or truck, in an attempt to improve fuel economy, power output, emissions, or a combination thereof. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alloy tablets will contain the necessary pH-effecting chemicals so that when the mixture is added to water, hydrogen bubbles out at a particular rate. (prweb.com)
  • Hydrogen-air mixtures can ignite with very low energy input, 1/10 that required igniting a gasoline-air mixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Aspen product incorporated the work of Nick Hallale (formerly a lecturer at University of Manchester) and was the first method to consider multiple components, rather than a pseudo-binary mixture of hydrogen and methane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research towards low cost and reliable bulk stationary storage for high-pressure hydrogen is still evolving. (ornl.gov)
  • This invention presents a design for stationary storage of high-pressure hydrogen. (ornl.gov)
  • A hydrogen turboexpander-generator or generator loaded expander for hydrogen gas is an axial flow turbine or radial expander for energy recovery through which a high pressure hydrogen gas is expanded to produce work that is used to drive an electrical generator. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vehicle uses compressed hydrogen fuel storage and includes a turbocharger to increase performance. (wired.com)
  • Carbon dioxide can be separated from natural gas with a 60-70% efficiency for hydrogen production and from other hydrocarbons to varying degrees of efficiency.Specifically, bulk hydrogen is usually produced by the steam reforming of methane or natural gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steam-methane reforming, the current leading technology for producing hydrogen in large quantities, extracts the hydrogen from methane. (wikipedia.org)
  • This hydrogen is then taken up by methanogens and converted to methane via methanogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though the test is normally known as a "hydrogen breath test", some physicians may also test for methane in addition to hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to hydrogen and methane, some facilities also utilize carbon dioxide (CO2) in the patient's breath to determine if the breath samples that are being analyzed are contaminated (either with room air or bronchial dead space air). (wikipedia.org)
  • The basis of the test is a failure to absorb the given sugar, which is then metabolized by bacteria that give off either hydrogen or methane. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the patient produces both hydrogen and methane then the values are typically added together and the mean of the numbers is used to determine positive results, usually 15 ppm over the lowest preceding value. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive diagnosis for a lactulose SIBO breath test - typically positive if the patient produces approximately 20 ppm of hydrogen and/or methane within the first two hours (indicates bacteria in the small intestine), followed by a much larger peak (colonic response). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen-fuelled cars produce water instead of polluting exhaust gases. (factmonster.com)
  • He named the gas hydrogen, which is Greek for water-former. (factmonster.com)
  • Alternate Energy Corporation (AEC), ticker symbol ARGY, has secured a technology that generates hydrogen from water in the presence of a proprietary alloy that is made from abundant and inexpensive raw materials. (prweb.com)
  • Electrochemical hydrogen production via solar battery-based water splitting on the hand, requires the use of solar batteries with high energy requirements. (fao.org)
  • Green algae were known as light-dependent, water-splitting catalysts, but the characteristics of their hydrogen production were not practical for exploitation. (fao.org)
  • Its new research specialty is separating hydrogen from sources such as water and storing the element, normally a gas, onboard a vehicle in a safe, solid, lightweight form. (wired.com)
  • Today at the American Chemical Society meeting in Boston, researchers announced progress on one option: using electricity from solar panels or other sources to split water, producing hydrogen fuel that can be used to produce electricity anytime by means of a fuel cell or generator. (technologyreview.com)
  • GE says its new machine could make the hydrogen economy affordable, by slashing the cost of water-splitting technology. (technologyreview.com)
  • Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed in a fuel cell, produces only water. (energy.gov)
  • Solar thermochemical hydrogen production uses concentrated solar power to drive water splitting reactions often along with other species such as metal oxides. (energy.gov)
  • So water is Hydrogen Oxide? (yahoo.com)
  • H2O is water It could also be calssified as Hydrogen Oxide. (yahoo.com)
  • The simplest and best systematic name of water is hydrogen oxide. (yahoo.com)
  • It would actually be called Hydrogen Dioxide and yes it is water. (yahoo.com)
  • Piston-metal diaphragm compressors are stationary high-pressure compressors, four-staged water-cooled, 11-15 kW, 30-50 Nm3/h 40 MPa for dispensation of hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hydrogen clathrate is a clathrate containing hydrogen in a water lattice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The maximum ratio of hydrogen to water is 6 H2 to 17 H2O. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since hydrogen and water ice are common constituents of the universe, it is very likely that under the right circumstances natural hydrogen clathrates will be formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen disulfide can be synthesised by dissolving alkali or alkaline earth metal polysulfides in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has the highest (theoretical) boiling point of this series (X = O, N, S). Its melting point is also fairly high, being comparable to that of hydrazine and water, with only hydroxylamine crystallising significantly more readily, indicative of particularly strong hydrogen bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen bonding in water also results in large values of heat and entropy of vaporisation, surface tension, and viscosity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen fluoride is miscible with water (dissolves in any proportion), whereas the other hydrogen halides have large solubility gaps with water. (wikipedia.org)
  • European largest (Electrolysis of water, Capacity 1 400 000 kg/a high purity hydrogen) hydrogen production plant is operating at Kokkola, Finland. (wikipedia.org)
  • A solution of hydrogen cyanide in water, represented as HCN, is called hydrocyanic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intermolecular hydrogen bonding is responsible for the high boiling point of water (100 °C) compared to the other group 16 hydrides that have much weaker hydrogen bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen can also be produced from water through electrolysis, but this method is much more energy intensive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water (H2O) is the most common hydrogen polyoxide, occurring widely on Earth's surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen Challenger is a 66-metre (216' 6") refitted coastal tanker for mobile hydrogen production, it is fitted with a vertical axis wind turbine that generates electricity for the electrolysis of water to fill the hydrogen storage tanks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas hydroiodic acid solutions are stable, the hydronium-astatide solution is clearly less stable than the water-hydrogen-astatine system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen halides are gases that dissolve in water to give acids[citation needed] which are commonly known as hydrohalic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon dissolution in water, which is highly exothermic, the hydrogen halides give the corresponding acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 2014, Toyota and Honda have begun to introduce Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCV) that convert hydrogen into electricity while only emitting water vapor at the tailpipe. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dotted hydrogen bond is non-covalent and variable in length, ~1.5-2.5 Å. (proteopedia.org)
  • Such an interacting system is generally denoted Dn-H···Ac, where the solid line denotes a polar covalent bond, and the dotted or dashed line indicates the hydrogen bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • While hydrogen bonding has both covalent and electrostatic contributions, and the degrees to which they contribute are currently debated, the present evidence strongly implies that the primary contribution is covalent. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is polar covalent instead of Ionic because the differences in hydrogen and chlorines electronegativity is small enough that a complete ionic bond doesn't form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent work proves that the hydrogen bond (O:H-O) integrates both the intermolecular O:H lone pair ":" nonbond and the intramolecular H-O polar-covalent bond associated with O-O repulsive coupling. (wikipedia.org)
  • These covalent features are more substantial when acceptors bind hydrogens from more electronegative donors. (wikipedia.org)
  • This bond is a covalent bond meaning that carbon shares its outer valence electrons with up to four hydrogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous studies in which solid hydrogen was compressed inside diamond anvils to pressures of up to 2500000 atm (250 GPa), did not confirm detectable metallization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Psychotropic state induced by breathing hydrogen at high ambient pressures Hydrogen narcosis (also known as the hydrogen effect) is the psychotropic state induced by breathing hydrogen at high pressures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compressed hydrogen is a storage form where hydrogen gas is kept under pressures to increase the storage density. (wikipedia.org)
  • High pressures may be built up at such locations due to continued absorption of hydrogen leading to blister formation, growth and eventual bursting of the blister. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steel containment vessels exposed to extremely high hydrogen pressures develop small fissures or micro perforations through which fluids may leak. (wikipedia.org)
  • When in hydrogen mode, high-pressure injectors, designed by HOERBIGER ValveTec GmbH, directly inject hydrogen gas into the cylinder combustion chamber with pressures of up to 300 bar, (4500 psi). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2002, a continuous DSSP assignment was developed by introducing multiple hydrogen bond thresholds, where the new assignment was found to correlate with protein motion. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2007 - Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid 2009 - Mazda 5 Hydrogen RE Hybrid Mitsubishi: 2004 - Mitsubishi FCV Morgan: 2005 - Morgan LIFEcar-hybrid vehicle-concept car Nissan: 2002 - Nissan X-Trail FCHV-hybrid vehicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Japan Japan had a number of hydrogen filling stations under the JHFC project from 2002 to 2010 to test various technologies of hydrogen generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arvin Meritor, a Tier 1 supplier of automotive technology, at one time, was experimenting with a plasma reformer technology which would use hydrogen produced from the fuel to enhance engine combustion efficiency and reduce emissions of NOx. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen and energy have a long shared history - powering the first internal combustion engines over 200 years ago to becoming an integral part of the modern refining industry. (iea.org)
  • AEC has secured the rights to an internal combustion engine that is designed to run on hydrogen. (prweb.com)
  • In the same issue: Formula Zero � hydrogen-powered go-kart evangelism with fuel cells where internal combustion used to be. (wired.com)
  • In fact, hydrogen-powered vehicles are, on balance, even dirtier than conventional internal combustion engines. (cato.org)
  • When hydrogen burns in air, the combustion product consists entirely of steam. (nytimes.com)
  • The destruction of the Hindenburg airship was a notorious example of hydrogen combustion and the cause is still debated. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, because of the lower volumetric energy, the hydrogen volumes needed for combustion are large. (wikipedia.org)
  • This station will be used for the refueling of a hydrogen fuel cell driven passenger boat as well as for that of a hydrogen internal combustion bus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen leaks can support combustion at very low flow rates, as low as 4 micrograms/s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BMW Hydrogen 7 is a limited production hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicle built from 2005-2007 by German automobile manufacturer BMW. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, it has been modified to also allow for the combustion of hydrogen as well as gasoline, making it a bivalent engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike many other current hydrogen powered vehicles like those being produced by Honda, General Motors, and Daimler AG - which use fuel cell technology and hydrogen to produce electricity to power the vehicle - the BMW Hydrogen 7 burns the hydrogen in an internal combustion engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BMW Hydrogen 7 burns hydrogen in an internal combustion engine (ICE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen can either be burned in some kind of jet engine, or other kind of internal combustion engine, or can be used to power a fuel cell to generate electricity to power a propeller. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2010 Boeing also unveiled its hydrogen powered Phantom Eye UAV, that uses two Ford Motor Company internal combustion engines converted to operate on hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • These stations are used to refuel hydrogen vehicles such as fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen combustion vehicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, if there is any element similar to hydrogen in simplicity and abundance, it is the only other one on the first row, or period, of the periodic table: helium. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Yet whereas helium is a noble gas, and therefore chemically unreactive, hydrogen bonds with all sorts of other elements. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Physicists at Linköping University have shown that a dose of hydrogen or helium can render the "super material" graphene even more useful. (redorbit.com)
  • In the early universe this ability to emit infrared light allowed the primordial hydrogen and helium gas to cool down so as to form stars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen-deficient binaries, such as υ Sgr, have helium lines on a metallic spectrum and show large radial velocities that are thought to result from Population I stars orbiting the galactic center. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extreme helium stars have absent hydrogen emission or absorption lines, but have strong neutral helium lines and strong CII and NII lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then this class of stars has been shown to have a wide range of hydrogen-to-helium ratios. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers describe progress on technology for storing energy in the form of hydrogen fuel. (technologyreview.com)
  • The deuterated form of hydrogen disulfide DSSD, has a similar geometry to HSSH, but its tunneling time is slower, making it a convenient test case for the quantum Zeno effect, in which frequent observation of a quantum system suppresses its normal evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various submarines (Type 212 submarine, Type 214 submarine) and concept hydrogen vehicles have been built using this form of hydrogen (see DeepC, BMW H2R). (wikipedia.org)
  • As of December 2016[update], there are 31 publicly accessible hydrogen refueling stations in the US, 28 of which are located in California. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of December 2016[update], there are 28 publicly accessible hydrogen refueling stations in California. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of December 2016[update], there are 3 publicly accessible hydrogen refueling stations near the East Coast of the US. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to gain a commercial advantage, the Norwegian government scheduled money for a regular hydrogen car ferry in 2016, to be operational in 2021. (wikipedia.org)
  • By May 2016, there were approximately 80 hydrogen fueling stations in Japan. (wikipedia.org)
  • California Fuel Cell Partnership, September 30, 2013 Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State, Alternative Fuels Data Center, accessed September 13, 2017 "2016 Annual Evaluation of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment and Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development (16 MB)" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Six years ago I discussed the infrastructural changes that will be necessary to support a hydrogen vehicle economy, at the Fuel Cells Summit V meeting at the University of Maryland in the summer of 2001. (newscientist.com)
  • Hydrogen, including hydrogen fuel cells, presents an obvious solution to both economic and environmental challenges. (iso.org)
  • The research stems from efforts to find ways to cram more hydrogen into tighter spaces so that fuel cells can be small and strong enough to be practical for powering cars and trucks. (csmonitor.com)
  • The second is the recent revolution in bringing hydrogen-powered fuel cells-used for decades in space travel-down to earth, making Árnason's vision far more economically feasible than it was just ten years ago. (worldwatch.org)
  • Participants from all over the world attending, including representatives from Air Liquide (France), Bristol Energy (UK), CEA (France), Clean Horizon (France), De Montfort University (UK), Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (Belgium), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany), ICSI Rm. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Pragma Industries, which is based in Biarritz, France and makes fuel cells for military use, has sold some 60 hydrogen-powered bikes to French municipalities including Saint Lo, Cherbourg, Chambery and Bayonne. (voanews.com)
  • Buried in news about President Obama's budget was the news that George W. Bush's $1.2 billion plan for hydrogen fuel cells was killed Obama, saving taxpayers $100 million a year. (treehugger.com)
  • The Bush administration spent more than $500 million on research into producing and distributing hydrogen so it could be used in cars powered by fuel cells. (treehugger.com)
  • Not long ago we were reading a lot about hydrogen's role in a clean energy future, with cars transitioning from gasoline-powered engines to hydrogen-powered fuel cells. (emagazine.com)
  • It is true that just a few years ago everyone was talking hydrogen fuel cells as the future of petroleum-free automotive transport. (emagazine.com)
  • Likewise, the International Energy Agency (IEA) suggested, also in 2005, that some 30 percent of the global stock of vehicles-700 million cars and trucks-could be powered by hydrogen fuel cells by 2050. (emagazine.com)
  • According to Richard Gilbert, co-author of the book, Transport Revolutions: Moving People and Freight without Oil , another big issue for hydrogen-powered fuel cells is their energy inefficiency. (emagazine.com)
  • Another half of the resulting energy is taken up by the conversion of hydrogen back into electricity within fuel cells. (emagazine.com)
  • netinform: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells netinform: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells netinform: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells netinform: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells "Ford Motor Company Business Plan", December 2, 2008 netinform: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells netinform: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells netinform: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells First Drive: hydrogen-powered Kia Borrego FCEV and Nissan X-Trail FCV netinform: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Dennis, Lyle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vehicles use hydrogen as fuel in one of several ways, including fuel cells and mixed fuels like HCNG. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, all known odorants contaminate fuel cells (a popular application for hydrogen). (wikipedia.org)
  • The boats are refueled with exchangeable tanks at the hydrogen station at Hamburg Airport Boat 6.76 m long, 2.44 m wide, draft 0.54 m, 15 Nm3[clarification needed] hydrogen storage tank, with two 1.2 kW/24 V PEM fuel cells, a 24V/180Ah battery, two electric motors (672 W (0.901 hp), 24 V, 28 A each) for 8 passengers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Located in the city of Nakskov on the island of Lolland, where wind power is abundant, the hydrogen energy plant was received with funding from the Danish Energy Authority, which is a joint partnership between the Municipality of Lolland, IRD Fuel Cells, and Baltic Sea Solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of sensor has been under constant development because of the toxic and corrosive nature of hydrogen sulphide: a H2S sensor is used to detect hydrogen sulphide in the hydrogen feed stream of fuel cells to prevent catalyst poisoning and to measure the quality of guard beds used to remove sulphur from hydrocarbon fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wipperman, K. & Stolten, D. "Instabilities of the reversible hydrogen reference electrode in direct methanol fuel cells" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fuel density: 0.085 g/cm3 Melting point: −259 °C Boiling point: −253 °C Compressed hydrogen Hydrogen safety Metallic hydrogen Timeline of hydrogen technologies Liquefaction of gases Christopher P. McKeehan, Terry L. Hardy, Margaret V. Whalen, Maureen T. Kudlac, Matthew E. Moran, Thomas M. Tomsik and Mark S. Haberbusch (April 1995). (wikipedia.org)
  • Timeline of hydrogen technologies "Time and Frequency from A to Z: H". Physics Laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of its characteristics are similar to the standard hydrogen electrode (with platinum). (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the standard hydrogen electrode, its measured potential does not change with the pH, so it can be directly used in the electrolyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • E = E 0 + R T F ln ⁡ a H + ( p H 2 p 0 ) 1 / 2 {\displaystyle E=E^{0}+{RT \over F}\ln {a_{\mathrm {H} ^{+}} \over ({\frac {p_{\mathrm {H} 2}}{p^{0}}})^{1/2}}} When palladium is electrochemically charged by hydrogen, the existence of two phases is manifested by a constant potential of approximately +50 mV compared to the reversible hydrogen electrode. (wikipedia.org)
  • Table of standard electrode potentials Reversible hydrogen electrode Palladium-hydrogen electrode Reference electrode Dynamic hydrogen electrode Quinhydrone electrode IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). (wikipedia.org)
  • The reversible hydrogen electrode is a fairly practical and reproducible electrode "standard. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen is a concern in metallurgy as it can embrittle many metals, complicating the design of pipelines and storage tanks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen tanks for the Toyota Mirai . (wikipedia.org)
  • U.S Department of Energy maintains a hydrogen safety best practices site with a lot of information about tanks and piping. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compressed hydrogen in hydrogen tanks at 350 bar (5,000 psi) and 700 bar (10,000 psi) is used for mobile hydrogen storage in hydrogen vehicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increasing gas pressure would improve the energy density by volume, making for smaller, but not lighter container tanks (see hydrogen tank). (wikipedia.org)
  • Compressed hydrogen in hydrogen tanks at 350 bar (5,000 psi) and 700 bar (10,000 psi) is used for hydrogen tank systems in vehicles, based on type IV carbon-composite technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydrogen is stored in low-pressure storage tanks at six bars and fuels two PEM Fuel Cell Micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP) stations of 2 kilowatts (kW) and 6.5 kW, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Boat 7 m long, width 2.35 m, draft 0.50 m, 4 exchangeable 200 bar (20 MPa), 30 liter hydrogen tanks, with a 1.2 kW PEM fuel cell and a 12 kW·h battery for 12 passengers. (wikipedia.org)
  • These aircraft are of course configured in such fashion that the current low energy output from hydrogen propulsion (a result of the low-pressure hydrogen tanks) do not pose a problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen fuel enhancement from electrolysis (utilizing automotive alternators) has been promoted for use with gasoline-powered and diesel trucks, although electrolysis-based designs have repeatedly failed efficiency tests and contradict widely accepted laws of thermodynamics (i.e. conservation of energy). (wikipedia.org)
  • Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (vol 16, pp. 115-117, 1991). (wikipedia.org)
  • The only element whose isotopes have names, hydrogen has long been considered as a potential source of power and transportation: once upon a time for airships, later as a component in nuclear reactions - and, perhaps in the future, as a source of abundant clean energy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Experts heralded the importance of this discovery, saying it could make hydrogen a more practical source of energy. (iso.org)
  • The speed of hydrogen age - to use hydrogen scientist and engineer David Sanborn Scott's term - will depend largely on energy and environment policies at the local, regional and international levels. (iso.org)
  • The recent resurgence of natural gas as the bridging technology (to hydrogen) for energy needs indicates that positive changes are on the horizon. (iso.org)
  • But for hydrogen to make a significant contribution to clean energy transitions, it needs to be adopted in sectors where it is almost completely absent, such as transport, buildings and power generation. (iea.org)
  • Over the past few years, global spending on hydrogen energy research, development and demonstration by national governments has risen, although it remains lower than the peak in 2008. (iea.org)
  • Alternate Energy Corporation has derived a means of generating hydrogen through a proprietary metallurgic alloy composed of readily available elements. (prweb.com)
  • Biological hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms for example, requires the use of a simple solar reactor such as a transparent closed box, with low energy requirements. (fao.org)
  • The oil crisis in 1973 prompted research on biological hydrogen production, including photosynthetic production, as part of the search for alternative energy technologies. (fao.org)
  • My quest has brought me to the cluttered office of Bragi Árnason, a chemistry professor at the University of Iceland whose 30-year-old plan to run his country on hydrogen energy has recently become an official objective of his government, to be achieved over the next 30 years. (worldwatch.org)
  • The subject is increasingly important with regard to recent requirements for hydrogen energy equipment. (springer.com)
  • Most workshop participants were members of the International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement (IEA HIA) Task 38, which examines hydrogen as a key energy carrier for clean energy systems and currently comprises over 50 experts from 15 countries, coordinated by the French CEA/I-tésé and supported by the French ADEME. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Valcea (Romania), Institute for Public Policy Research (UK), ITM Power (UK), National Hydrogen Center (Spain), PersEE (France), Process System Enterprise Ltd. (UK), Institute of Applied Energy (Japan), University of Bath (UK), Université de Lorraine (France), University of Manchester (UK) and WaterstofNet (Belgium). (bath.ac.uk)
  • However, there are many challenges that need to be addressed and this workshop took a big step towards determining the true role for hydrogen in the future energy systems. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The importance of hydrogen as a future sustainable energy carrier cannot be underestimated, and it was fascinating to welcome experts from around the world to debate and consider the options. (bath.ac.uk)
  • NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell research bridges technologies via work with NREL's Transportation , Bioenergy , Chemistry and Nanoscience , Energy Analysis , and Energy Systems Integration Facility research areas and supports the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office . (nrel.gov)
  • UT-Battelle, LLC, acting under its Prime Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the management and operation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is seeking a commercialization partner for a hydrogen storage container technology. (ornl.gov)
  • Neutral hydrogen clouds are easily detectable at radio wavelengths because they emit a characteristic energy at a wavelength of 21 cm . (britannica.com)
  • Recent progress demonstrates the potential of hydrogen as a vector for decarbonization in different sectors of the energy system, but continued support is required to avoid losing momentum in delivering solutions to climate and energy goals. (nature.com)
  • Paul Bakke, an electrical engineer and program manager at the U.S. Department of Energy in Golden, CO, says a cheap electrolyzer could be a key component of the future hydrogen economy. (technologyreview.com)
  • SAN RAMON, Calif.--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) today announced it has joined the Hydrogen Council, a global advisory body providing a long-term vision for the role of hydrogen in the energy transition. (businesswire.com)
  • From 2005 to 2010, Chevron operated five hydrogen filling stations at fleet operator sites using multiple technologies for on-site generation, storage and dispensing as part of a U.S. Department of Energy hydrogen demonstration project that included AC Transit in Northern California. (businesswire.com)
  • Our support for the Hydrogen Council reflects our view that hydrogen can play a role in a lower carbon future as a transportation fuel, an industrial feedstock and an energy storage medium. (businesswire.com)
  • Hydrogen Council membership supports Chevron's approach to the energy transition and is an example of the company's ongoing commitment to innovate and to pursue ever-cleaner energy sources. (businesswire.com)
  • The company also recently contributed to a report developed by the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association entitled Road Map to a US Hydrogen Economy . (businesswire.com)
  • One kilo of hydrogen holds about 600 times more energy than a one-kilo lithium battery. (voanews.com)
  • Hydrogen has the potential to play an important role as a sustainable and environmentally acceptable source of energy in the 21st century. (iaea.org)
  • Hydrogen is an energy carrier that can be used to store, move, and deliver energy produced from other sources. (energy.gov)
  • Why?The money was stripped because the president and Steven Chu, his energy secretary, said hydrogen fueled cars are still decades away and that they'd rather concentrate on more immediate energy-saving solutions. (treehugger.com)
  • The topic of hydrogen in an on metals and alloys is important in a number ofdisciplines including solid-state physics, materials science, physical chemistry, and energy technology. (springer.com)
  • PALCA: So what's the advantage, do you think, of using a hydrogen-powered, full-cell-driven, fuel-cell energy care over, say, you know, one that you just plug in? (npr.org)
  • Since neutrons and hydrogen nuclei have similar masses, kinetic energy exchange per interaction is maximum (elastic collision). (wikipedia.org)
  • Underground hydrogen storage is useful to provide grid energy storage for intermittent energy sources, like wind power, as well as providing fuel for transportation, particularly for ships and airplanes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most research into hydrogen storage is focused on storing hydrogen as a lightweight, compact energy carrier for mobile applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large hydrogen tank will be heavier than the small hydrocarbon tank used to store the same amount of energy, all other factors remaining equal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compressed hydrogen costs 2.1% of the energy content to power the compressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen is a chemical widely used in various applications including ammonia production, oil refining and energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen is not a primary energy source, because it is not naturally occurring as a fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Uno-X in partnership with NEL ASA plans to build 20 stations before 2020, including a station with on-site hydrogen production from excess solar energy, the first of its kind. (wikipedia.org)
  • Turkey UNIDO launched in May 2010 on behalf of the International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies, a call for tender related to the supply and installation by the end of 2011 of a hydrogen production, storage and filling facility on the Golden Horn, in Istanbul. (wikipedia.org)
  • The storage and use of hydrogen poses unique challenges due to its ease of leaking as a gaseous fuel, low-energy ignition, wide range of combustible fuel-air mixtures, buoyancy, and its ability to embrittle metals that must be accounted for to ensure safe operation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The energy released enables hydrogen to act as a fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since there is very little free hydrogen gas, hydrogen is in practice only an energy carrier, like electricity, not an energy resource. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen gas must be produced, and that production always requires more energy than can be retrieved from the gas as a fuel later on. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once extracted, hydrogen is an energy carrier (i.e. a store for energy first generated by other means). (wikipedia.org)
  • In kaonic hydrogen this strong contribution was found to be repulsive, shifting the ground state energy by 283 ± 36 (statistical) ± 6 (systematic) eV, thus making the system unstable with a resonance width of 541 ± 89 (stat) ± 22 (syst) eV (decay into Λπ and Σπ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Materials susceptible to this process exhibit a marked decrease in their energy absorption ability before fracture in the presence of hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The storage of large quantities of hydrogen underground in solution-mined salt domes, aquifers or excavated rock caverns or mines can function as grid energy storage which is essential for the hydrogen economy. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen storage cavern system Underground hydrogen storage problems in Russia Energy storage 2012 1994 - ECN abstract 2006-Underground hydrogen storage in geological formations Brookhaven National Lab -Final report Large-scale hydrogen underground storage for securing fu-ture energy supplies LINDBLOM U. E. (wikipedia.org)
  • Denmark's first full-scale wind-Hydrogen energy plant and testing facility, the Lolland Hydrogen Community, began operation in May 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon-hydrogen bonds have a bond length of about 1.09 Å (1.09 × 10−10 m) and a bond energy of about 413 kJ/mol (see table below). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen Energy California (HECA) was an alternative energy, hydrogen power project in development with support from the U.S. Department of Energy in Kern County, California. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen Energy California information Hydrogen Energy California website HECA Project Facts HECA Project Description Fleming, Robin (Sep 15, 2010). (wikipedia.org)
  • International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • An HFCV is a vehicle that uses a fuel cell to convert hydrogen energy into electrical energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the hydrogen strikes a relatively cold surface (i.e. the weld zone), it recombines into its diatomic form, releasing the energy associated with the formation of that bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • Figure 1 - Potential Energy Surface (PES) of (a) classical and (b) non-classical view of a hydrogen-bridged cation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Being an alternative to traditional jet fuel, hydrogen has a higher energy density per unit mass but a lower energy density per unit volume, and containing the hydrogen at high pressure would require a heavy container. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, hydrogen is about one-third of the weight of kerosene jet-fuel for the same amount of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydrogen turboexpander-generators are used for hydrogen pipeline transport in combination with hydrogen compressors and for the recovery of energy in underground hydrogen storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hydrogen bond results when this strong positive charge density attracts a lone pair of electrons on another heteroatom, which then becomes the hydrogen-bond acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protons are electrochemically driven across the membrane to the cathode, after which they combine with the rerouted electrons to form hydrogen, which is fed to the hydrogen compressor to be oxidized at the anode of each cell to form protons and electrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a consequence, production of hydrogen is responsible for CO 2 emissions of around 830 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year, equivalent to the CO 2 emissions of the United Kingdom and Indonesia combined. (iea.org)
  • Pressure swing adsorption is used for the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the final step in the large-scale commercial synthesis of hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogenosomes are anaerobic mitochondria that produce ATP by, as a rule, converting pyruvate into hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Rectisol acid gas removal system will separate and capture more than ninety percent of the carbon dioxide (CO2) produced during the hydrogen manufacturing process. (wikipedia.org)
  • That cranks on a hydrogen fuel cell stack that instantly produces enough electricity to power six houses-or to propel the Equinox like a rocket. (popsci.com)
  • Hydrogen conducts not only caloric but also electricity better than all other gaseous substances. (scientificamerican.com)
  • A Tuckerboot on hydrogen is an 8-person ship, power-assisted by an electric motor that gets its electricity from a fuel cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hydrogen ship is a hydrogen fueled ship, power-assisted by an electric motor that gets its electricity from a fuel cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A big issue to be dealt with would be the storage of hydrogen on ships, given that there would be no opportunity to refill them when out at sea, although one can use wind power and solar panels to generate electricity from the ocean while they are far from the shores and produce onboard hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facility proposed to convert coal and refinery waste into an impure hydrogen fuel that would be used to generate electricity and fertilizer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Xperiance NX hydrogen is a 12-person hydrogen ship, power-assisted by an electric motor that gets its electricity from a fuel cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is limited in use due to its ready decomposition into elemental hydrogen and astatine, as well as the short half-life of the various isotopes of astatine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the hydrogen should be so tightly locked inside the spheres that there would be no risk of explosion or fire if a leak occurs. (newscientist.com)
  • The seven-person crew of the space shuttle Endeavour never even suited up before NASA scrubbed a June 13 launch to the International Space Station due to a potentially dangerous hydrogen gas leak. (eweek.com)
  • A hydrogen gas leak also delayed the March launch of Discovery by four days. (eweek.com)
  • However, given hydrogen's tendency to rise quickly, a hydrogen leak indoors would briefly collect on the ceiling and eventually move towards the corners and away from where any nose might detect it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen is used at Chevron refineries to refine crude and in other chemical processes. (businesswire.com)
  • Yet, there are technical challenges in nuclear hydrogen processes, which need to be addressed through a comprehensive research and development effort. (iaea.org)
  • Hydrogen cyanide is currently produced in great quantities by several processes, as well as being a recovered waste product from the manufacture of acrylonitrile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen damage is the generic name given to a large number of metal degradation processes due to interaction with hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • HPA is a systematic technique for reducing hydrogen consumption and hydrogen generation through integration of hydrogen-using activities or processes in the petrochemical industry, petroleum refineries hydrogen distribution networks and hydrogen purification. (wikipedia.org)
  • New Applications of the Borrowing Hydrogen Methodology - Selective Synthesis of Amines and Mechanistic Studies (PDF) (Dr. rer. (wikipedia.org)
  • doi: 10.1002/adsc.200600638 A. J. A. Watson, A. C. Maxwell, J. M. J. Williams, Borrowing Hydrogen Methodology for Amine Synthesis under Solvent-Free Microwave Conditions Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2011, 76, 2328-2331. (wikipedia.org)
  • New reactions catalyzed by hydrogen-bond donors are being discovered at an increasing pace, including asymmetric variants of common organic reactions useful for synthesis, such as aldol additions, Diels-Alder cycloadditions and Mannich reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • With more detailed studies of structure and mechanism in the future, hydrogen-bond catalysis has great potential for enabling new, efficient, selective reactions and promising applications in asymmetric synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This particular fullerene was synthesised in an unusual way in three steps starting from pristine C60 fullerene: cracking open the carbon framework, insert hydrogen gas and zipping up by organic synthesis methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is reported in literature that during the synthesis of a Coelenterazine derivative, a non-radical hydrogen abstraction was observed on a substituted aminoimidazole in a typical Sandmayer hyroxilation condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is interesting that you report on the risk of hydrogen-fuelled vehicles colliding in tunnels (10 November 2007, p 29) . (newscientist.com)
  • Quantum Fuel Systems is partnering in developing the hydrogen vehicle so that it is cheaper than fuel cell vehicles. (wired.com)
  • Hydrogen-run vehicles have been tested, but public availability is probably at least a decade away, said Todd Wright, director of the Savannah River National Laboratory. (wired.com)
  • Nearly every automaker is testing hydrogen-powered vehicles, which have received support from a five-year, $1.2 billion initiative announced by President Bush in 2003. (wired.com)
  • I knew that GM had built real, road-ready hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. (popsci.com)
  • That could make it economically practical for future fuel-cell vehicles that run on hydrogen. (technologyreview.com)
  • Supporting the development of an economically viable hydrogen fueling network is critical to the market penetration of fuel-cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) throughout Connecticut and the Northeast. (ct.gov)
  • H2USA is a public-private partnership to promote the commercial introduction and widespread adoption of hydrogen fueled fuel cell electric vehicles across America. (ct.gov)
  • But first, last week, Daimler, Ford and Nissan announced an alliance to work together on hydrogen fuel-cell technology for their passenger vehicles. (npr.org)
  • These vehicles can be filled in three to five minutes, and right now there are hydrogen stations available 24/7 and have very traditional retail-style filling capabilities. (npr.org)
  • The stations are usually intended to power hydrogen vehicles, but can also be used to power small devices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen codes and standards are codes and standards (RCS) for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, stationary fuel cell applications and portable fuel cell applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two hydrogen vehicles, the Hyundai ix35 FCEV and Toyota Mirai, have been announced for public distribution in 2015, but only a few dozen are expected to be sold or leased in Europe in 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • Japan's hydrogen highway is a network of hydrogen filling stations placed along roadsides that provide fuel for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV). (wikipedia.org)
  • This network's purpose would be to make the purchase of hydrogen powered vehicles more appealing to the public. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coalition of 13 Japanese Companies Come Together for Hydrogen Vehicles Future Cars, 31 January 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the anaerobic bacteria digest sugars and carbohydrates, they convert some of the sugars and carbohydrates into gases, most commonly hydrogen. (medicinenet.com)
  • Depending on the quality of the feedstock (natural gas, rich gases, naphtha, etc.), one ton of hydrogen produced will also produce 9 to 12 tons of CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other hydrogen chalcogenides are highly toxic, malodorous gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Higher isotopes of hydrogen are only created in artificial accelerators and reactors and have half lives around the order of 10−22 seconds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formulas below are valid for all three isotopes of hydrogen, but slightly different values of the Rydberg constant (correction formula given below) must be used for each hydrogen isotope. (wikipedia.org)