Loading...
  • regenerative
  • spinal cord injuries , age related macular degeneration , diabetes , neurodegenerative disorders (such as Parkinson's disease ), AIDS , etc. In addition to their potential in regenerative medicine, embryonic stem cells provide an alternative source of tissue/organs which serves as a possible solution to the donor shortage dilemma. (wikiyy.com)
  • In making this point, GPI fully recognizes the gravity of the ethical responsibilities entailed by hESC and human induced pluripotent stem cell ( iPSC ) research and regenerative medicine and the need for the stem cell research guidelines as adopted by NIH to fully respect and reflect these responsibilities. (nih.gov)
  • Application of this framework demonstrates that in certain instances these other sources may offer means of compliance with ethical responsibilities that extend beyond the Draft Guidelines.1 We believe a safe harbor approach also promotes the collaborative, cross-jurisdictional studies required for global progress in stem cell science and regenerative medicine. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we provide an overview of the most important ethical issues in stem cell therapy, as a contribution to the controversial debate about their clinical usage in regenerative and transplantation medicine. (medsci.org)
  • The purpose of regenerative medicine, especially tissue engineering, is to replace damaged tissue with new tissue that will allow the body to resume normal function. (asu.edu)
  • destruction
  • National governments make rules that govern the creation, destruction, and use of embryos in the laboratory-but they do so in profoundly different ways. (scribd.com)
  • The President's decision will permit federal funding of research using the more than 60 existing stem cell lines that have already been derived, but will not sanction or encourage the destruction of additional human embryos. (archives.gov)
  • Isolating the embryoblast , or inner cell mass (ICM) results in destruction of the blastocyst, a process which raises ethical issues , including whether or not embryos at the pre-implantation stage should have the same moral considerations as embryos in the post-implantation stage of development. (wikiyy.com)
  • However, more to the point, why pursue this uncertain path that requires destruction and exploitation of human embryos, when adult stem cells can be used instead? (lifeethics.org)
  • It is safe to say that, despite a host of other concerns about where science was leading us in the future, the ethical discourse over stem cell research for the past decade has been characterized predominantly by the debate over embryo destruction. (jci.org)
  • germ
  • Scope: This document describes when research activities involving human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), human embryonic germ cells derived from fetal tissue , or hESC- or germ cell-derived test articles are considered human subjects research and what regulatory controls apply to that research. (lifeissues.net)
  • The hallmark of vertebrate gastrulation is the reorganization of the inner cell mass (ICM) into the three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. (asu.edu)
  • donor
  • Importantly, these cells are genetically identical to the donor. (jove.com)
  • Oocytes are manually defolliculated from donor ovary tissue, injected or treated in culture as desired, and then stimulated with progesterone to induce maturation. (jove.com)
  • The manipulator is used to remove the nucleus from an egg which is then fused with a cell from a donor animal. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The half egg lacking a nucleus is fused with a donor somatic cell and the fused egg half is fused again with a second enucleate half egg before it is activated (with a mild electric shock) to produce an embryo that is then implanted in a surrogate mother . (i-sis.org.uk)
  • oocytes
  • The availability of various GFP-tagged proteins means that many cellular processes can be monitored in living cells over the course of minutes or hours, and using this technique, processes such as RNP transport, epithelial morphogenesis, and tissue remodeling have been described in great detail in Drosophila oocytes 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • Once meiosis resumes, oocytes complete MI and undergo an asymmetric cell division, arresting again at metaphase of MII. (jove.com)
  • fetal
  • Only one group has ever succeeded, and their lines were generated using fetal and infant cells. (bioethics.net)
  • 10. Strengthen and Harmonize Fetal Tissue Research Restrictions. (blogspot.com)
  • Transfer of Fetal Cells with Multilineage Potential to Maternal Tissue' (2004), by Kiarash Khosrotehrani et al. (asu.edu)
  • Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts, investigated the fetal cells that remained in the maternal blood stream after pregnancy. (asu.edu)
  • The results were published in Transfer of Fetal Cells with Multilineage Potential to Maternal Tissue. (asu.edu)
  • In 2007, Dennis Lo and his colleagues used digital polymerase chain reaction or PCR to detect trisomy 21 in maternal blood, validating the method as a means to detect fetal chromosomal aneuploidies, or an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell. (asu.edu)
  • hESC
  • GPI congratulates NIH on its tireless efforts over the past 35 years to achieve a position of global leadership in the field of human embryology through both extramurally funded and intramurally conducted human embryonic stem cell ( hESC ) and related medical research. (nih.gov)
  • Research
  • The team, at Massachusetts-based Advanced Cell Technology and the Institute for Stem Cell Research in Los Angeles, say they used the cloning methods to create the stem cells to match a 35-year-old man and a 75-year-old man. (bioethics.net)
  • In Embryo Politics , Thomas Banchoff provides a comprehensive overview of political struggles aboutembryo research during four decades in four countries-the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France. (scribd.com)
  • Over time, he argues, partisan debate and religious-secular polarization have come to overshadow ethical reflection and political deliberation on the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research. (scribd.com)
  • Embryo research is one of the few political issues with no historical precedent. (scribd.com)
  • I believe that the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research to reduce human suffering are critical and complex ethical issues. (scribd.com)
  • Although there is great interest in the potential for using stem cells as cell replacements and other treatments for diseases that currently have no cure, research on the biology of human embryonic stem cells is still in its infancy. (springer.com)
  • Federal funding of research using existing embryonic stem cell lines is consistent with the President's belief in the fundamental value and sanctity of human life. (archives.gov)
  • The President's decision reflects his fundamental commitment to preserving the value and sanctity of human life and his desire to promote vital medical research. (archives.gov)
  • In order to ensure that federal funds are used to support only stem cell research that is scientifically sound, legal, and ethical, the NIH will examine the derivation of all existing stem cell lines and create a registry of those lines that satisfy this criteria. (archives.gov)
  • More than 60 existing stem cell lines from genetically diverse populations around the world are expected to be available for federally-funded research. (archives.gov)
  • The potential of embryonic stem cell research. (archives.gov)
  • To create embryonic stem cells for research, a "stem cell line" must be created from the inner cell mass of a week-old embryo. (archives.gov)
  • With a touchy issue like embryonic stem cell research, our passions sometimes obscure reality. (blogspot.com)
  • Right now, though, let me say this: I believe today -- as I believed and stated in 2001, prior to the establishment of current policy -- that the federal government should fund embryonic stem cell research. (blogspot.com)
  • After all, principles are meant to stand the test of time -- even when applied to a field changing as rapidly as stem cell research. (blogspot.com)
  • Q: What is the effect of Frist's announcement of his support for the federal funding of embryonic stem cell research? (blogspot.com)
  • A: Conservatives who have been fighting federal funding of embryonic stem cell research concede Frist's announcement was a major blow to their cause. (blogspot.com)
  • As a consequence, several countries have prohibited human cloning but are racing forward with stem cell research. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Two years ago, the Australian government decided to allow human embryos existing in fertility clinics to be used in stem cell research. (washingtontimes.com)
  • U.S. studies have gone at a slower pace, a consequence of President Bush's decision to limit federal funding of stem-cell research to a small number of lines. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Those issues are examined in some detail in the recently issued report of the President's Council on Bioethics, "Monitoring Stem Cell Research," available at www.bioethics.gov. (washingtontimes.com)
  • In 1913 Franklin P. Mall, Professor of Anatomy at Johns Hopkins Medical School, applied for a Carnegie grant to support his research with human embryos. (asu.edu)
  • And if, as with Weissman et al, human cloning is not cloning if it is for " research " purposes, then the Dickey Amendment could even be construed to allow human cloning for "research" purposes . (lifeissues.net)
  • NOTE: What we are clearly beginning to see emerge here is the massive contradictions accruing among several major federal research documents interwoven as "authorities" over the years, using erroneous (or no) scientific definitions for "political" purposes now concretized as stare decisis , ultimately rendering them unconstitutional due to vagueness, and impotent in protecting the lives of both sexually and asexually reproduced human beings in research and in reproduction. (lifeissues.net)
  • Under HHS [OHRP federal] regulations at 45 CFR Part 46, human subject means a living individual about whom an investigator (whether professional or student) conducting research obtains (1) data through intervention or interaction with the individual, or (2) identifiable private information . (lifeissues.net)
  • 1. The definition of " human subject research " is the focus of these Guidances, and references are given to both the current OHRP federal regulations (45 CFR 46) and to Public Law 103-43 (the NIH Revitalization Act). (lifeissues.net)
  • GPI is a not-for-profit organization formed in 2003 with the mission of promoting and defending stem cell research and its application in medicine to develop therapeutics and cures for many otherwise intractable diseases and disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Upon this base of activities and relationships, GPI serves as a communications channel, helping to build the knowledge base needed for ethical and thoughtful policy-making in support of scientifically and medically worthy research and clinical translation in the broad field of stem cells and the even broader field of developmental biology. (nih.gov)
  • Harvard alumnus James L. Sherley, M.D., Ph.D., a professor in the Biological Engineering department at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has "come out" with his opposition to cloning and destructive embryonic stem cell research. (lifeethics.org)
  • This promise was the earliest misleading misinformation from proponents of human embryo research. (lifeethics.org)
  • Discussion of the bioethics of human stem cell research has transitioned from controversies over the source of human embryonic stem cells to concerns about the ethical use of stem cells in basic and clinical research. (jci.org)
  • Key areas in this evolving ethical discourse include the derivation and use of other human embryonic stem cell-like stem cells that have the capacity to differentiate into all types of human tissue and the use of all types of stem cells in clinical research. (jci.org)
  • Each of these issues is discussed as I summarize the past, present, and future bioethical issues in stem cell research. (jci.org)
  • The main bioethical issues associated with human stem cells involve their derivation and use for research. (jci.org)
  • This Review summarizes these and other bioethical issues of the past, present, and future of stem cell research. (jci.org)
  • From that point forward, hES cell research has been steeped in ethical controversy. (jci.org)
  • While public concerns such as these about science and its implications are not in themselves new, hES cell research offered the opportunity for all of these inchoate worries to coalesce around a single, new scientific field. (jci.org)
  • On the other hand, supporters of embryonic stem cell research have pointed out that not all religious traditions grant full moral standing to early-stage human embryos. (jci.org)
  • Such a technology would not only provide an ethically acceptable alternative to research cloning, but it would also offer a method to interrogate the biological basis of "sternness," the constellation of gene expression and protein signaling that underlie self-renewal and pluripotency. (yale.edu)
  • Nevertheless, it remains clear that clever and innovative efforts to generate pluripotent stem cells through research cloning as well as through alternative methods continue unabated. (yale.edu)
  • In this Article, I discuss the recent development of "alternative" methodsthat is, techniques that do not involve research cloning-to derive pluripotent stem cells, most prominently among them, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (yale.edu)
  • According to the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), the standard American source on stem cell research, three characteristics of stem cells differentiate them from other cell types: (1) they are unspecialized cells that (2) divide for long periods, renewing themselves and (3) can give rise to specialized cells, such as muscle and skin cells, under particular physiological and experimental conditions. (asu.edu)
  • phenotypes
  • The authors cover the criteria used by investigators in different fields to recognize mature phenotypes of specific tissues. (springer.com)
  • Cells of metazoa display two main phenotypes, the ancestral epithelial state and the recent mesenchymal derivative. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Moreover
  • Moreover, we show that, in contrast to the human enzymes, mouse caspase-7 is as efficient as caspase-3 at cleaving and thus inactivating ICAD (inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase), the inhibitor of apoptotic DNA fragmentation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Vertebrate
  • Vertebrate embryos are characterized by an elongated antero-posterior (AP) body axis, which forms by progressive cell deposition from a posterior growth zone in the embryo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 15716340 Cells in the early vertebrate somite receive cues from surrounding tissues, which are important for their specification. (jove.com)
  • surrogate
  • We biochemically isolated caspase-7 from B6-caspase-3-null ( Casp3 -/- ) tissues as being the enzyme with caspase-3-like properties and capability of performing a caspase-3 surrogate function, apoptotic DNA fragmentation. (jneurosci.org)
  • A domestic cow also served as the surrogate for the developing gaur clone. (asu.edu)
  • development
  • The embryos from which the existing stem cell lines were created have already been destroyed and no longer have the possibility of further development as human beings. (archives.gov)
  • Diagram of the ways to reprogram cells along with the development of humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recording and contextualizing the science of embryos, development, and reproduction. (asu.edu)
  • Because many factors that guide the normal development of embryonic cells are absent in mature tissues, embryonic stem cells placed in adult tissues produce malformed tissues that are cancerous. (lifeethics.org)
  • Living in a pluralistic society such as ours, supporters argue, means having to tolerate differences in religious and personal convictions over such personally theoretical matters as when during the course of human biological development moral personhood first appears. (jci.org)
  • potential
  • Embryonic stem cells, which come from the inner cell mass of a human embryo, have the potential to develop into all or nearly all of the tissues in the body. (archives.gov)
  • Health care professionals have long been excited by the potential that such cells have for treating a wide range of diseases. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Serious doubts have been raised about the sufficiency of those lines, since they have been exposed to potential contamination by mouse feeder cells. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Another Nobel Laureate , James D. Watson , publicized the potential and the perils of cloning in his Atlantic Monthly essay, "Moving Toward the Clonal Man", in 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2005) Expression and potential role of fibroblast growth factor 2 and its receptors in human embryonic stem cells. (springer.com)
  • Similarly, a "parthenote" (derived entirely from one parent) that does not have the potential to develop into a person might be a source of cell lines with potential comparable to that of embryonic stem cell lines. (yale.edu)
  • Advanced Cell Technology (ACT), a stem cell biotechnology company in Worcester, Massachusetts, showed the potential for cloning to contribute to conservation efforts. (asu.edu)
  • stage
  • The resulting embryos can then be raised to the desired stage and analyzed for the effects of any experimental perturbations. (jove.com)
  • However, it is very likely that diseases of adult life, if they show any manifestation in embryos at all, will do so well after this arbitrary stage of maturation. (lifeethics.org)
  • Ethics
  • In setting out an argument about the intersection of politics, ethics, and policy, I focus on national bioethics committees, elected leaders, and their efforts to reconcile the moral status of the embryo and the imperative of biomedical progress in practice. (scribd.com)
  • The President will create a new President's Council on Bioethics, chaired by Dr. Leon Kass, an expert in biomedical ethics and a professor at the University of Chicago, to study the human and moral ramifications of developments in biomedical and behaviorial science and technology. (archives.gov)
  • Human Ethics. (lifeethics.org)