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  • fiber
  • These foods have a low energy density, which is mainly due to the high water content and partly due to the fiber content. (wikipedia.org)
  • The macronutrients (excluding fiber and water) provide structural material (amino acids from which proteins are built, and lipids from which cell membranes and some signaling molecules are built), and energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • kcal
  • Carbohydrates and proteins provide 17 kJ approximately (4 kcal) of energy per gram, while fats provide 37 kJ (9 kcal) per gram, though the net energy from either depends on such factors as absorption and digestive effort, which vary substantially from instance to instance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the work of Atwater, it became common practice to calculate energy content of foods using 4 kcal/g for carbohydrates and proteins and 9 kcal/g for lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • density
  • The reduction of energy density has been shown to enhance satiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, snacking on two scoops (1 c.) of chocolate ice cream contains 287 calories per 132 grams making the energy density 2.17. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an alternative, one could have a snack containing celery (2 stalks), peanut butter (1 Tbsp), milk (1 c.), and an apple, which would contain similar calorie content (281 calories), but weigh 478 grams making the energy density .59. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium intake
  • Studies have shown that saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats all have a higher excretion rate with a high calcium intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these studies, a high calcium intake is considered 2300 mg and a low calcium intake is considered 700 mg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies specifically show that dairy sources of calcium demonstrate greater weight loss than supplemental calcium intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through self-experimentation, he set out to solve this problem by varying aspects of his lifestyle, like exercise and calcium intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • calories
  • Some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in Joules or kilocalories (often called "Calories" and written with a capital 'C' to distinguish them from little 'c' calories). (wikipedia.org)
  • vagus nerve
  • The vagus nerve is thought to be one key mediator of these effects, as lesions lead to chronic elevations in insulin secretion, promoting energy storage in adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • equation
  • Energy balance, the relationship between energy consumed and energy expended, is a simple equation on paper but is a complicated concept in practice that ultimately determines whether an individual's weight increases, decreases, or stays the same [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • stimulate
  • CCK is key in suppressing hunger because of its role in inhibiting neuropeptide Y. Glucagon and epinephrine levels rise during fasting and stimulate hunger. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • The literature search yielded relatively few research studies that focused on the specific objective of this scientific statement, the potential role of NNS in facilitating reduction of added sugars intake in humans. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • lower
  • Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. (hindawi.com)
  • A study published in PLoS One that shows that having a lower percentage of protein in the diet can lead to more snacking behaviour and more perceived hunger. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Levels of hunger are increased by lower blood sugar levels, and are higher in diabetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • nutrients
  • Artificially sweetened beverages, such as diet soda, are commonly considered "benign" because they contribute no energy and few nutrients to the diet. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) establishes the amount of nutrients required daily to avoid deficiencies and allow the body to function properly. (wikipedia.org)
  • healthy
  • Influences of protein to energy ratios in breakfast on mood, alertness and attention in the healthy undergraduate students. (citymarket.coop)
  • Hunger contractions are most intense in young, healthy people who have high degrees of gastrointestinal tonus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (Pub.L. 111-296) is a federal statute signed into law by President Barack Obama on December 13, 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act allows USDA, for the first time in 30 years, opportunity to make real reforms to the school lunch and breakfast programs by improving the critical nutrition and hunger safety net for millions of children. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the U.S. House of Representatives The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act passed with 247 Democrats and 17 Republicans voting for, and 4 Democrats and 153 Republicans voting against it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act took effect in 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Healthy, Hunger Free Kids Act allows the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to make significant changes to the school lunch program for the first time in over 30 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • this entails limiting intake of fat, sugar, and salt without total self-restraint Variety in a diet promotes adequacy and helps eating become a more pleasurable experience A healthy snack leaves a feeling of both satiation and satiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • In addition, the drug reduces body weight and body fat mass through mechanisms involving reduced hunger and lowered energy intake. (pmlive.com)
  • This occurs because a high amount of dietary calcium increases the amount of energy and fat excreted from the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water, minerals, vitamins, and cholesterol are not broken down (they are used by the body in the form in which they are absorbed) and so cannot be used for energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, the body expends more energy than it takes in. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals experiencing starvation lose substantial fat (adipose tissue) and muscle mass as the body breaks down these tissues for energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • While some researches suggest that this acute energy shortage may help produce a negative energy balance conducive for weight loss [ 8 ], others suggest that individuals compensate for energy expended by eating more later in the day, thus negating any potential benefits for weight loss [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • typically
  • The sensation of hunger typically manifests after only a few hours without eating and is generally considered to be unpleasant. (wikipedia.org)
  • higher
  • Similarly, if hungry animals have a higher chance of dying from starvation than from predation, it is more beneficial to sacrifice vigilance to fulfill their energy requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • A possible explanation to this phenomenon is that high intakes of calcium cause calcium soap formation and/ or binding of bile acids in the intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are inter-related issues causing hunger, which are related to economics and other factors that cause poverty. (wikipedia.org)