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  • stem cell lines
  • We started last year in September and by mid-December we had already established some stem cell lines. (abc.net.au)
  • Although it was possible to do cloning and make stem cell lines using cloning in other species, it proved very, very difficult to do in humans," he told AM. (abc.net.au)
  • Bush said there are about 60 existing stem cell lines in various research facilities -- cell lines that have already been derived from human embryos. (cnn.com)
  • He said he would allow funding for research using existing stem cell lines only, "where the decision on life and death has already been made. (cnn.com)
  • But others questioned whether research using only the existing stem cell lines would be sufficient. (cnn.com)
  • Woo Suk Hwang, of Seoul National University, South Korea and colleagues used an improved technique for cloning embryos to create stem cell lines for 11 patients with various diseases or injuries. (kurzweilai.net)
  • The bank will screen, cultivate and store stem cell lines, which are select groups of not-yet-specialized cells able to generate diverse tissues. (nytimes.com)
  • Furthermore, they specifically proposed hESC research should steer away from attempting to produce viable offspring, focusing efforts on the use of cloned embryos as a viable source for deriving stem cell lines instead. (wikipedia.org)
  • While being charged with fraud and embezzlement, he has kept a relatively low profile at the Sooam Bioengineering Research Institute in Yongin, Gyeonggi Province, where he currently leads research efforts on creating cloned pig embryos and using them to make embryonic stem-cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease specific stem cell lines could then be studied in order to better understand the condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another application of SCNT stem cell research is using the patient specific stem cell lines to generate tissues or even organs for transplant into the specific patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang claimed to have created eleven different patent-specific stem cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four embryonic stem cell lines from human fetal somatic cells were derived from those blastocysts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germany has restrictive policies for stem cell research, but a 2008 law authorizes "the use of imported stem cell lines produced before May 1, 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • Italy has a 2004 law that forbids all sperm or egg donations and the freezing of embryos, but allows, in effect, using existing stem cell lines that have been imported. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2001, George W. Bush requested a review of the NIH's guidelines, and after a policy discussion within his circle of supporters, implemented a policy in August of that year to limit the number of embryonic stem cell lines that could be used for research. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethics
  • EDITOR'S NOTE: Two of the most hotly debated and currently controversial topics-in the fields of science, religion, ethics, and politics-are human cloning and stem-cell research. (apologeticspress.org)
  • In setting out an argument about the intersection of politics, ethics, and policy, I focus on national bioethics committees, elected leaders, and their efforts to reconcile the moral status of the embryo and the imperative of biomedical progress in practice. (scribd.com)
  • This was all done before much debate had been had over the ethics of human cloning. (scribd.com)
  • Woods was scheduled to participate in a Feb. 16 panel discussion, Cloning Controversies: Ethics, Science and Society, during the American Association for the Advancement of Science annual meeting. (innovations-report.com)
  • The play was written during a time of public debate over the ethics of cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The title of her PhD thesis is "The ethics of ex utero research on spare IVF human embryos" and was completed under the supervision of Benjamin Freedman. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is known for his international collaboration and work in the area of stem cell ethics. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was also the chair of ISSCR's Ethics and Public Policy Committee, and co-chair for the organization's Task Force on Guidelines for the Clinical Translation of stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has written about the ethics of travel for medical treatment, the procurement of human materials for stem cell research, and the appropriateness of the use of chimeras. (wikipedia.org)
  • The possibility of using the procedure on human eggs has raised safety and ethics questions. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • They're basically charged with the ability to make any other cells and tissues, and even organs. (abc.net.au)
  • The cells can then be turned into any different kind of cell, and used to produce new tissues that would be genetically identical to the person whose genome was inserted into the egg. (chron.com)
  • The technique could allow patients to replace their failing tissues with cells that are young, healthy and genetically identical to themselves, because they would have been grown from embryos cloned from themselves. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • In Human Embryonic Stem Cells, pioneers, leaders, and experts in this emerging field join forces to address all the key issues in the use of human pluripotent stem cells for treating degenerative diseases or for replacing tissues lost from trauma. (springer.com)
  • Those could easily lead to mutations that might cause tumors in tissues grown from the cells,' an editorial accompanying the Science report said. (cnn.com)
  • Totipotent stem cells possess an unlimited capability to specialize into any type of cell necessary-extraembryonic membranes and tissues, postembryonic organs and tissues, etc. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Stem cells can morph into all kinds of tissues and may be able to reverse the effects of various degenerative diseases. (sfgate.com)
  • Gardner pioneered the transplantation of cells and tissues between blastocyst stage mouse embryos and their reconstruction from their component tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are deemed to have a pluripotent potential because they have the ability to give rise to all of the tissues found in an adult organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The European Union Tissues and Cells Directives (EUTCD) introduced common safety and quality standards for human tissues and cells across the European Union (EU). (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of the directives was to facilitate a safer and easier exchange of tissues and cells (including human eggs and sperm) between member states and to improve safety standards for European citizens. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • Nineteen European countries including France, Spain, the United Kingdom, and Germany signed a treaty in 1998 prohibiting human cloning (DuPrau 77). (scribd.com)
  • One of the stranger claims about the Democratic candidate for president is that she was "eliminated" in 1998 and has since been replaced by a clone. (snopes.com)
  • The real Hillary Clinton has been dead since 1998 and was replaced with a clone. (snopes.com)
  • While there's no doubt the 2016 election cycle has been one of the more unusual ones in recent history, perhaps the culmination of the parade of bizarre rumors about Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton is that she was killed off in 1998 and is now represented by one of her many clones. (snopes.com)
  • The first hybrid human clone was created in November 1998, by Advanced Cell Technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells were isolated in mice in 1981, and in humans in 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • They were isolated in mice in 1981, and in humans in 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fetal
  • The births June 9 of Utah Pioneer and July 27 of Idaho Star, two more mules cloned from the same fetal mule skin cell line, added to the success of the University of Idaho-Utah State University project. (innovations-report.com)
  • LYAR is present at high levels in early embryos and preferentially in the liver fetal thymus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory
  • This was a laboratory study that aimed to produce embryonic stem cells from adult skin cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • They even showed that the stem cells could be turned into other types of cells, including heart cells that in a laboratory dish could pulse like a beating heart. (kwit.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells might then be removed from the cloned embryo and grown in the laboratory. (abc.net.au)
  • West and his colleagues created six cloned calves from laboratory-grown cow cells that were first allowed to grow to old age. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • As such, they have the ability to divide for indefinite periods in a laboratory culture to produce more stem cells, or to give rise, under specified conditions, to a veritable plethora of other cells. (apologeticspress.org)
  • When does human life in the laboratory begin and deserve protection? (scribd.com)
  • In their minds, final products of cloning, like farm animals and laboratory mice will not be the most important achievement. (zavos.org)
  • Fact: What you have been watching all of years are human replicas or laboratory grown clones. (snopes.com)
  • Woods, who directs the Northwest Equine Reproduction Laboratory at UI, said increasing calcium levels in the fluid surrounding cloned equine embryos proved the key to equine cloning. (innovations-report.com)
  • On November 2015, a Chinese biotech company Boyalife Group announced that it will partner with Hwang's laboratory, Sooam Biotech, to open the world's largest animal cloning factory in Tianjin as early as 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • China's distinctive attitude toward the embryo, combined with its lax regulatory system, could help its researchers leap the gap between laboratory science and medical application in stem cell therapy developments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • Somatic cell therapy refers to efforts to correct the functioning of a defective gene in an individual's body cells or to replace it and thus cure the disease that it causes. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Several groups around the world are working on gene editing in human embryos, using the revolutionary CRISPR technique . (newscientist.com)
  • Calcium functions as a universal intracellular messenger, controlling processes as diverse as gene transcription, muscle transcription and cell proliferation, Woods noted. (innovations-report.com)
  • He is known throughout the scientific community for his revolutionary research in embryonic-cell differentiation, developmental mechanisms of gene control, and stem cell physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene Patents Patents for human genetic material grant exclusivity over naturally occurring sequences of human genes and their effect on research and diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell growth-regulating nucleolar protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LYAR gene (Ly-1 antibody reactive clone). (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2017, Mitalipov and his team performed the first known successful attempt at creating genetically modified human embryos, using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene modifying tool. (wikipedia.org)
  • Center for Embryonic Cell and Gene Therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitalipov
  • Dr Mitalipov said that since the reprogrammed cells use genetic material from the patient, there was no concern about transplant rejection. (abc.net.au)
  • In 2013, Mitalipov was the first to derive stem cells from human embryos created by cloning adult cells . (newscientist.com)
  • After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 funding for stem cell research was scarce, so Mitalipov applied for and won a fellowship at Utah State University in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • A therapy for mitochondrial diseases that Mitalipov discovered, the "spindle transfer" technique, involves removing the nucleus from a human egg and placing it into another. (wikipedia.org)
  • In May 2013, Mitalipov and his team published a study in Cell that describes a new process for creating human stem cells from skin cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitalipov and his team experimented upon a larger number of embryos, and further demonstrated the possibility of safely and efficiently correcting defective genes that cause inherited diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • eggs
  • It's a problem with human cloneing, because human eggs are expensive - the only way to get them is to pump a woman full of hormones to induce many ovulations at once. (slashdot.org)
  • human eggs are in short supply for research. (twincities.com)
  • One sure way to prevent it would be to edit the genes of sperm or eggs rather than of embryos . (newscientist.com)
  • They fused those cells with New Zealand rabbit eggs from which the vast majority of rabbit DNA had been removed. (sfgate.com)
  • One reason is that two proteins essential to cell division, known as spindle proteins, are located very close to the chromosomes in primate eggs. (snopes.com)
  • Dr. Wood and a colleague donated skin cells and the DNA from those cells was transferred into human eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang explained that his team used 242 eggs to create a single cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a statutory body that regulates and inspects all clinics in the United Kingdom providing in vitro fertilisation (IVF), artificial insemination and the storage of human eggs, sperm or embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Regulations were implemented on 1 April 2005 and any donor who donated sperm, eggs or embryos from that date onwards is, by law, identifiable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Wood and a colleague donated skin cells, and DNA from those cells was transferred to human eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • The resulting stem cells could then possibly be used to repair damaged tissue, or even treat genetic conditions. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Researchers have been looking into ways of using a patient's own cells to create embryonic stem cells, as this would ensure that the genetic material in any cells used therapeutically would match the patient's DNA. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Actually the nice thing about this is that if you had some genetic disease(like cystic fibrosis) you could take the genetic material out of one of your skin cells, correct it, and then use that with this process to make an embryo. (slashdot.org)
  • Next, they removed most of the DNA from each egg and replaced the genetic material with DNA from other peoples' skin cells. (kwit.org)
  • The resultant cell is then induced to divide, usually by applying an electric shock, to form an embryo which is a genetic copy (ie a "clone") of the original body cell. (abc.net.au)
  • Scottish embryologist Ian Wilmut and his colleagues had taken a mammary gland cell from a six-year-old Scottish Finn Dorset ewe and, via a process known as "nuclear transfer," succeeded in placing the genetic material from that cell into a hollowed-out egg cell from a Scottish Blackface sheep. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The device can be combined with microfluidics to perform genetic analysis of very small samples of DNA, even the amount present in a single cell. (kurzweilai.net)
  • The vast majority of serious genetic diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, can already be prevented by various forms of screening, such as generating several embryos by IVF and implanting only the ones that don't carry a genetic disease. (newscientist.com)
  • The vast majority of the DNA in the embryos is human, with a small percentage of genetic material -- called mitochondrial DNA -- contributed by the rabbit egg. (sfgate.com)
  • During the 1960s, Brinster pioneered the development of techniques to manipulate mouse embryos-his techniques have made the mouse the major genetic model for understanding the basis of human biology and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • This transcontinental collaboration constructed a body of work that formed the foundation for a generation of scientific progress in genetic modification via transgenesis, homologous recombination or "knock-out" techniques, and cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The offspring having all of the mother's genetic material are called full clones and those having only half are called half clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • this form of genetic engineering can also be called inheritable genetic modification and has the potential to change the human species along eugenic lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering in an article in The American Naturalist in 1966 and again, the following year, in The Washington Post. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other potential uses of embryonic stem cells include investigation of early human development, study of genetic disease and as in vitro systems for toxicology testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is known for discovering a controversial genetic therapy that may be a way to prevent mitochondrial diseases, as well as a new way of creating human stem cells from skin cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • viable
  • Research supporter Montel Williams, a talk-show host who suffers from multiple sclerosis, said it was not known whether the 60 cell lines referred to by Bush were "viable. (cnn.com)
  • No one knows if such an embryo could develop into a viable fetus, though some experiments with other species suggest it would not. (sfgate.com)
  • Her concept of "non-viable embryos" as acceptable objects for research is still referenced today. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite similar misinformation to the contrary, adult stem cell research is a viable and vibrant path to new medical therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fertilisation and Embryology Act
  • The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 was drafted taking the report into account. (wikipedia.org)
  • They then held a public consultation based on their review of the Act, and following this published a White Paper, Review of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act, within which Government presented its initial proposals to revise the legislation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is divided into three parts: amendments to the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 parenthood miscellaneous and general. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimentation
  • However, Congressmen Chris Smith, Mike Ferguson, and Scott Garrett assailed it, saying, "This legislation will launch New Jersey blindly into the vanguard of terrible human-rights violations and grisly human experimentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • New Jersey's Catholic bishops condemned the newly legalized process as violating "a central tenet of all civilized codes on human experimentation beginning with the Nuremberg Code. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1995, the NIH Human Embryo Research Panel advised the administration of President Bill Clinton to permit federal funding for research on embryos left over from in vitro fertility treatments and also recommended federal funding of research on embryos specifically created for experimentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The researchers showed that the resulting embryos could develop to a stage where they could produce healthy stem cells containing the genes from the skin cells. (kwit.org)
  • A few months after the cloned calves were born, the team removed some blood cells and measured the lengths of their telomeres -- structures on the tips of chromosomes, which carry most of the genes inside cells. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Two of the genes Thomson used to convert the cells are different from those used by Yamanaka. (cnn.com)
  • In both studies, the induced cells that were formed contained several copies of viruses that were used to insert the genes into the skin cells. (cnn.com)
  • A: Four genes were inserted into each skin cell. (twincities.com)
  • A fourth paper describing attempts to correct defective genes in human embryos using CRISPR is about to be published. (newscientist.com)
  • such as skin cells -- and egg cells, which have the unique capacity to "reprogram" the genes in body cells and make them behave as though they were embryo cells. (sfgate.com)
  • A potential use of stem cells genetically matched to a patient would be to create cell lines that have genes linked to a patient's particular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenic pigs as models for various human diseases were produced with putative genes responsible for Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, Psoriasis, Arteriosclerosis and Diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • The skin cell nucleus was then fused with the donor egg cell. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The Slashdot headline neglected to mention that they synthesised an embryo from adult human skin cells - so it's 100% genetically compatible with the donor. (slashdot.org)
  • Consequently, removal of the egg's nucleus to make room for the donor nucleus also removes the spindle proteins, interfering with cell division. (snopes.com)
  • The technique consists of taking an enucleated oocyte (egg cell) and implanting a donor nucleus from a somatic (body) cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of the donor egg cell is removed and discarded, leaving it 'deprogrammed. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells genetically matched the donor organism from which they came.This gives them the ability to create patient specific pluripotent cells, which could then be used in therapies or disease research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting cells would be genetically identical to the somatic cell donor, thus avoiding any complications from immune system rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2004, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (Disclosure of Donor Information) Regulations 2004/1511, enabled donor-conceived children to access the identity of their sperm, egg or embryo donor upon reaching the age of 18. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, these problems associated with histocompatibility may be solved using autologous donor adult stem cells, therapeutic cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells provide hope that it will be possible to overcome the problems of donor tissue shortage and also, by making the cells immunocompatible with the recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • uterus
  • That zygote-which then contained the full complement of 54 chromosomes (as if it had been fertilized by a sperm cell)-was placed into the uterus of a second Scottish Blackface sheep that served as a surrogate mother. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The trouble with mosaicism is that there is no sure way to detect it before implanting an embryo into the uterus. (newscientist.com)
  • They argued that the measure does not actually ban human cloning, but merely the attempt to implant cloned embryos into a human uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • fertility treatments
  • reports that 55% of poll participants said they support federal funding for research on embryos "left over from fertility treatments. (californiahealthline.org)
  • The law also limits the number of embryos that may be created in future fertility treatments and lets the central government decide what procedures may be used to thaw them. (nytimes.com)
  • implications
  • Working at the intersection of a variety of disciplines, the IBHF has become as a leader in the study of biotechnology and its implications for the human future. (wikipedia.org)
  • grown
  • They can be grown to full maturity in less than 3 days now, and their entire memories transferred-and even stored on computers-then downloaded into replacement clones. (snopes.com)
  • We couldn't find anything credible pointing to the existence of grown human clones, let alone a stockpile of Hillary replacement clones, nor could we find anything that indicates the entire Clinton family was wiped out while President Bill Clinton was still in office - and no one noticed. (snopes.com)
  • germ
  • Clonal analysis of X-chromosome inactivation and the origin of the germ line in the mouse embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years, Brinster has continued to advance the field of stem cell biology, having made a series of catalyzing, transformational discoveries utilizing male germ line stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • with Mario Capecchi and Oliver Smithies 2003 Selected for the Hall of Honor National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (15 members, total) 2006 Gairdner Foundation International Award, Canada "for pioneering discoveries in germ line modification in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • or Germ cells voluntarily donated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent, that is, they are able to differentiate to generate primitive ectoderm, which ultimately differentiates during gastrulation into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • Then, after a long search, they finally found the best way to stimulate each egg so that it would develop into an embryo without the need to be fertilized with sperm. (kwit.org)