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  • reproductive
  • Outi Hovatta, in "The new reproductive biology medical and technical possibilities vs. ethical and legal concerns" "In the future, stem cell lines may be created from an HLA-identical embryo as identified by PGD. (oecd-ilibrary.org)
  • Although assisted reproductive techniques are commonly applied in humans and animals, they are frequently associated with major developmental deficits and reduced viability. (jove.com)
  • It also encompasses questions about, among other things, whether researchers who use but do not derive HESCs are complicit in the destruction of embryos, whether there is a moral distinction between creating embryos for research purposes and creating them for reproductive ends, the permissibility of cloning human embryos to harvest HESCs, and the ethics of creating human/non-human chimeras. (stanford.edu)
  • In Germ Cell Protocols, expert laboratory investigators describe in step-by-step detail a series of powerful techniques for the molecular and genetic analysis of germ cells in a variety of different reproductive systems. (springer.com)
  • New Techniques on Embryo Manipulation," American Journal of Reproductive Immunology 55, no 1 (May-June 2002): 149-161, available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12062830 (accessed February 5, 2008). (lifeissues.net)
  • This paper reviews studies in vivo and in vitro on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of manufactured nanomaterials including metallic and metal oxide-based particles, fullerenes (C(60)), carbon black (CB), and luminescent particles. (biomedsearch.com)
  • differentiate
  • While being able to remain undifferentiated, ESCs also have the capacity, when provided with the appropriate signals, to differentiate (presumably via the initial formation of precursor cells ) into nearly all mature cell phenotypes . (wikiyy.com)
  • HESCs are characterized by their capacity for self-renewal and their ability to differentiate into all types of cells of the body. (stanford.edu)
  • Thus, stem cells by definition have two essential properties, i.e. the capacity of self renewal, and the capacity to differentiate into different cell lineages. (ukessays.com)
  • Under the right conditions, or given the right signals, stem cells can give rise (differentiate) to the many different cell types that make up the organism (Fig-1). (ukessays.com)
  • oocyte
  • The Drosophila oocyte has been established as a versatile system for investigating fundamental questions such as cytoskeletal function, cell organization, and organelle structure and function. (jove.com)
  • Scientific research within the department is helping to understand the earliest stages of human development from oocyte maturation to the first few days after fertilisation. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • 2000
  • Bill containing rules relating to the use of gametes and embryos (Embryos Bill), Parliamentary Documents II, 2000/01, 27 423, nos. (umn.edu)
  • By 2000, several countries had declared their stances on the legality of conducting and funding embryonic stem cell research , many with the aid of institutional bioethics boards. (asu.edu)
  • In December 2000, BAC began to examine embryonic stem cell research . (asu.edu)
  • development
  • The development of such treatments relies on the production of pluripotent stem cells genetically identical to patients. (stembook.org)
  • HESCs are derived in vitro around the fifth day of the embryo's development (Thomson et al . (stanford.edu)
  • This process of disaggregating the blastocyst's cells eliminates its potential for further development. (stanford.edu)
  • It is widely anticipated that human embryonic stem (ES) cells will serve as an experimental model for studying early development in our species, and, conversely, that studies of development in model systems, the mouse in particular, will inform our efforts to manipulate human stem cells in vitro. (biologists.org)
  • Conversely, will our understanding of the molecular regulation of mammalian development based on studies in the mouse provide us with a framework to control hES cells in vitro, enabling us to develop the many important clinical applications that are envisioned for these cells in the future? (biologists.org)
  • If hES cell differentiation does not closely resemble mouse embryonic development, a more empirical approach will be needed to identify the signaling pathways that control hES cell differentiation, as we discuss later. (biologists.org)
  • Recording and contextualizing the science of embryos, development, and reproduction. (asu.edu)
  • Eventually, conditions were developed that allowed the culture of EC cells in vitro, establishing them as an in vitro model of mammalian development ( Kahan and Ephrussi, 1970 ). (biologists.org)
  • The embryos from which the existing stem cell lines were created have already been destroyed and no longer have the possibility of further development as human beings. (archives.gov)
  • Our results provide a resource for pluripotent stem cell engineering and for understanding pig development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene-regulation networks of mouse PEDs have been extensively studied and reported [ 15 - 17 ], but scarce information regarding molecular mechanism of pig early embryonic development as well as other large domestic animals has limited our knowledge of developmental biology and aspects of engineering their stem cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This three-dimensional microenvironment is thought to influence/control genes and properties that define 'stemness' of the stem cells, i.e. self-renewal or development to committed cells. (ukessays.com)
  • Choudhary M, Zhang X, Lako M, Stojkovic M, Murdoch A. "Beauty and Beast" molecule: HA in early human development . (ncl.ac.uk)
  • The unlimited proliferative ability and plasticity to generate other cell types ensures that stem cells represent a dynamic system apposite for the identification of new molecular targets and the production and development of novel drugs. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Human ES cell lines may, therefore, prove clinically relevant to the development of safer and more effective drugs for patients presenting with diabetes mellitus. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Clifford Grobstein, "The Early Development of Human Embryos," Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 10, (1985): 213-236. (lifeissues.net)
  • 2004, "Development of Definitive Endoderm from Embryonic Stem Cells in Culture," Development, 131 (7):1651-1662. (patentgenius.com)
  • HNF-3beta is essential for node and notochord formation in mouse development," Cell 78:561-574,1994. (patentgenius.com)
  • DNA methylation regulates development and many epigenetic processes in mammals, and it is required for somatic cell growth and survival. (biomedsearch.com)
  • destruction
  • National governments make rules that govern the creation, destruction, and use of embryos in the laboratory-but they do so in profoundly different ways. (scribd.com)
  • In an anti-abortion statement read with Mr. Bush at his side, the Pope spoke of "evils such as euthanasia, infanticide and, most recently, proposals for the creation for research purposes of human embryos, destined to destruction in the process. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • To show that researchers who use but do not derive HESCs participate in an immoral activity, one would further need to establish their complicity in the destruction of embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • eggs
  • want to halt stem-cell research that uses fertilized human eggs. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The donation of eggs, sperm and embryos to support this work is essential and I ensure that we are compliant with all the necessary ethical and regulatory procedures. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • existing stem cell lines
  • Beyond providing a renewable source of material that might be transplanted into a patient without suppressing their immune system, the generation of autologous pluripotent stem cells provides two key advantages over the large number of existing stem cell lines. (stembook.org)
  • Federal funding of medical research on these existing stem cell lines will promote the sanctity of life " without undermining it " and will allow scientists to explore the potential of this research to benefit the lives of millions of people who suffer from life destroying diseases. (archives.gov)
  • In order to ensure that federal funds are used to support only stem cell research that is scientifically sound, legal, and ethical, the NIH will examine the derivation of all existing stem cell lines and create a registry of those lines that satisfy this criteria. (archives.gov)
  • More than 60 existing stem cell lines from genetically diverse populations around the world are expected to be available for federally-funded research. (archives.gov)
  • Today's decision relates only to the use of federal funds for research on existing stem cell lines derived in accordance with the criteria set forth above. (archives.gov)
  • donors
  • The government's draft bill would allow surplus embryos to be used for medical research with the consent of the egg and sperm donors. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • research
  • In Embryo Politics , Thomas Banchoff provides a comprehensive overview of political struggles aboutembryo research during four decades in four countries-the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France. (scribd.com)
  • Over time, he argues, partisan debate and religious-secular polarization have come to overshadow ethical reflection and political deliberation on the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research. (scribd.com)
  • Embryo research is one of the few political issues with no historical precedent. (scribd.com)
  • I believe that the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research to reduce human suffering are critical and complex ethical issues. (scribd.com)
  • Depending on the goal of the research, large animals as models of pulmonary disease often resemble the situation of the human lung much better than mice do. (jove.com)
  • Much of the hope invested in embryonic stem (ES) cell research surrounds its promise to provide a broad spectrum of medical applications. (stembook.org)
  • It would be a mistake to assume that the restrictions on federal funding for human embryonic stem (hES) cell research result in an absence of oversight of such work. (nap.edu)
  • Animal care committee reviews of hES cell research that uses nonhuman animals. (nap.edu)
  • This chapter reviews current state and federal regulation of hES cell research in the United States, noting where gaps in regulatory coverage are addressed by the guidelines proposed later in this report ( Chapter 6 ). (nap.edu)
  • and presents comparisons with regulations in other nations that have substantial hES cell research programs. (nap.edu)
  • Recommendations about the application of existing regulatory conventions to hES cell research are offered. (nap.edu)
  • In the context of privately funded research it is particularly difficult to explore mechanisms by which discoveries made using hES cells can be made widely accessible for the benefit of human health. (nap.edu)
  • Several policy statements developed regarding patenting and licensing issues more generally applied in biomedical science can serve as aspirational goals for the hES cell research community. (nap.edu)
  • At the moment, the government would allow stem-cell research using embryos that are less than 14 days old and would otherwise be destroyed. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Mr. Rock's draft appeared only after the government received polling data showing that most Canadians would allow the use of donated embryos for stem-cell research. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The poll suggested that 86 per cent of Canadians would allow use of embryos in research with proper government regulation. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The federal government does not provide funding for scientific research involving stem cells, but has received patent applications from biotech firms planning to clone embryos for research purposes. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • On Thursday, August 9, 2001, U.S. President George W. Bush's decided to allow federal funding for limited stem-cell research, as provided by the White House. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Federal funding will apply only to research using existing embryonic stem-cell lines, that is, stem cells already harvested from destroyed embryos. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • In a direct appeal to George W. Bush at the papal summer retreat on July 23rd, the Pope told the visiting U.S. President that the creation of human embryos for research purposes is morally wrong. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • But a Vatican spokesman said later that the Pope opposes any stem-cell research using embryos. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Countries colored in brown have both a highly competitive economy and a flexible policy on human embryonic stem cell research. (umn.edu)
  • Option 3 in Walters, LeRoy , in References , below: "Research is permitted only on remaining embryos no longer needed for reproduction. (umn.edu)
  • California in the U.S. supports embryonic stem cell research through Proposition 71, a $3 billion bonding initiative that is projected to provide about $300 million in stem cell research funding annually for 10 years. (umn.edu)
  • Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: An Intercultural Perspective. (umn.edu)
  • International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR). (umn.edu)
  • The Council for Science and Technology Policy, chaired by Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi, issued its approval of cloning human embryos for basic research, based on recommendations by a subpanel on bioethics in its final report, July 13, 2004. (umn.edu)
  • Human embryonic stem cell (HESC) research offers much hope for alleviating the human suffering brought on by the ravages of disease and injury. (stanford.edu)
  • The main goal of HESC research is to identify the mechanisms that govern cell differentiation and to turn HESCs into specific cell types that can be used for treating debilitating and life-threatening diseases and injuries. (stanford.edu)
  • Opponents of HESC research argue that the research is morally impermissible because it involves the unjust killing of innocent human beings. (stanford.edu)
  • However, at present, the consensus in the scientific community is that both HESC and iPSC research should be pursued, as we do not yet know whether iPSCs have the same potential as HESCs or whether it is safe to transplant them into humans. (stanford.edu)
  • While the principal source of the controversy surrounding HESC research lies in competing views about the value of human embryonic life, the scope of ethical issues in HESC research is broader than the question of the ethics of destroying human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • If looked at from a strictly consequentialist perspective, it's almost certainly the case that the potential health benefits from the research outweigh the loss of embryos involved and whatever suffering results from that loss for persons who want to protect embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • However, most of those who oppose the research argue that the constraints against killing innocent persons to promote social utility apply to human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • Thus, as long as we accept non-consequentialist constraints on killing persons, those supporting HESC research must respond to the claim that those constraints apply to human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • It is worth noting that this argument, if sound, would not suffice to show that all or even most HESC research is impermissible, since most investigators engaged in HESC research do not participate in the derivation of HESCs but instead use cell lines that researchers who performed the derivation have made available. (stanford.edu)
  • California's biomedical industry has already begun its lobbying campaign against legislation to guarantee the state shares in the potential bounty from products developed from its $3 billion stem cell research effort. (blogspot.com)
  • BAC's deliberations on embryonic stem cell research helped shape the government policies that helped Singapore pursue its goal of becoming one of the biggest investors of embryonic stem cell research in the early twenty-first century. (asu.edu)
  • One biomedical endeavor the government sought to fund was embryonic stem cell (ESC) research. (asu.edu)
  • For example, the Human Genetics Subcommittee was created in 2001 and the Subcommittee on Research Involving Human Participants was created in 2007. (asu.edu)
  • Federal funding of research using existing embryonic stem cell lines is consistent with the President's belief in the fundamental value and sanctity of human life. (archives.gov)
  • The President's decision reflects his fundamental commitment to preserving the value and sanctity of human life and his desire to promote vital medical research. (archives.gov)
  • They prefer research on cordonal stem cells rather than on embryo stem cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Stem cells research is recently reproposing the paradigmatic case of the reciprocal influence between science and ideological (e.g., political, religious, economic, and social) issues. (hindawi.com)
  • More specifically, an important question deals with the impact upon national regulation and social behaviours of the scientific community experts' advice regarding stem cells research and its exploitation for health care purposes. (hindawi.com)
  • Translational medicine thus represents a stem of scientific research that aims to move "from bench to bedside" or from laboratory experiments through clinical trials to point-of-care patient applications. (hindawi.com)
  • Induction-Dependent and Lineage-Dependent Models for Cell-Diversification Are Mutually Exclusive," Progress in Clinical Biological Research 175, (1985): 3-11. (lifeissues.net)
  • moral
  • In setting out an argument about the intersection of politics, ethics, and policy, I focus on national bioethics committees, elected leaders, and their efforts to reconcile the moral status of the embryo and the imperative of biomedical progress in practice. (scribd.com)
  • Mr. Bush will create a new President's Council on Bioethics to study the human and moral ramifications of developments in biomedical and behavioural science and technology. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The President will create a new President's Council on Bioethics, chaired by Dr. Leon Kass, an expert in biomedical ethics and a professor at the University of Chicago, to study the human and moral ramifications of developments in biomedical and behaviorial science and technology. (archives.gov)
  • ethical
  • In vitro fertilisation (IVF) and treatment options developed on the basis of this methodology have raised ethical questions that have to be answered in an acceptable way. (oecd-ilibrary.org)
  • But it hopes the ethical and scientific questions about when and how embryos are used will be determined by a parliamentary committee that begins hearings this fall, Health Minister Allan Rock's spokesman said in late July. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • By using this technique, we could establish pluripotent cell lines easily and circumvent ethical problems. (omicsonline.org)
  • possibility
  • Most of the physicians involved (67%) were Catholics, and the majority were gynaecologists and paediatricians (43%) who are mainly in charge to inform future mothers about the possibility of cordonal stem cells conservation. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, the value of the recent study is limited, even though it seams to confirm the possibility of producing cloned human embryos. (blogspot.com)
  • 2001
  • Minister of Education and Science, Guidelines to the "Law Concerning Regulation Relating to Human Cloning Techniques and Other Similar Techniques," [PDF] December 4, 2001. (umn.edu)
  • J.P. Geraedts, G.M. de Wert, "Cloning: Applications in Humans 1: Technical Aspects," Nederlands tijdschrift voor tandheelkunde 108, no. 4 (April 2001): 145-150, available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11383357 (accessed February 5, 2008). (lifeissues.net)