Loading...
  • fetuses
  • The appeal to the NIH Revitalization Act for authority would mean that only sexually reproduced dead human embryos, fetuses and cells could possibly be covered by the Dickey Amendment. (lifeissues.net)
  • The Dickey Amendment would actually allow the use of living human embryos and fetuses sexually reproduced in purely experimental research under certain dubious circumstances and if the Secretary of DHHS says so. (lifeissues.net)
  • in addition, we included data from embryos and fetuses (produced by NT) that terminated prematurely. (jove.com)
  • In 1980, Ernesto Ippolito and Ignacio Ponseti published their results on a histological study they performed on congenital club foot in human fetuses. (asu.edu)
  • Although there are interesting ethical issues surrounding the collection and use of somatic (adult) stem cells from aborted fetuses and umbilical cord blood, the most intense controversy to date has focused on the source of human embryonic stem (hES) cells. (jci.org)
  • ethical
  • Since the first fertilization of a human egg in the laboratory in 1968, scientific and technological breakthroughs have raised ethical dilemmas and generated policy controversies on both sides of the Atlantic. (scribd.com)
  • Over time, he argues, partisan debate and religious-secular polarization have come to overshadow ethical reflection and political deliberation on the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research. (scribd.com)
  • I believe that the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research to reduce human suffering are critical and complex ethical issues. (scribd.com)
  • These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The donation of eggs, sperm and embryos to support this work is essential and I ensure that we are compliant with all the necessary ethical and regulatory procedures. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • But it hopes the ethical and scientific questions about when and how embryos are used will be determined by a parliamentary committee that begins hearings this fall, Health Minister Allan Rock's spokesman said in late July. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Regulatory issues are addressed in discussions of the ethical debate surrounding the derivation of human embryonic stem cells and the current policies governing their use in the United States and abroad, including the rules and conditions regulating federal funding and questions of intellectual property. (springer.com)
  • Above all, it is universally agreed that the use of adult stem cells does not entail any ethical problems. (vatican.va)
  • Technical problems aside, the need to extract these cells from living human embryos raises ethical questions of the highest order. (vatican.va)
  • In order to ensure that federal funds are used to support only stem cell research that is scientifically sound, legal, and ethical, the NIH will examine the derivation of all existing stem cell lines and create a registry of those lines that satisfy this criteria. (archives.gov)
  • Around the world, researchers and politicians have struggled to develop guidelines that will allow for ethical and socially responsible stem cell research. (spusa.org)
  • Discussion of the bioethics of human stem cell research has transitioned from controversies over the source of human embryonic stem cells to concerns about the ethical use of stem cells in basic and clinical research. (jci.org)
  • From that point forward, hES cell research has been steeped in ethical controversy. (jci.org)
  • Against this background dystopian view of science, a pro-life ideology rapidly emerged as a main driving force behind stem cell ethical debate and policy. (jci.org)
  • It is safe to say that, despite a host of other concerns about where science was leading us in the future, the ethical discourse over stem cell research for the past decade has been characterized predominantly by the debate over embryo destruction. (jci.org)
  • As scientists continue to advance techniques in cloning technologies, we have seen an increase in the number of ethical debates on the future of cloning. (harvardsciencereview.com)
  • and the characteristics of the cells, their potential use in regenerative medicine, and the ethical issues surrounding their provenance, have been widely discussed in the scientific literature. (biologists.org)
  • destruction
  • National governments make rules that govern the creation, destruction, and use of embryos in the laboratory-but they do so in profoundly different ways. (scribd.com)
  • In an anti-abortion statement read with Mr. Bush at his side, the Pope spoke of "evils such as euthanasia, infanticide and, most recently, proposals for the creation for research purposes of human embryos, destined to destruction in the process. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • However, since the gold standard stem cells, embryonic stem cells, require the destruction of a human embryo, great controversy has arisen regarding the ethics of stem cell research. (spusa.org)
  • scientists
  • Although the possibility of cloning humans had been the subject of speculation for much of the 20th century, scientists and policy makers began to take the prospect seriously in the mid-1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many nations outlawed it, while a few scientists promised to make a clone within the next few years. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, scientists at the New York Stem Cell Foundation announced that they had succeeded in generating embryonic stem cell lines, but their process involved leaving the oocyte 's nucleus in place, resulting in triploid cells, which would not be useful for cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • But even he concedes that over time there could be pressure to change the law to allow the cloning of people and that scientists may still be pushing to do this. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • Federal funding of medical research on these existing stem cell lines will promote the sanctity of life " without undermining it " and will allow scientists to explore the potential of this research to benefit the lives of millions of people who suffer from life destroying diseases. (archives.gov)
  • The use of differentiated cells from human pluripotent cell lines would allow scientists to test new medications on a wider range of cell types. (spusa.org)
  • Although a simple idea, scientists and physicians have struggled for more than 50 years to understand how we can manipulate our cells in order to replace or regenerate our bodies. (harvardsciencereview.com)
  • Up to this point in history, all that scientists knew was that within the nucleus of a cell there was genetic information, and this nucleus was bathed within the surrounding fluid in the cell, known as the cytoplasm. (harvardsciencereview.com)
  • Many scientists shared this hypothesis, as well as the idea that some factors within the cytoplasm cause irreversible changes to the genetic material in the nuclei of cells. (harvardsciencereview.com)
  • Repeated iterations of this process would allow scientists to proceed through multiple human generations in the laboratory. (bmj.com)
  • vivo
  • Bovine clones that survived until the neonatal period differed quantitatively and qualitatively from in-vivo-derived cattle. (jove.com)
  • germ
  • 78:7634-7638, 1981) or from fetal germ cells (Matsui, et al. (google.es)
  • Researchers have also succeeded in deriving primordial germ cells from (murine) induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, 13 and in producing functional sperm 2 and eggs 3 from primordial germ cells generated from (murine) iPS cells, effectively removing the distinction between somatic and germ cells when it comes to the (technologically mediated) reproduction of the organism. (bmj.com)
  • defects
  • Prenatal exposure to alcohol (ethanol) in human and animal models results in a range of alcohol-induced developmental defects. (asu.edu)
  • In humans, those collective birth defects are called Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, with the most severe manifestation being Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). (asu.edu)
  • Researchers
  • Researchers examined Hwang's cell line using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and found recombination patterns that are consistent with its derivation from a parthenogenetically derived embryo. (highlighthealth.com)
  • However, most researchers believe that in the foreseeable future it will not be possible to use this technique to produce a human clone that will develop to term. (bootstrike.com)
  • In recent years, researchers have been exploring the potential of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS cells) as possible substitutes or supplements to embryonic stem cells. (spusa.org)
  • At this time researchers are still uncertain of what clinical differences may exist between iPS cells and embryonic stem cells, meaning that, at this time, further research on both kinds of stem cells is necessary to fully understand the medical potential of these new discoveries. (spusa.org)
  • NBC News ] Researchers say they have made powerful stem cells from both young and old adults using cloning techniques, and also found clues about why it is so difficult to do this with human beings. (bioethics.net)
  • Using wildtype or engineered stem cell lines, researchers may use this technique to uncover the various mechanisms or treatments that may affect early brain infection and resulting microcephaly in Zika virus-infected embryos. (jove.com)
  • Researchers have discovered that chemotherapy provides the perfect backdrop for 'sleeping' cancer to churn out deadly cancer stem cells. (stem-cells-news.com)
  • Researchers found that modifying blood stem cells to raise their levels of a T cell-blocking protein called PD-L1 reversed hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. (stem-cells-news.com)
  • More controversially, it might also function as a powerful technology of 'human enhancement' by allowing researchers to use all the techniques of selective breeding to produce individuals with a desired genotype. (bmj.com)
  • More recently, researchers have begun to publish some results involving the production of gamete- like cells from both embryonic and induced pluripotent human stem cells. (bmj.com)
  • donors
  • The government's draft bill would allow surplus embryos to be used for medical research with the consent of the egg and sperm donors. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • research
  • And if, as with Weissman et al, human cloning is not cloning if it is for " research " purposes, then the Dickey Amendment could even be construed to allow human cloning for "research" purposes . (lifeissues.net)
  • NOTE: What we are clearly beginning to see emerge here is the massive contradictions accruing among several major federal research documents interwoven as "authorities" over the years, using erroneous (or no) scientific definitions for "political" purposes now concretized as stare decisis , ultimately rendering them unconstitutional due to vagueness, and impotent in protecting the lives of both sexually and asexually reproduced human beings in research and in reproduction. (lifeissues.net)
  • Under HHS [OHRP federal] regulations at 45 CFR Part 46, human subject means a living individual about whom an investigator (whether professional or student) conducting research obtains (1) data through intervention or interaction with the individual, or (2) identifiable private information . (lifeissues.net)
  • 1. The definition of " human subject research " is the focus of these Guidances, and references are given to both the current OHRP federal regulations (45 CFR 46) and to Public Law 103-43 (the NIH Revitalization Act). (lifeissues.net)
  • In Embryo Politics , Thomas Banchoff provides a comprehensive overview of political struggles aboutembryo research during four decades in four countries-the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France. (scribd.com)
  • Embryo research is one of the few political issues with no historical precedent. (scribd.com)
  • Scientific research within the department is helping to understand the earliest stages of human development from oocyte maturation to the first few days after fertilisation. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • In the United Kingdom, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority has granted permission to research groups at the Roslin Institute and the Newcastle Centre for Life. (bootstrike.com)
  • Proposals to use nucleus transfer techniques in human stem cell research raise a set of concerns beyond the moral status of any created embryo. (bootstrike.com)
  • At the moment, the government would allow stem-cell research using embryos that are less than 14 days old and would otherwise be destroyed. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Mr. Rock's draft appeared only after the government received polling data showing that most Canadians would allow the use of donated embryos for stem-cell research. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The poll suggested that 86 per cent of Canadians would allow use of embryos in research with proper government regulation. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The federal government does not provide funding for scientific research involving stem cells, but has received patent applications from biotech firms planning to clone embryos for research purposes. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • On Thursday, August 9, 2001, U.S. President George W. Bush's decided to allow federal funding for limited stem-cell research, as provided by the White House. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Federal funding will apply only to research using existing embryonic stem-cell lines, that is, stem cells already harvested from destroyed embryos. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • want to halt stem-cell research that uses fertilized human eggs. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • It would be a mistake to assume that the restrictions on federal funding for human embryonic stem (hES) cell research result in an absence of oversight of such work. (nap.edu)
  • Animal care committee reviews of hES cell research that uses nonhuman animals. (nap.edu)
  • This chapter reviews current state and federal regulation of hES cell research in the United States, noting where gaps in regulatory coverage are addressed by the guidelines proposed later in this report ( Chapter 6 ). (nap.edu)
  • and presents comparisons with regulations in other nations that have substantial hES cell research programs. (nap.edu)
  • Recommendations about the application of existing regulatory conventions to hES cell research are offered. (nap.edu)
  • In the context of privately funded research it is particularly difficult to explore mechanisms by which discoveries made using hES cells can be made widely accessible for the benefit of human health. (nap.edu)
  • Several policy statements developed regarding patenting and licensing issues more generally applied in biomedical science can serve as aspirational goals for the hES cell research community. (nap.edu)
  • Depending on the goal of the research, large animals as models of pulmonary disease often resemble the situation of the human lung much better than mice do. (jove.com)
  • Although there is great interest in the potential for using stem cells as cell replacements and other treatments for diseases that currently have no cure, research on the biology of human embryonic stem cells is still in its infancy. (springer.com)
  • In the end though the debate is quite a simple one, and is based on the value our representatives put on human life or in permitting scientific research at any cost. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • On the other hand proponents for change argue instead that embryos may have to be sacrificed for the sake of research which could lead to major breakthroughs in a host of diseases and ailments. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • The research was strictly limited to embryos which had been produced during the IVF program - a program intended to result in birth, but which were going to be destroyed anyway. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • The current debate is about how the embryonic stem cells used in research are derived," he wrote. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • A further fear is that a green light now for embryonic cloning research will merely be a stepping stone towards a more open slather approach in future years. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • This respect demands that any research that is inconsistent with the dignity of the human being is morally excluded. (vatican.va)
  • 3) By contrast, research using human embryonic stem cells has been hampered by important technical difficulties (4). (vatican.va)
  • Federal funding of research using existing embryonic stem cell lines is consistent with the President's belief in the fundamental value and sanctity of human life. (archives.gov)
  • The President's decision reflects his fundamental commitment to preserving the value and sanctity of human life and his desire to promote vital medical research. (archives.gov)
  • More than 60 existing stem cell lines from genetically diverse populations around the world are expected to be available for federally-funded research. (archives.gov)
  • To create embryonic stem cells for research, a "stem cell line" must be created from the inner cell mass of a week-old embryo. (archives.gov)
  • In 2006, the landscape of stem cell research changed when the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were first announced. (spusa.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells have the unique ability to self-replicate indefinitely before creating specialized cells, which is one of the advantages of performing research on them. (spusa.org)
  • An important part of this research would be the identification of how and why undifferentiated cells become differentiated. (spusa.org)
  • The team, at Massachusetts-based Advanced Cell Technology and the Institute for Stem Cell Research in Los Angeles, say they used the cloning methods to create the stem cells to match a 35-year-old man and a 75-year-old man. (bioethics.net)
  • Address correspondence to: K. John McLaughlin, Center for Molecular and Human Genetics, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, Ohio 43205, USA. (jci.org)
  • BAC's deliberations on embryonic stem cell research helped shape the government policies that helped Singapore pursue its goal of becoming one of the biggest investors of embryonic stem cell research in the early twenty-first century. (asu.edu)
  • One biomedical endeavor the government sought to fund was embryonic stem cell (ESC) research. (asu.edu)
  • By 2000, several countries had declared their stances on the legality of conducting and funding embryonic stem cell research , many with the aid of institutional bioethics boards. (asu.edu)
  • For example, the Human Genetics Subcommittee was created in 2001 and the Subcommittee on Research Involving Human Participants was created in 2007. (asu.edu)
  • In December 2000, BAC began to examine embryonic stem cell research . (asu.edu)
  • Each of these issues is discussed as I summarize the past, present, and future bioethical issues in stem cell research. (jci.org)
  • The main bioethical issues associated with human stem cells involve their derivation and use for research. (jci.org)
  • This Review summarizes these and other bioethical issues of the past, present, and future of stem cell research. (jci.org)
  • While public concerns such as these about science and its implications are not in themselves new, hES cell research offered the opportunity for all of these inchoate worries to coalesce around a single, new scientific field. (jci.org)
  • On the other hand, supporters of embryonic stem cell research have pointed out that not all religious traditions grant full moral standing to early-stage human embryos. (jci.org)
  • Ethics
  • In setting out an argument about the intersection of politics, ethics, and policy, I focus on national bioethics committees, elected leaders, and their efforts to reconcile the moral status of the embryo and the imperative of biomedical progress in practice. (scribd.com)
  • The President will create a new President's Council on Bioethics, chaired by Dr. Leon Kass, an expert in biomedical ethics and a professor at the University of Chicago, to study the human and moral ramifications of developments in biomedical and behaviorial science and technology. (archives.gov)
  • Some of this intellectual work has already begun, with philosophers and bioethicists discussing the ethics of posthumous and same-sex genetic parenthood with renewed enthusiasm. (bmj.com)
  • development
  • Diagram of the ways to reprogram cells along with the development of humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Choudhary M, Zhang X, Lako M, Stojkovic M, Murdoch A. "Beauty and Beast" molecule: HA in early human development . (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Recording and contextualizing the science of embryos, development, and reproduction. (asu.edu)
  • The embryos from which the existing stem cell lines were created have already been destroyed and no longer have the possibility of further development as human beings. (archives.gov)
  • Studying human embryonic stem cells could provide information on the complex process of human development. (spusa.org)
  • This is enounced by the European Court of Justice in the Brüstle case, which defines the human embryo as the beginning of the development of the human being. (europa.eu)
  • Living in a pluralistic society such as ours, supporters argue, means having to tolerate differences in religious and personal convictions over such personally theoretical matters as when during the course of human biological development moral personhood first appears. (jci.org)