• ENCODE ENCODE ( Enc yclopedia o f D NA E lements), a collaborative project begun in 2003, was aimed at compiling an inventory of all the functional elements of the human genome. (britannica.com)
  • Many millions of dollars are being poured into projects like Encode, a massively ambitious effort to determine the role of every single piece of DNA in the human genome. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Basic information about these molecules and their gene content, based on a reference genome that does not represent the sequence of any specific individual, are provided in the following table. (wikipedia.org)
  • These researchers are presently using genomic information to create an "onco-chip," which will give researchers convenient experimental access to a miniature array containing hundreds of BACs, each carrying a gene whose mutation can cause human cancer. (caltech.edu)
  • They shared a vision of the future in which knowledge of every gene that composes the human genome would be available to any scientist in the world at the click of a computer key. (caltech.edu)
  • Eva Nogales and Yuan He used cryo-electron microscopy to record how a complex of biomolecules is able to read the human genome one gene at a time. (lbl.gov)
  • We've provided a series of snapshots that shows how the genome is read one gene at a time," says biophysicist Eva Nogales who led this research. (lbl.gov)
  • Table 1 (above) summarizes the physical organization and gene content of the human reference genome, with links to the original analysis, as published in the Ensembl database at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) and Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in September 2000, the company reported that it had found a way to treat large, painful sores that often plague elderly patients, using a protein spray called repifermin, made by a human gene called keratinocyte growth factor-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Understanding the origin of the human genome is of particular interest to many researchers since the genome is indicative of the evolution of humans. (britannica.com)
  • By breaking the human genome into millions of pieces and reverse-engineering their arrangement, researchers have produced the highest-resolution picture ever of the genome's three-dimensional structure. (wired.com)
  • To determine genome structure without being able to directly see it, the researchers first soaked cell nuclei in formaldehyde, which interacts with DNA like glue. (wired.com)
  • Researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have achieved a major advance in understanding how genetic information is transcribed from DNA to RNA by providing the first step-by-step look at the biomolecular machinery that reads the human genome. (lbl.gov)
  • The National Human Genome Research Institute conducts genetic and genomic research, funds genetic and genomic research and promotes that research to advance genomics in health care. (genome.gov)
  • Genetic engineering can provide a range of benefits for people, for example, increasing the productivity of food plants or preventing diseases in humans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The National Human Genome Research Institute today launched a new round of strategic planning that will establish a 2020 vision for genomics research aimed at accelerating scientific and medical breakthroughs. (genome.gov)
  • Koonin, who is Caltech's provost, was chair of the JASON study of 1997, which noted to the scientific community that quality standards could be relaxed so that a "rough draft" of the human genome could be made years earlier and still be of great utility. (caltech.edu)
  • Haploid human genomes, which are contained in germ cells (the egg and sperm gamete cells created in the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction before fertilization creates a zygote ) consist of three billion DNA base pairs , while diploid genomes (found in somatic cells ) have twice the DNA content. (wikipedia.org)
  • The total length of the human genome is over 3 billion base pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In developing the strategic plan, the institute will engage experts and diverse public communities to identify paradigm-shifting areas of genomics that will expand the field into new frontiers and enable novel applications to human health and disease. (genome.gov)
  • As the genome data comes out, you want to analyze it as fast as you can, make the discoveries first and protect the intellectual property,'' said Martin D. Leach, director for bioinformatics at CuraGen, which uses genomics to develop drugs. (nytimes.com)
  • There is a widely held expectation that genomic studies will lead to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, and to new insights in many fields of biology, including human evolution . (wikipedia.org)
  • NIEHS research uses state-of-the-art science and technology to investigate the interplay between environmental exposures, human biology, genetics, and common diseases to help prevent disease and improve human health. (nih.gov)
  • The fundamental process of life by which information in the genome of a living cell is used to generate biomolecules that carry out cellular activities is the so-called "central dogma of molecular biology. (lbl.gov)
  • Knowledge of the human genome provides an understanding of the origin of the human species, the relationships between subpopulations of humans, and the health tendencies or disease risks of individual humans. (britannica.com)
  • These large-scale variants lurked essentially unknown within the human genome until the recent advent of chip-based platforms, which make it possible to very rapidly assay almost the entire genome for their presence. (wired.com)
  • While there are significant differences among the genomes of human individuals (on the order of 0.1%), these are considerably smaller than the differences between humans and their closest living relatives, the chimpanzees (approximately 4% ) and bonobos . (wikipedia.org)
  • From the similarities and differences observed, it is possible to track the origins of the human genome and to see evidence of how the human species has expanded and migrated to occupy the planet. (britannica.com)
  • We humans can do and understand remarkable things -- launch spaceships, build incredibly fast computers, create gorgeous works of art -- but our 3.2 billion pieces of DNA may be too much for our minds to fully comprehend in the end. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The realization that traits and certain diseases can be passed from parent to offspring stretches back at least to the ancient Greeks, well before any genome was actually decoded. (livescience.com)
  • Everyone on the planet -- except identical twins -- has a unique genome. (amnh.org)
  • But despite these SNPs, human beings only differ from one another by about 0.1 percent, enough to ensure that no two human beings are genetically identical, even, sometimes, identical twins. (howstuffworks.com)
  • For example, red blood cells ( erythrocytes ), which live for only about 120 days, and skin cells, which on average live for only about 17 days, must be renewed to maintain the viability of the human body , and it is within the genome that the fundamental information for the renewal of these cells, and many other types of cells, is found. (britannica.com)
  • Their goal is to figure out the order of all 'DNA letters' (bases) in our genome. (amnh.org)
  • In humans, they range in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Since the human genome is more than 3 billion 'letters' long, this is an insanely huge job! (amnh.org)
  • The human genome is comprised of three billion chemical units represented by the letters A, C, T, and G -- a string that would stretch from Boston to London if written in letters of the size in this article. (nytimes.com)
  • That's because humans are 99.9 percent genetically the same. (amnh.org)
  • Of course their constituent DNA strings are clumped, too: If the genome could be laid out end-to-end, it'd be six feet long. (wired.com)
  • Fractal globule models the way the human genome folds inside the nucleus of a cell. (physicscentral.com)
  • In the course of human progress, it has been far easier to understand the things we make, rather than what makes us. (howstuffworks.com)