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  • dendritic
  • We analyzed the ability of human skin migratory dendritic cells (smiDC) to stimulate allogeneic (allo)-CD4 + T helper cell responses and to induce differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Understanding the interaction between HSV infection of genital skin/mucosa and its interactions with skin dendritic cells (DCs) is of key importance in elucidating how HSV specific CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes are activated and home to the infected lesion and persist at the site of infection between lesions to eradicate infection. (edu.au)
  • We also found that CD45 + HLA-DR high CD1c + dendritic cells (DCs) are already present in the epidermis and dermis at 9 wk estimated gestational age (EGA) and that transforming growth factor β1 production precedes Langerin and CD1a expression on CD45 + CD1c + Langerhans cell (LC) precursors. (rupress.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are important in regulating immunity and tolerance and consist of functionally distinct subsets that differentially regulate T lymphocyte function. (jci.org)
  • In order to evaluate water-insoluble chemicals using the skin model which is more similar to real skin and detectable interaction among three kind cells, we established a test method which is a three-dimensional human skin model consisting of normal fibroblasts, normal keratinocytes and normal dendritic cells utilizing a collagen vitrigel membrane (VG-KDF-Skin). (or.jp)
  • neurons
  • Human skin cells (top) can be converted into medium spiny neurons (bottom) with exposure to the right combination of microRNAs and transcription factors, according to work by Andrew Yoo and his research team. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The investigators produced a specific type of brain cell called medium spiny neurons, which are important for controlling movement. (medicalxpress.com)
  • They knew from past work that exposure to two small molecules of RNA, a close chemical cousin of DNA, could turn skin cells into a mix of different types of neurons. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Though the investigators still are unraveling the details of this complex process, these microRNAs appear to be opening up the tightly packaged sections of DNA important for brain cells, allowing expression of genes governing development and function of neurons. (medicalxpress.com)
  • They are priming the skin cells to become neurons. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The transcription factors we add then guide the skin cells to become a specific subtype, in this case medium spiny neurons. (medicalxpress.com)
  • His team, including co-first author Michelle C. Richner, senior research technician, showed that when the skin cells were exposed to the transcription factors alone, without the microRNAs, the conversion into neurons wasn't successful. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The oligodendrocyte is a special brain cell that plays a vital role as caretaker of the fatty myelin sheaths that surround neurons. (dailytech.com)
  • Compared to neurons, which are among the first cells formed in human development, there are more stages and many more steps required to create glial cells such as OPCs," said Goldman. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The induced neurons were found to differ significantly from those made from healthy individuals, providing new insights into the development of the disease, reports study leader Asa Abeliovich, MD, PhD, associate professor of pathology & cell biology and neurology in the Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC). (esciencenews.com)
  • Building on that work, Dr. Abeliovich and his team used a different combination of transcription regulators, plus several neuronal support factors, to convert human skin cells into forebrain neurons. (esciencenews.com)
  • Using direct reprogramming, you could, in theory, take someone's skin cells and in a couple of weeks have fully functional neurons ready for replacement cell therapy. (esciencenews.com)
  • In the second part of the study, Dr. Abeliovich compared neurons made from skin cells of healthy individuals with neurons made from patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease. (esciencenews.com)
  • The latter cells exhibited altered processing and localization of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and increased concentration of amyloid beta, a component of APP (Alzheimer's is thought to develop when abnormal amounts of amyloid beta accumulate in the brain, eventually killing neurons. (esciencenews.com)
  • Our research revealed how small RNA molecules can work with other cell signals called transcription factors to generate specific types of neurons, in this case motor neurons. (wustl.edu)
  • In the future, we would like to study skin cells from patients with disorders of motor neurons. (wustl.edu)
  • stem cell res
  • Implications - The stem cell research is done using tiny petri dishes. (trendhunter.com)
  • However, Gearhart said, scientists 'shouldn't abandon embryonic stem cell research' because the safety of the new cells has to be established. (cnn.com)
  • Stem cell research is not banned. (cnn.com)
  • The study has been accepted for publication in the Stem Cell Research and Therapy peer-reviewed journal and the provisional paper is available online. (technologynetworks.com)
  • It was conducted under the guidance of James Byrne, PhD, assistant professor, UCLA Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The study was performed at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research and Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology at UCLA in conjunction with the Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience at Rutgers University. (technologynetworks.com)
  • pluripotency
  • First discovered in 2007 , the basic idea of hiPSCs is to take human cells -- from the skin or other tissues -- and then expose them to certain chemical signals that cause them to revert to special types of cell types that exhibit pluripotency (the ability to become the kinds of cells found in organs and other body tissues). (dailytech.com)
  • Human iPS cell pluripotency was assessed in vitro by embryoid body formation and analyzing germ layer markers by reverse-transcriptase PCR. (uta.fi)
  • The embryoid bodies expressed markers from all the three germ layers indicating pluripotency of the iPS cells. (uta.fi)
  • epidermis and dermis
  • This NHMRC funded study will give insight on fundamental understanding of how innate and adaptive immune cells in skin epidermis and dermis cooperate to eliminate HSV and may contribute to development of HSV vaccine candidates. (edu.au)
  • immune
  • Scientific director of McMaster 's Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute, Mick Bhatia, said his team was able to produce oxygen-carrying red blood cells, two kinds of immune cells and cells that produce platelets needed for clotting. (marieclaire.co.uk)
  • Furthermore, inflammatory and non-inflammatory immune responses were measured using protein and real time PCR array analysis from HDF cells exposed to predetermined sub-lethal concentrations of QDs. (rti.org)
  • Tracking and quantifying the production of different kinds of blood cells and immune cells has provided new insights on how the body maintains a balanced supply. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The successful PhD student will obtain a thorough grounding in innate and adaptive immunity to viral pathogens and skills in, skin expalnt process/culture, primary cell culture, virus culture, immune cell isolation using density gradient centrifugation and microbeads, flow cytometry, immunofluorescent microscopy, immunoassay such as ELISA and intracellular cytokine assay and molecular studies of cytokines and chemokines. (edu.au)
  • During intrauterine life, the skin immune system has to acquire these prerequisites to protect the newborn from infection in the hostile external environment after birth. (rupress.org)
  • The skin is a highly active immunological organ that contains a multitude of specialized immune cells. (rupress.org)
  • To better understand the development of professional skin APCs and to gain information about the organization of the skin immune system in utero, we investigated the quantitative, phenotypic, and functional development of leukocytes and analyzed the factors that might control their proliferation and trafficking during human skin development. (rupress.org)
  • Overall, our discovery of the CD5-expressing DC subtype suggests that strategies to regulate their composition or function in the skin will represent an innovative approach for the treatment of immune-mediated disorders in and beyond the skin. (jci.org)
  • explants
  • 7. Determine whether exogenous resting or activated CD4 or CD8 T cells can infiltrate into human skin explants responding to topically inoculated HSV or HSV antigens or chemokines. (edu.au)
  • dermis
  • From the work of Carbone/Heath and our own laboratory we now know that HSV infects Langerhan cells in the epidermis which results in transfer to dermal DCs which exit from the dermis and then travel to lymph node. (edu.au)
  • 3. Examine immigration of blood DCs into dermis, e.g. the BDCA3+ subset of DCs from dermal capillaries into HSV infected skin. (edu.au)
  • therapies
  • Who needs stem cell therapies? (rutgers.edu)
  • Myelin disorders have long been considered a potential target for cell-based therapies. (medicalxpress.com)
  • While research using these cells has yielded critical insight into the biology of stem cells, these sources are not considered ideal to meet demand once stem cell-based therapies become more common. (medicalxpress.com)
  • These cells also promised an abundant source of material from which to fashion the cells necessary for therapies. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The animals were also free of any tumors, a dangerous potential side effect of some stem cell therapies, and survived significantly longer than untreated mice. (healthcanal.com)
  • The findings offer a new and potentially more direct way to produce replacement cell therapies for Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. (esciencenews.com)
  • morphology
  • C ) Morphology of sorted skin CD5 + LCs, CD5 - LCs, dermal CD1a dim CD5 + DCs, CD1a dim CD5 - DCs, CD1a dim CD141 + DCs, and CD14 + DCs visualized by GIEMSA staining. (jci.org)
  • biology
  • Not only did these transplanted cells survive in the mouse brain , they showed functional properties similar to those of native cells," said senior author Andrew S. Yoo, PhD, assistant professor of developmental biology. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This process requires that we understand the basic biology and the normal development of these cells and then reproduce this precise sequence in the lab. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Collectively, our data provide insight into skin DC biology and the mechanisms through which skin DCs presumably populate the skin during development. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we only used skin cells from healthy adults ranging in age from early 20s to late 60s," said senior author Andrew S. Yoo, PhD, an assistant professor of developmental biology. (wustl.edu)
  • functional
  • Our results demonstrate for the first time that human adult skin cells can be used to efficiently and rapidly generate functional pancreatic cells that behave similar to human beta cells," said Matthias Hebrok, director of the Diabetes Centre at University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). (financialexpress.com)
  • The final step was the most unique - and the most difficult - as molecules had not previously been identified that could take reprogrammed cells the final step to functional pancreatic cells in a dish," Zhu said. (financialexpress.com)
  • Creation of functional skin substitutes within a clinically acceptable time window is essential for timely repair and management of large wounds such as extensive burns. (nih.gov)
  • He added that the final step in the process was the most unique as well as the most difficult because the molecules had not previously been identified that could take reprogrammed cells through the final step in creating functional pancreatic cells in a dish. (doctortipster.com)
  • We investigated the quantitative, phenotypic, and functional development of skin leukocytes and analyzed the factors controlling their proliferation and trafficking during skin development. (rupress.org)
  • molecules
  • T cell proliferation depended on the expression of MHC-II, costimulatory and adhesion molecules by smiDCs. (jimmunol.org)
  • APP was found to collect in the cells' endosomes, cellular compartments that sort molecules for degradation or recycling. (esciencenews.com)
  • Functionally, embryonic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are able to phagocytose antigen, to up-regulate costimulatory molecules upon culture, and to efficiently stimulate T cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. (rupress.org)
  • Skin macrophages, in contrast, express low levels of HLA-DR molecules and lack CD1c ( 6 , 9 ). (rupress.org)
  • fluorescent
  • Using 3D images of fluorescently labeled cells, the research team taught computers to find structures inside living cells without fluorescent labels, using only black and white images generated by an inexpensive technique known as brightfield microscopy. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Several fluorescent human iPS cell lines were successfully established. (uta.fi)
  • liver cells
  • From these days on several studies analyzed the expression and function of metabolizing phase I enzymes in liver cells. (eurekaselect.com)
  • They used the same technique to create 'healthy' liver cells from the comparison group. (aarogya.com)
  • myelin disorders
  • This study strongly supports the utility of hiPSCs as a feasible and effective source of cells to treat myelin disorders,' he adds. (dailytech.com)
  • A study out today in the journal Cell Stem Cell shows that human brain cells created by reprogramming skin cells are highly effective in treating myelin disorders, a family of diseases that includes multiple sclerosis and rare childhood disorders called pediatric leukodystrophies. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This study strongly supports the utility of hiPSCs as a feasible and effective source of cells to treat myelin disorders," said University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) neurologist Steven Goldman, M.D., Ph.D., lead author of the study. (medicalxpress.com)
  • mice
  • The cells protected mice from developing diabetes in a model of disease, having the critical ability to produce insulin in response to changes in glucose levels. (financialexpress.com)
  • This important progress follows on last year's success in inducing this change with mice skin cells. (slashdot.org)
  • Research continues as the study highlights the significant differences in mice and human neural cells as well as the success rate of transformation (2-4% for human cells, 20% for mice. (slashdot.org)
  • Once they succeeded in identifying and purifying OPCs from hiPSCs, they then assessed the ability of the cells to make new myelin when transplanted into mice with a hereditary leukodystrophy that rendered them genetically incapable of producing myelin. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of fabricating skin substitutes via a bottom-up nanofiber-enabled cell assembly approach and using such substitutes for full-thickness wound repair in nude mice. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, skin -like substitutes can be formed by L-b-L assembling human skin cells and biomimetic nanofibers and they are effective to heal acute full-thickness wounds in nude mice. (nih.gov)
  • The most significant aspect of these cells was that it protected the mice from developing diabetes in a model of disease. (doctortipster.com)
  • significantly
  • Because these cells - created by using the recipient's own skin - would be a genetic match, the likelihood of rejection upon transplantation is significantly diminished. (medicalxpress.com)
  • What sets this approach apart from others is the fact that cell production can be significantly increased without compromising the quality control. (doctortipster.com)
  • Remarkably, CD5+ DCs were significantly enriched in lesional psoriatic skin compared with distal tissues, suggesting their involvement in the disease. (jci.org)
  • tissues
  • Those could easily lead to mutations that might cause tumors in tissues grown from the cells,' an editorial accompanying the Science report said. (cnn.com)
  • The section also demonstrates vascular structures of KS tissues and cells expressing VEGF ( red indicator). (aacrjournals.org)
  • OPCs
  • Rodents' brains are similar enough that human OPCs can serve as substitutes for the highly similar rodent cells. (dailytech.com)
  • Once injected into the brain, the hiPSC-derived OPCs quickly spread throughout the suffering rodent's brain and quickly began to morph into helper cells capable of producing myelin. (dailytech.com)
  • Organ-sourced stem cells proved less effective than the skin-derived OPCs. (dailytech.com)
  • One of the key challenges is that OPCs are a mature cell in the central nervous system and appear late in development. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Cytokine
  • The responsive cells (only a proportion of resident LCs, approximately 30%) have already migrated, thus addition of an exogenous cytokine signal (IL-1β) is without further effect. (ovid.com)
  • diseases
  • Stems cell therapy has the potential to end diseases and allow people to regrow their organs. (trendhunter.com)
  • hiPSCs can be derived from human skin and have the potential to treat a number of diseases. (dailytech.com)
  • The discovery opens the door to potential new treatments using hiPSC-derived cells for a range of neurological diseases characterized by the loss of a specific cell population in the central nervous system called myelin. (medicalxpress.com)
  • For their study, Rashid's team took skin samples from seven patients who were suffering from a variety of inherited liver diseases, and three from healthy people to act as comparisons. (aarogya.com)
  • Thus, regulation of sialylation may be an attractive strategy for the prevention and regenerative therapy of age-related skin diseases, cosmetic skin alterations, and chronic wounds caused by delayed healing in elderly people. (biomedcentral.com)
  • proliferation
  • SmiDCs stimulated proliferation of allo-CD4 + T cells that differentiated into Th1 and Th17 cells during 5 day-MLCs. (jimmunol.org)
  • We show that CD45 + leukocytes are scattered in embryonic human skin and that their numbers continuously increase as the developing skin generates an environment that promotes proliferation of skin resident leukocytes as well as the influx of leukocytes from the circulation. (rupress.org)