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  • genome
  • CAMBRIDGE, UK, and LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Nov. 9, 2015-Every cell in the human body contains a copy of the human genome. (lanl.gov)
  • Previous work on cancer had revealed that mutations often leave a molecular fingerprint, called a mutational signature, on the genome of a cancer cell. (lanl.gov)
  • One of the largest biological endeavours of recent years was the human genome project that mapped and sequenced all 3 billion of the genetic letters in our DNA code. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • It's huge, and potentially bigger than the human genome project because you're going into all these different dimensions? (thenakedscientists.com)
  • That sample acquisition part is certainly more complex than the Human Genome Project. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Chris - I suppose is some of the challenges that had to be surmounted for the Human Genome Project, 13 years ago when it finished. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • I mean the human genome project is certainly a template for collaborative efforts in biology and for building a resource. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • The researchers found that in stably transformed HeLa cells, the integration event occurred at the right border of the Ti plasmid's T-DNA, exactly as would happen when it is being transferred into a plant cell genome. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The findings mark the culmination of a 10 year investigation, part-funded by BBSRC, into the role of G-quadruplexes within the human genome. (nanowerk.com)
  • Working at the interface of chemistry and biology, from the hypothetical, through computational modelling to synthetic lab experiments, Professor Shankar Balasubramanian and Professor Steve Jackson's research groups have shown that G-quaruplexes, so-called because they form in guanine-rich DNA sequences, are not just a structural curiosity - they form at sites across the genome in living cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • While quadruplex DNA is found fairly consistently throughout the genome of human cells and their division cycles, a marked increase was shown when the fluorescent staining grew more intense during the 's-phase' - the point in a cell cycle where DNA replicates before the cell divides. (nanowerk.com)
  • To settle the case, they analyzed the genetic sequence of the cell line at 500,000 locations across the genome. (scientificamerican.com)
  • And yet they share the same genome or set of genes with lineage-committed cells, cells fated to be or do one thing. (redorbit.com)
  • A fundamental question is how the identical genome sequence gives rise to a diversity of cell types with different gene expression profiles and cellular functions," said David Hawkins of the Ludwig Institute and co-first author of the study. (redorbit.com)
  • We wanted to adapt the CRISPR system to store information in the human genome," Perli says. (mit.edu)
  • researchers
  • Wide-ranging and highly practical, Human Cell Culture, Second Edition, provides novice and experienced researchers alike with a detailed, step-by-step guide to successful culture human cells today. (springer.com)
  • In the new study, the researchers added "resveralogues," or chemicals similar to resveratrol, to aging human cells and found that they reactivated these splicing factors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • By investigating 7,329,860 somatic mutations from the cancer genomes, the researchers were able to effectively look back in time, calculating which mutations each cell had had before it became a cancer cell. (lanl.gov)
  • This information could help researchers understand the biology of cancer development and even look at the rate that primary cancer cells spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). (lanl.gov)
  • In one experiment, the researchers placed cultured cells in several parallel lines, alternating between electrically active and inactive cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Researchers found that the disease actually changes a part of human genetic material to " hide in plain sight, " Tariq Rana, the lead author of the study and a professor of pediatrics at UC San Diego, told USA Today. (rt.com)
  • In a study published in the journal Cell host & Microbe, Rana and her fellow researchers explain that Zika may cause birth defects when it enters a human cell. (rt.com)
  • CHICAGO --- Researchers have discovered a human protein that helps fight the Ebola virus and could one day lead to an effective therapy against the deadly disease, according to a new Northwestern Medicine study. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using Ferritin, a large protein shell that our cells use to store iron, the researchers have found a method they have called FerriTag that allows an electron microscope (EM) to view proteins precisely unlike current methods. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Nanowerk News ) 60 years after Watson and Crick's ground breaking paper described the double helix structure of DNA, researchers at the University of Cambridge have observed four-stranded DNA structures within human cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • Researchers say they have confirmed suspicions that embryonic stem cells claimed to be extracted from the first cloned human embryo by discredited South Korean scientist Woo Suk Hwang actually owe their existence to parthenogenesis, a process in which egg cells give rise to embryos without being fertilized by sperm. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Researchers from University of Exeter in the UK worked with senescent cells, which have stopped dividing. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Researchers found that splicing factors can be switched back on with chemicals, making senescent cells not only look physically younger, but start to behave more like young cells and start dividing. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Lu and other researchers have previously devised ways to record that kind of analog information in bacteria , but until now, no one has achieved it in human cells. (mit.edu)
  • For example, the researchers engineered a gene circuit that only expresses Cas9 in the presence of a target molecule, such as TNF-alpha, which is produced by immune cells during inflammation. (mit.edu)
  • By increasing telomere length the researchers hope to stretch the usable life of cells that are used in research. (bionews.org.uk)
  • Researchers from the University of Edinburgh found that when the parasite is swallowed by a fly, a reaction is triggered in a particular part of the parasites' cells. (mdtmag.com)
  • Because of this, researchers say their study could also point towards greater understanding of human genetic disorders linked to cell defects. (mdtmag.com)
  • fibroblasts
  • New to this edition are chapters on fibroblasts, Schwann cells, gastric and colonic epithelial cells, and parathyroid cells. (springer.com)
  • In this respect, we performed reprogramming experiments applying TBX3 knockdown in human fibroblasts and keratinocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • Human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) (System Biosciences) were cultivated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1% Glutamax, 1% nonessential amino acids (NEAA), and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic (all from Life Technologies). (hindawi.com)
  • Now comes news, in a research paper recently published in the journal Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, that nicotinamide can actually bring about a kind of rejuvenation of certain types of human cells called fibroblasts when they are undergoing the aging process. (life-enhancement.com)
  • To compare these epigenomic landscapes, Ren and colleagues looked at chromatin-modification profiles and DNA methylomes in hESCs and primary fibroblasts, the latter a type of cell commonly found in animal connective tissues. (redorbit.com)
  • types
  • In this second edition of a popular and widely acclaimed collection of laboratory methods, a panel of leading authorities have thoroughly brought up-to-date and optimized its cell culture techniques for a broad range of human cell types relevant to human disease. (springer.com)
  • In research reported in the journal Nature Genetics, two clock-like mutational processes have been found in human cells and the rates at which the two clocks tick in different human cell types have been determined. (lanl.gov)
  • To identify the mutational signatures of clock-like mutational processes in the human body, this study looked at the DNA sequences of 10,250 cancer genomes, from 36 different types of cancer. (lanl.gov)
  • Both Signature 1 and Signature 5 clock-like processes accumulated mutations at a constant rate over time and operate in essentially all cell types in the human body. (lanl.gov)
  • The proteins produced by a particular cell type also vary widely, though many proteins essential to cellular maintenance and reproduction are common to most cell types. (reference.com)
  • In fact, Agrobacterium attaches to and genetically transforms several types of human cells. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Another difference is that while there are several types of cells in the human body, there are only three types of plant cells. (reference.com)
  • The three types of plant cells are parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma. (reference.com)
  • structures
  • But when the power was increased, the nanomotors surged into action, zooming around and bumping into organelles - structures within the cell that perform specific functions. (slashdot.org)
  • The specific structures in a given cell vary widely from cell type to cell type, as do the sizes of cells. (reference.com)
  • In 2012, the Cambridge team showed for the very first time that these structures form in cancer cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • Then, using a small synthetic drug called pyridostatin, developed by Senior Research Associate Dr Rapha l Rodriguez, to interact with these complex structures they were able to prevent proliferation of cancer cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • In their latest study, funded by Cancer Research UK, PhD student Giulia Biffi and the team have identified G-quadruplexes in cancer cells using fluorescent biomarkers, which allowed them to pinpoint the time and place of the structures' emergence within the cell cycle. (nanowerk.com)
  • The paper was published last week in Nature Chemistry ( 'Quantitative visualization of DNA G-quadruplex structures in human cells' ). (nanowerk.com)
  • Methods
  • This coupled with also spatial methods that are microscopy based to map cells in their two and three-dimensional context has meant that we can now grab hold of cells at a completely different level. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • So you're basically describing the entire molecular fingerprint of that cell rather than the morphology of the cell the way we've been doing with conventional microscopy methods. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • enzymes
  • As a result, human enzymes are activated, which could possibly impact the cell's barriers. (rt.com)
  • Using enzymes called recombinases, they program cells to flip sections of their DNA when a particular event occurs, such as exposure to a particular chemical. (mit.edu)
  • compounds
  • These studies may range from immunophenotyping experiments, studying T cells during development and disease or understanding impacts on T cells on treatment with specific compounds or mitogens or evaluating T cell specific responses. (emdmillipore.com)
  • They applied compounds called reversatrol analogues, chemicals based on a substance naturally found in red wine, dark chocolate, red grapes and blueberries, to cells in culture. (hindustantimes.com)
  • viral
  • Changes in T cell populations have also been implicated in chronic inflammation associated with the disease states such as cancer and atherosclerosis as well as in viral infection, bacterial infections, parasitic infections, sepsis, tuberculosis, burns, trauma, malnutrition, and stress. (emdmillipore.com)
  • So, when it enters a cell, the body tries to get rid of the infection by modifying viral RNA. (rt.com)
  • In bacteria, where CRISPR originally evolved, the system records past viral infections so that cells can recognize and fight off invading viruses. (mit.edu)
  • organism
  • There's no word on how they would introduce this to a normal, healthy cell that was still part of a larger organism, nor of how long it would take to ingest it, nor of have they control it using the ultrasonic and magnetic forces. (slashdot.org)
  • Simply put, phenotype is the appearance of an organism - or, in this case, the appearance of a single cell - resulting from the interaction of its genotype and its environment. (life-enhancement.com)
  • microscopic
  • cold fjord tips a BBC report about the successful installation of microscopic motors into living, human cells . (slashdot.org)
  • For example, typical skin cells are microscopic and oval in shape, while peripheral nerve cells can have long cellular processes that may stretch for long distances. (reference.com)
  • processes
  • These clock-like mutational processes could ultimately be responsible for a large proportion of human cancer and contribute to human aging. (lanl.gov)
  • Other mutational processes, however, may be internal to the cell and generate mutations continuously, at a constant rate over decades. (lanl.gov)
  • One of the most important and fraught processes in the human body is inflammation. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The findings are likely to push forward the emerging science of epigenetics, which seeks to identify the processes that impact gene regulation and help determine human development and disease. (redorbit.com)
  • stably
  • In current medical practice, there is nothing that can be done to stably augment the electrical excitability of cells in the heart or brain," said Nenad Bursac, professor of biomedical engineering at Duke. (innovations-report.com)
  • pathological
  • In those pathological conditions, these cells become electrically silent," said Bursac. (innovations-report.com)
  • A brief clinical case report focusing on cellular responses to pathological insults in human studies may also be submitted as a Letter to the Editor in a concise and short format. (springer.com)
  • biologists
  • Sarah - We're setting out the goal of mapping all cells in the human body, through an international effort that involves cell biologists genomics experts computational biologists and the medical community to collaborate on creating an atlas of the human body at the level of individual cells. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • genetically
  • The result suggests that, although Hwang deceived the world about achieving the first human cloning, his group was first to succeed in performing human parthenogenesis, which may offer a way of creating cells that are genetically matched to a woman for transplantation back into her body to treat degenerative diseases. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The claim went up in smoke in January of 2006 after a probe by the university concluded that Hwang had fabricated the evidence, which followed a similarly damning assessment of a landmark paper from the previous year in which the group falsely reported creating 11 cell lines genetically matched to their donors. (scientificamerican.com)
  • suggests
  • The newly discovered ability of the human protein RBBP6 to interfere with Ebola virus replication suggests new ways to fight the infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • This suggests that Agrobacterium transforms human cells by a mechanism similar to that which it uses for transformation of plants cells. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • diseases
  • Multiple studies have identified the identification and enumeration of CD4 T helper cells to be important in characterizing and monitoring immunodeficiency such as HIV, immunosuppression, and autoimmune diseases. (emdmillipore.com)
  • It might also prove useful for treating a variety of genetic diseases involving poor conductivity in human sodium and calcium channels. (innovations-report.com)
  • In a second experiment, they delivered the sodium channel gene to cardiomyocytes -- electrically active heart cells -- in conditions mimicking various diseases or stressful situations, such as a heart attack. (innovations-report.com)
  • We're basically borrowing from bacteria to eventually help humans suffering from heart or brain diseases. (innovations-report.com)
  • Professor Keith Matthews, of the University of Edinburgh's School of Biological Sciences, who led the research, said: "Our results also give valuable insight into how our own cells evolved and how they function, which is helpful for understanding some inherited diseases. (mdtmag.com)
  • cancer
  • Some of these cell surface markers are used as targets for therapies against breast cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • Targeted therapies, such as lapatinib (Tykerb) [ 6 ], bevacizumab (Avastin) [ 7 ], and trastuzumab (Herceptin), are gaining special attention in cancer treatment as they act directly to cancer cells avoiding the destruction of healthy cells. (hindawi.com)
  • The paper shows that human cancer cells along with neuron and kidney cells were transformed with the Agrobacterium T-DNA. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • pathway
  • Collectively, these data afford a comprehensive view of the assembly pathway underlying centriole biogenesis in human cells. (uniprot.org)
  • MIT biological engineers have devised a memory storage system illustrated here as a DNA-embedded meter that is recording the activity of a signaling pathway in a human cell. (mit.edu)
  • immune cells
  • When the body is under attack from pathogens, the immune system marshals a diverse collection of immune cells to work together in a tightly orchestrated process and defend the host against the intruders. (medicalxpress.com)
  • cancerous
  • How fast these clocks tick in a cell may well determine both the ageing of this cell and the likelihood for it to become cancerous. (lanl.gov)
  • A short burst of telomere growth is preferential, they claim, because if the telomeres are left to grow unchecked, the cell may mutate and become cancerous. (bionews.org.uk)
  • chromosome
  • When a chromosome from a sperm cell joins with that of an egg, these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs or "snips") tend not to match each other. (scientificamerican.com)
  • organelles
  • Electron microscopy, on the other hand, magnifies cell organelles and enhances their resolution, making the interpretation of cell structure more precise and objective. (google.com)
  • Each cell also has several organelles, or stru. (reference.com)
  • vitro
  • However, limited availability of such in vitro fertilization samples and the inability to perform mechanistic analyses in this type of model continue to hinder studies of peri-implantation human development. (rupress.org)
  • gene expression
  • Taken together, the results suggest that nicotinamide may cause rejuvenation by restoring, at least in part, altered gene expression in aged cells through its activation of histone acetyltransferase. (life-enhancement.com)
  • development
  • This technology should offer insights into how gene regulation and other events within cells contribute to disease and development, he adds. (mit.edu)
  • longevity
  • So we know that nicotinamide is vital for human health, in terms of both its vitamin activity and its role as a precursor of NAD - and it may even play a role in determining human longevity. (life-enhancement.com)
  • researcher
  • The CD8-FITC/CD4-PE/CD3-PECy5 cocktail consists of three anti-human antibodies CD3-PECy5, CD4-PE, and CD8-FITC which enables the researcher to obtain percentages of mature human T lymphocytes (CD3+),helper/inducer (CD3+CD4+) T lymphocytes, and suppressor/cytotoxic (CD3+CD8+)T lymphocytes in erythrocyte-lysed whole blood. (emdmillipore.com)
  • disease
  • This greatly increases the number of cells available for studies such as drug testing or disease modelling,' said Professor Blau. (bionews.org.uk)
  • A genetic driver of the ageing process has been discovered by creating cells that mimic Werner's syndrome, a very rare disease that causes premature ageing. (bionews.org.uk)
  • generate
  • In a multicellular aggregate of hPSCs, intracellular apicosomes from multiple cells are trafficked to generate a common lumenal cavity. (rupress.org)
  • type
  • Sarah - That's a great question, and it really gets the bottom of asking what is a cell type or what is a cell state. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • To help interpretation of the electron micrographs, the structure of each type of cell and/or tissue is illustrated diagramatically, and an attempt has been made to relate this to function. (google.com)
  • Where possible, such interpretative diagrams are printed adjacent to the electron micrographs of that particular type of cell/ tissue. (google.com)
  • Each section will briefly introduce the reader to the type of cell, tissue or organ that is being illustrated. (google.com)
  • Rather than being classified according to tissue type, plant cells are classified according to their cell walls. (reference.com)