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  • research
  • To fulfill this intent, a diverse group of 13 national and international specialists were enlisted to serve on a Human Stem Cell Research (HSCR) Advisory Committee established to advise the Department in the development of statewide guidelines for human stem cell research and the update of these guidelines. (ca.gov)
  • CDPH will also monitor all research projects that are using assisted oocyte production (AOP) to harvest human eggs for research by collecting reporting forms from review committees overseeing research involving human oocyte retrieval for research or the development of medical therapies. (ca.gov)
  • Neurons
  • Investigators in Australia, Singapore, Israel, Canada and the United States, among others, soon reported that they had converted embryonic stem cells into neurons, immune cells and beating heart cells 7 . (nature.com)
  • In theory at least, these induced pluripotent stem cells could go on to form neurons in the brain, muscle cells in the leg or beating heart cells. (wired.com)
  • The most common source has been adult skin cells called fibroblasts, which have been manipulated into stem cells and then neurons ( SN: 2/27/10, p. 5 ). (wired.com)
  • For example, lab experiments with cells from these collections might be used to study why motor neurons from people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis die, or how healthy liver cells respond to a promising but potentially toxic drug. (wired.com)
  • Teitell used embryonic stem cell lines that made different types of neurons and studied them with array CGH for comparison. (innovations-report.com)
  • Some of the cell types that have or are currently being developed include cardiomyocytes (CM), neurons, hepatocytes, bone marrow cells, islet cells and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The standard test to confirm multipotency is differentiation of the cells into osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes as well as myocytes and neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because they can propagate indefinitely, as well as give rise to every other cell type in the body (such as neurons, heart, pancreatic, and liver cells), they represent a single source of cells that could be used to replace those lost to damage or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • However, limited availability of such in vitro fertilization samples and the inability to perform mechanistic analyses in this type of model continue to hinder studies of peri-implantation human development. (rupress.org)
  • One could go in and compare certain lineage factors between in vivo and in vitro, as well as look at what factors influence the stem cells down specific pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Five years later, the first successful human in vitro fertilization resulted in the birth of Louise Brown in England. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word 'niche' can be in reference to the in vivo or in vitro stem-cell microenvironment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have been able to demonstrate the induction of EpiSC-like cells in vitro from mouse ESCs, which are referred to as Epiblast-like cells (EpiLC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Properties of stem cells can be illustrated in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, in which single cells are assessed for their ability to differentiate and self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • Derivation
  • Regulatory issues are addressed in discussions of the ethical debate surrounding the derivation of human embryonic stem cells and the current policies governing their use in the United States and abroad, including the rules and conditions regulating federal funding and questions of intellectual property. (springer.com)
  • However, the derivation of such cell types from ESs is not without obstacles and hence current research is focused on overcoming these barriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The new studies accomplished the reprogramming feat by using viruses to deliver a four-gene cocktail that reverts the cells to a naive state in which any developmental path is open. (wired.com)
  • Array CGH provided a much better look at the gene content on the chromosomes of human embryonic stem cells, with a resolution about 100 times better than standard clinical methods. (innovations-report.com)
  • The Stem Cell Lineage Database could help compare stem cell information around the world and eliminate taking a global gene expression profiling approach, which although sufficient, is not as effective as it could be. (wikipedia.org)
  • During embryonic development, various niche factors act on embryonic stem cells to alter gene expression, and induce their proliferation or differentiation for the development of the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-type specific gene expression patterns during development occur as the result of interactions the chromatin level. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene encoding stem cell factor (SCF) is found on the Sl locus in mice and on chromosome 12q22-12q24 in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fibroblasts were engineered so that any cells reactivating the ESC-specific gene, Fbx15, could be isolated using antibiotic selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Delta-like protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DLL1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NOD/ShiLtJ background also contributes an allele of the Sirpa gene that renders the bone marrow niche very permissive to colonization by human hematopoietic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prkdcscid is a loss-of-function mutation in the mouse homologue of the human PRKDC gene, which encodes a protein that resolves DNA strand breaks that occur during V(D)J recombination in developing T and B lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Il2rgtm1Wjl targeted mutationb is a complete null mutation in the gene encoding the interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain (IL2Rγ, homologous to IL2RG in humans). (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary human lung tumor xenografts that preserve the tumor microenvironment during long-term engraftment Humanized model for evaluation of possible cancer curing gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • This is the first time that scientists have been able to use SCNT to create human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The new technique will allow scientists to tap a large, readily available source of personalized stem cells. (wired.com)
  • Scientists' manipulations turned the stem cells in the new studies into several types of mature blood cells, including infection-fighting T cells. (wired.com)
  • Stem cell markers are genes and their protein products used by scientists to isolate and identify stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • With these cells, scientists will be able to better understand how these cells are differentiated by the process of turning on and off genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • As stem cell research continues, scientists will need a database to store and share their information and research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till first revealed the clonal nature of marrow cells in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The foundation supports stem cell scientists through the NYSCF Innovator Program, and it engages the academic, medical, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology communities by hosting the annual translational stem cell research conference and other symposia throughout the year. (wikipedia.org)
  • NYSCF Conference and Symposia - Convenes the annual translational stem cell research conference and on-going programs for scientists, policymakers and the public. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conversations with scientists and clinicians, Solomon identified stem cells as the most promising way to address unmet patient needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lab was free from federal restrictions and allowed scientists to conduct all types of stem cell research, including studies that involve embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and somatic cell nuclear transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scientists then differentiated the pluripotent cells into other cell types in the body, including insulin-producing beta cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • autologous
  • However, these problems associated with histocompatibility may be solved using autologous donor adult stem cells, therapeutic cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three known accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans: Bone marrow, which requires extraction by harvesting, that is, drilling into bone (typically the femur or iliac crest). (wikipedia.org)
  • Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • These unlimited supplies of autologous cells could be used to generate transplants without the risk of immune rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • The potential of embryonic stem cell research. (virginia.edu)
  • To fulfill this intent, a diverse group of 13 national and international specialists were enlisted to serve on a Human Stem Cell Research (HSCR) Advisory Committee established to advise the Department in the development of statewide guidelines for human stem cell research and the update of these guidelines. (ca.gov)
  • The California Department of Public Health will monitor human stem cell research conducted within the State by collecting reporting forms from all Stem Cell Research Oversight (SCRO) Committees overseeing human embryonic stem cell research that is not fully funded by CIRM. (ca.gov)
  • A major breakthrough has just been achieved in stem cell research. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The course would be applicable for those in industry aiming to work on stem research and bioprocessing. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • BD Biosciences: Diverse set of tools for stem cell research. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Ludmila Ruban, Cell Therapy Research Facilitator and Training Coordinator and author of 'Human pluripotent stem cells in culture', recently published by Springer. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The promise of an off-the-shelf liver seems much closer than one could hope even a year ago," said Dusko Illic, a stem cell expert at King's College London who was not directly involved in the research but praised its success. (reuters.com)
  • Malcolm Allison, a stem cell expert at Queen Mary University of London, who was not involved in the research, said the study's results offered "the distinct possibility of being able to create mini livers from the skin cells of a patient dying of liver failure" and transplant them to boost the failing organ. (reuters.com)
  • That livers and other organs may one day be made from iPS cells is an "exciting" prospect, said Matthew Smalley of Cardiff University's European Cancer Stem Cell Research Institute. (reuters.com)
  • His wide-ranging research established him as a leader in embryonic stem-cell biology, a field challenged by restricted funding and an enthusiasm for competing technologies that don't carry the same ethical baggage. (nature.com)
  • They soon recognized the research potential of these intriguing entities, which can both replicate themselves and be nudged into becoming any of the body's 200-plus cell types 3 , 4 . (nature.com)
  • In 2001, US President George W. Bush restricted government funding to research on just a few existing ES-cell lines. (nature.com)
  • The decision effectively forced those intent on carrying out the research in the United States to seek private or state funding , and often to create duplicate laboratories - one for ES-cell research and another for work funded by the US federal government. (nature.com)
  • Although there is great interest in the potential for using stem cells as cell replacements and other treatments for diseases that currently have no cure, research on the biology of human embryonic stem cells is still in its infancy. (springer.com)
  • These headlines are based on newly published research into the use of a technique known as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) as part of embryonic stem cell research. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This research is the first time the technique has been successful using human cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Media coverage of this study was as varied as people's feelings are about stem cell research. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Dr. Matthew Smalley , a senior lecturer at Cardiff University's European Cancer Stem Cell Research Institute who was not involved in the study, told Lopatto the research "holds out real promise for a viable alternative approach to human organ transplants. (redorbit.com)
  • Three research groups used similar methods to prod certain immune cells in human blood to become induced pluripotent stem cells. (wired.com)
  • Implications - The stem cell research is done using tiny petri dishes. (trendhunter.com)
  • For many decades, stem cells have played an important role in medical research, beginning in 1868 when Ernst Haeckel first used the phrase to describe the fertilized egg which eventually gestates into an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • This paved the way for Mario Capecchi, Martin Evans, and Oliver Smithies to create the first knockout mouse, ushering in a whole new era of research on human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Great levels of success and potential have been realized from research using adult stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biological research, these cells have become a subject of extensive research. (wikipedia.org)
  • These stem cells can differentiate into all other cells in the human body and are the subject of much scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2000, the NIH, under the administration of President Bill Clinton, issued "guidelines that allow federal funding of embryonic stem-cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • No federal law ever did ban stem cell research in the United States, but only placed restrictions on funding and use, under Congress's power to spend. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2001, George W. Bush requested a review of the NIH's guidelines, and after a policy discussion within his circle of supporters, implemented a policy in August of that year to limit the number of embryonic stem cell lines that could be used for research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In April 2004, 206 members of Congress, including many moderate Republicans, signed a letter urging President Bush to expand federal funding of embryonic stem cell research beyond what Bush had already supported. (wikipedia.org)
  • On July 29, 2005, Senate Majority Leader William H. Frist (R-TN), announced that he too favored loosening restrictions on federal funding of embryonic stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • On July 18, 2006, the Senate passed three different bills concerning stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies and others supported the idea that bone cells create the HSC niche, and all the research that elucidated this specialized hematopoietic microenvironment stemmed from these landmark studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The New York Stem Cell Foundation (NYSCF) is an American 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, founded in the Spring of 2005, with the mission "accelerating cures for the major diseases of our time through stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The foundation focuses on three areas: NYSCF Research and Laboratory - Supports non-government funded advanced stem cell research, in the NYSCF Research Institute laboratory and through collaborations with medical research institutions worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • NYSCF awards an annual prize to honor the most significant achievement in translational stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2005, Susan L. Solomon co-founded The New York Stem Cell Foundation with the mission of accelerating stem cell research to cure major disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2006, NYSCF established its own laboratory, which is now one of the largest private stem cell laboratories in the United States, now referred to as The NYSCF Research Institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • NYSCF channels private philanthropy toward stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • NYSCF has raised nearly $100 million for stem cell research both in its own laboratory and in the major medical institutions around the world that it continues to support. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of note, this may be one of the reasons that commercially available centrifuge systems that concentrate marrow nucleated cells have not shown as much promise in animal research for cartilage repair as have approaches where MSC's are expanded in culture to greater numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the number of MSC's that can be isolated from bone marrow is fairly limited, most research in cartilage regeneration has focused on the use of culture expanded cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • At Adelaide, Rathjen headed a research group looking at embryonic stem cells and protein signals which determine the final type of cells to be formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here he was also director of the Integrated Microscopy Resource and Senior Scientist at the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center and at the Waisman Center for Human Development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consumer Watchdog created the project to ensure that citizens of California reaped the benefits of state funded stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the Independent Citizen's Oversight Committee hashed out the intellectual property rules of Proposition 71, a successful 2004 ballot initiative that created $3 billion in general obligation bonds to fund stem cell research, Simpson pushed to have language put in the regulations that ensure any cures that result from the research be made available to underserved populations and that the state recoup a portion of the taxpayers' investment. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the investigation, Simpson described the patent's effects: "under the patent, if any scientist used human embryonic stem cells in any way, he or she owed WARF a royalty, and that is just so outrageous and so detrimental to scientific research in the field. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibroblasts
  • What's more, inducing fibroblasts to form stem cells can take about a month in the lab, during which mutations can accumulate. (wired.com)
  • But with improving technology, this cell type could very well replace the skin fibroblasts currently mostly used to generate induced pluripotent stem cells from patients," Wernig says. (wired.com)
  • hESCs can be generated by SCNT using dermal fibroblasts nuclei from both a middle-aged 35-year-old male and an elderly, 75-year-old male, suggesting that age-associated changes are not necessarily an impediment to SCNT-based nuclear reprogramming of human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this assay system, stromal cells were referred to as colony-forming unit-fibroblasts (CFU-f). (wikipedia.org)
  • lineages
  • The Stem Cell Lineage Database (SCLD) is a database of resources used to identify cell lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the major factors that separates SCLD from other stem cell databases is that it allows users to edit information pertaining to cell types, markers, and lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of the database is to provide an openly available, quick reference for information pertaining to stem cell lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, the database only includes human and mouse stem cell lineages, but the database hopes to expand into more species. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The suggestion from this new study is that mice transplanted with human iPS cell-liver buds might be used to test new drugs to see how the human liver would cope with them and whether they might have side-effects such as liver toxicity. (reuters.com)
  • The trial began in 2010 after being delayed by the FDA because cysts were found on mice injected with these cells, and safety concerns were raised. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, the SCLD has stem cell information for only human stem cells and mice stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 70.1% of amino acids are conserved between mice and humans, this allows for many studies in mice to be applied to the human complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • They were isolated in mice in 1981, and in humans in 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subtypes of spermatogonia differ between mice and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mice A Single (As) spermatogonia are capable of creating 2 separate daughter SSCs when they divide or the daughter cells can join and form A Paired (Apr) spermatogonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mice, Sertoli cells have been shown to secrete Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) which has a stimulatory effect on stem cell self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primitive hematopoiesis is first found in the blood islands (Pander's islands) of the yolk sac at E7.5 (embryonic day 7.5) in mice and 30dpc (30 days post-conception) in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Definitive hematopoiesis then occurs later in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM), a region of embryonic mesoderm that develops into the ventral wall of the dorsal aorta, at E10.5 in mice and 4wpc (4 weeks post-conception) in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice with SCF or c-Kit mutations have severe defects in the production of mast cells, having less than 1% of the normal levels of mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the first generation of iPSCs, these second generation iPSCs produced viable chimeric mice and contributed to the mouse germline, thereby achieving the 'gold standard' for pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • NSG branded mice lack mature T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The compound immunodeficiencies in NSG branded mice permit the engraftment of a wide range of primary human cells, and enable sophisticated modeling of many areas of human biology and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice homozygous for the mutation have severely reduced numbers of mature T and B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristics
  • A stem cell line is a mass of cells descended from the original, sharing its genetic characteristics. (virginia.edu)
  • Several factors are important to regulate stem-cell characteristics within the niche: cell-cell interactions between stem cells, as well as interactions between stem cells and neighbouring differentiated cells, interactions between stem cells and adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix components, the oxygen tension, growth factors, cytokines, and the physicochemical nature of the environment including the pH, ionic strength (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are grown on a feeder layer of cells, which is believed to be supportive in maintaining the pluripotent characteristics of embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are called epiblast-derived stem cells (EpiSC) and have several different cellular and molecular characteristics with Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC) (De-Miguel et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell epigenomic studies are also looking into DNA methylation patterns, specifically characteristics of hydroxy methylation versus overall methylation and the difference between methylation of CpG-island rich and CpG poor promoters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of stem cells present in the amniotic fluid share many characteristics, which suggests they may have a common origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • They usually involve the removal of amniotic fluid by amniocentesis and their distinction from other cells may be based on their morphology or other characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholangiocarcinoma, also known as bile duct cancer, is a form of cancer that is composed of mutated epithelial cells (or cells showing characteristics of epithelial differentiation) that originate in the bile ducts which drain bile from the liver into the small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • indefinitely
  • But if stem cells are extracted, researches can keep them in this pluripotent state indefinitely, preserving them as a kind of cellular blank slate. (redorbit.com)
  • Additionally, under defined conditions, embryonic stem cells are capable of propagating themselves indefinitely in an undifferentiated state and have the capacity when provided with the appropriate signals to differentiate, presumably via the formation of precursor cells, to almost all mature cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • SCNT involves taking donated egg cells from women and removing their genetic material. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The process involves sucking out the nucleus of a somatic (body) cell and injecting it into an oocyte that has had its nucleus removed Using an approach based on the protocol outlined by Tachibana et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • SCNT has been used to clone animals before, and is thought to have potential applications in the study and treatment of human diseases. (www.nhs.uk)
  • But even if the cells won't be put directly into patients, Jaenisch says that the new method "opens up access to enormous resources of collected cells from patients" that can be used to study diseases. (wired.com)
  • Stems cell therapy has the potential to end diseases and allow people to regrow their organs. (trendhunter.com)
  • The discovery of this stem cell has the potential to offer those who suffer from chronic lung diseases a totally novel treatment option by regenerating or repairing damaged areas of the lung. (health24.com)
  • Stem cell therapy on lung diseases has long been elusive because the lung is a highly complex organ with a variety of cell types that can renew at different rates, experts say. (health24.com)
  • In studying embryonic stem cell lines in the future, if we find differences in regions of the genome that we know are associated with certain undesirable traits or diseases, we would choose against using such stem cells, provided safer alternative lines are available," Teitell said. (innovations-report.com)
  • Single cell analysis of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), or stem cells able to differentiate into many different cell types, is a suggested method for treating such diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD). (wikipedia.org)
  • These stem cells developed from a singular patient would also be able to be used to produce cells affected in the above mentioned diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • SCNT involved taking the nucleus (the part of a cell containing most of the genetic information) from a person's skin cells, inserting its cells into a donor's unfertilised egg cell that had its nucleus removed. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The cell body contains a large, round nucleus with a prominent nucleolus, which is surrounded by finely dispersed chromatin particles, giving the nucleus a clear appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The variation in cell shapes is partially determined by the location of the nucleus within the cell, causing bulging in areas of the cells forcing the height and shape of the cell to change. (wikipedia.org)