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  • expression
  • Accumulating evidence has suggested that homeodomain-containing proteins play critical roles in regulating the tissue-specific gene expression essential for tissue differentiation and in determining the temporal and spatial patterns of development. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 13 Many non- Hox class homeobox genes have been identified to date, and some of them, eg, Pit-1 , 14 TTF-1 (also called Nkx-2.1) , 15 16 or Gtx , 17 show restricted expression patterns in specific tissues or cell types, suggesting their role in the differentiation of the tissues. (ahajournals.org)
  • 14 18 Therefore, a homeobox gene of the non- Hox class whose expression is restricted to specific cell lineages may be of interest as a candidate for a "cell-type commitment" gene. (ahajournals.org)
  • MSX2 might be a new drug resistance related gene in pancreatic cancer cells by up-regulation of MRP2 expression. (nih.gov)
  • Transcription factor that regulates gene expression in intestine. (uniprot.org)
  • Changes in the expression level of Oct-1A, Oct-1L, Oct-1X, and Oct-1Z isoforms and CD14 surface antigen during differentiation of HL-60 monocytic cells induced in vitro by dimethyl sulfoxide were studied, and the expression level of the four Oct-1 isoforms in vivo in human monocytes was determined. (nih.gov)
  • our results indicate that POU2F1 over-expression is positively associated with aggressive phenotypes and poor survival in patients with HCC, and POU2F1 regulated by AKT pathway promotes HCC aggressive phenotypes by regulating the transcription of EMT genes. (nih.gov)
  • May be involved in regulating the specificity of expression of the catecholamine biosynthetic genes. (uniprot.org)
  • Diversity of human and mouse homeobox gene expression in development and adult tissues. (nih.gov)
  • mutations
  • We describe here heterozygous mutations of the homeobox gene MSX2 (located on 5q34-q35) in three unrelated families with PFM. (ox.ac.uk)
  • One is a deletion of approximately 206 kb including the entire gene and the others are intragenic mutations of the DNA-binding homeodomain (RK159-160del and R172H) that predict disruption of critical intramolecular and DNA contacts. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Mutations in this gene are associated with parietal foramina 1 and craniosynostosis type 2. (nih.gov)
  • homeotic
  • During development, the homeobox gene Cdx2 exerts a homeotic function, providing the positional information necessary for correct specification of the midgut endoderm. (bmj.com)
  • evolutionary
  • The goal of any scheme is to mirror evolutionary diversification, so that 'closely related' genes are placed in the same gene family, and related gene families are placed in the same gene class or other higher grouping. (highbeam.com)
  • It should be borne in mind, however, that the pathway of evolutionary diversification is never completely known for any large and complex set of genes. (highbeam.com)
  • We find there has been much more homeobox gene loss in the rodent evolutionary lineage than in the primate lineage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There has been much interest in elucidating the evolutionary history of homeobox genes, partly to ascertain whether evolutionary changes in animal body organisation are reflected in changes to the homeobox gene repertoire of animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of the complete homeobox gene superclass in mammalian genomes, we chose to focus on two species whose genomes have been sequenced to high coverage, accurately assembled and reasonably well annotated: human and mouse. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Characterization
  • p>A type of phylogenetic evidence whereby an aspect of a descendent is inferred through the characterization of an aspect of a ancestral gene. (uniprot.org)
  • differentiation
  • This demonstrates that MSX2 dosage is critical for human skull development and suggests that PFM and craniosynostosis result, respectively, from loss and gain of activity in an MSX2-mediated pathway of calvarial osteogenic differentiation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • cancers
  • Histopathological and molecular analyses indicated that these tumours were invasive adenocarcinomas that recapitulated the malignant sequence observed in the majority of sporadic colorectal cancers in human. (bmj.com)
  • Colorectal cancers are associated with the stepwise accumulation of genetic alterations involving many tumour suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes such as APC, K-ras, p53, and Bcl2. (bmj.com)
  • 4, 5 These genes are also relevant for cancers outside the gut and no intestine specific gene has so far been implicated in colorectal cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Methylation status of homeobox genes in common human cancers. (nih.gov)
  • orthology
  • Gene families are defined as all genes descended from a single progenitor gene in the common ancestor of bilaterian animals, although some additional gene families have been erected for genes of unknown orthology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • positional
  • 10 11 These results suggest that, like HOM-C genes, Hox class genes appear to convey positional information rather than specification of cell types. (ahajournals.org)
  • roles
  • Many other homeobox genes also have key roles in animal development, with homeobox genes implicated in development of the brain, central nervous system, skeleton, muscle, neural crest-derived tissues, appendages, heart, liver and other structures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • adult
  • Northern blot analysis showed that CSX1 transcripts are abundantly expressed in both fetal and adult hearts, but no signal was detected in other human tissues examined. (ahajournals.org)
  • Amplification of each isoform by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that all of the three isoforms are expressed in fetal and adult hearts and that the homeobox-containing isoform CSX1a is most abundant. (ahajournals.org)
  • similar
  • There is more consensus in classification at a lower level, just above the level of the gene, where very similar genes are grouped into gene families. (highbeam.com)