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  • Romer
  • According to Romer, technological change is a consequence of accumulation of knowledge acquired by forward-looking and profit-maximizing firms' production and research activities. (hindawi.com)
  • Romer also uses the concept of "learning by doing" developed by Arrow [ 12 ] in order to explain the technological development process. (hindawi.com)
  • Mortality
  • The paper uses longitudinal data on 45 Finnish cities to estimate the effect of water improvement on urban morbidity and mortality from the 1880s to the 1960s. (helsinki.fi)
  • In the formal theory offered here, age-specific selective pressure on mortality depends on a weighted average of remaining fertility (the classic effect) and remaining intergenerational transfers to be made to others. (pnas.org)
  • For species at the optimal quantity-investment tradeoff for offspring, only the transfer effect shapes mortality, explaining postreproductive survival and why juvenile mortality declines with age. (pnas.org)
  • If the combination of numbers of offspring and investment per offspring is optimal (plausibly true for many species), then only the transfer effect matters for mortality selection. (pnas.org)
  • Quantitative predictions fit data on contemporary human hunter-gatherer mortality and transfers. (pnas.org)
  • theoretical
  • Before the war, the main target of theoretical discussions about human capital was not to define or to measure its contribution to economies [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In his latest book, Carles Boix proposes to account for human history with a simple theoretical approach, where the interplay between warfare and production technologies determines the choice between production and violence. (booksandideas.net)
  • 2004). Time and effort have been devoted to developing a satisfactory understanding of the rationale and the mechanisms through which the benefits for the host of FDI take root, leading to theoretical support for a positive impact from FDI (for example, through increases in total factor productivity and accelerating capital accumulation). (voxeu.org)
  • migration
  • Migration and population growth aside, inherited abilities of a population are akin to the original properties of land in the sense that they are "given by nature" in any time period that is meaningful for economic analysis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • transition
  • China has in large part accomplished the historical process of transition from primitive capital accumulation for the formation of high-risk urban industry-although at an extremely heavy internal cost to rural society. (monthlyreview.org)
  • I show that matrices comprised of human genomes are good compressed sensors, and that LASSO applied to genomic prediction exhibits a phase transition as the sample size is varied. (blogspot.com)
  • Our analysis also reveals that an increasing education transition rate in India will not only help to achieve a population age structure that is favorable for economic growth, but also result in a larger share of skilled labor force that help to achieve higher economic growth rate. (hindawi.com)
  • poverty
  • Such continued plunder of investments embodied in human resources contributes to further underdevelopment of Kenya and to keeping a majority of her people in the vicious circle of ill-health and poverty. (biomedcentral.com)
  • productivity
  • They also develop a model in which the growth rate of total factor productivity depends on a nation's human capital stock level. (hindawi.com)
  • The empirical literature documents the relationship between FDI and host economy growth, investment, and productivity. (voxeu.org)
  • The MDCR shows that Panama has significant weaknesses in the area of education and skills, innovation and infrastructure gaps, particularly at sub-national level, that directly affect productivity and inclusiveness. (oecd.org)
  • Low industrial and agriculture productivity growth translate into high inequalities at the regional level. (oecd.org)
  • Still another is the belief that the productivity of the economy as a whole increases as rapidly as total output rises, relative to measured inputs, although the estimates of inputs fail to include many improvements in the quality of both material factors and human agents. (encyclopedia.com)
  • While despoiling both the natural and the built environment, capital has also achieved levels of productivity and the capacity to expand use values never before imagined. (libcom.org)
  • plunder
  • Capital has always had a tendency to plunder and vitiate the human, social, and natural conditions of production by treating these conditions as commodities, even though they are not produced as commodities. (monthlyreview.org)
  • Crisis
  • The first part of the paper provides an overview of economic fundamentals in Asia on the eve of the crisis, with emphasis on current account imbalances, quantity and quality of financial overlending,' banking problems, and composition, maturity and size of capital inflows. (worldcat.org)
  • In Accumulation Crisis (1984) and The Meaning of Crisis (1987), he surveyed and synthesized alternative viewpoints on the economic, political, cultural and psychological crisis tendencies of late-twentieth century capitalism. (monthlyreview.org)
  • Therefore, both developed and developing countries need to urgently develop and implement strategies for addressing the health human resource crisis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1999
  • Between 1999 and 2004, the Indian bottled water market grew at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 25 per cent - the highest in the world. (scribd.com)
  • coefficients
  • A social process is replaced by technical coefficients and social relations by the distribution of the production between the social classes. (marxists.org)
  • indicators
  • Benhabib and Spiegel [ 16 ] use cross-country estimates of physical and human capital stocks as indicators and run the growth accounting regressions implied by a Cobb-Douglas production function. (hindawi.com)
  • Resources
  • Intangible Investment and Human Resources. (repec.org)
  • Developed countries continue to deprive Kenya of millions of dollars worth of investments embodied in her human resources for health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These sources include not only such material forms as natural resources and reproducible producer and consumer goods and commodities but also such human forms as the inherited and acquired abilities of producers and consumers. (encyclopedia.com)
  • institutional
  • The Institutional Environment for Economic Growth. (mcc.gov)
  • Attempted remedies have included providing foreign aid, investing in machines, fostering education, controlling population growth, and making aid loans as well as forgiving those loans on condition of institutional reforms. (worldcat.org)
  • level
  • The joint estimation of the dynamic equations provides evidence about the level effect of eduaction on economic growth. (repec.org)
  • Rather, recent research at both the overall and firm level has converged on the view that the effect of FDI on the host economy is conditional . (voxeu.org)
  • At the level of abstraction of Volume 1 of Capital - the immediate process of production - where capital as such was not distinguished from individual capital, this creates no difficulties. (marxists.org)
  • More importantly, investment in girls' education and achieving gender equality in education will be the most effective measure to increase India's population education level and improve its overall values of human capital. (hindawi.com)
  • Measures
  • This indicator measures country performance on the quality of the electoral process, political pluralism and participation, government corruption and transparency, and fair political treatment of ethnic groups. (mcc.gov)
  • model
  • This paper uses the Resource Based View and Capacities (RBV) approach to construct a hypothetical relationships model between Human Capital construct and business results. (igi-global.com)
  • Countries
  • This study aims to determine the long-run impact of physical and human capital on GDP by using the panel data set of 13 developed and 11 developing countries over the period 1970-2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Hence in one stream, the overall effect of FDI is argued to depend upon whether recipient countries have attained minimum levels of human capital (Borensztein et al. (voxeu.org)
  • The governments of almost all developing countries are facing the long-term twin problems of capital shortages and high fiscal debts, resulting from their attempts to modernize the state forms and economic and financial relations left by colonialism or copied from western political culture. (monthlyreview.org)
  • This study was approached as follows: First, the economic growth of the countries under study was examined. (unt.edu)
  • Framework
  • An all-inclusive concept of capital also provides a framework for determining how closely the private and public sectors of an economy come to an optimum in investing in each of the sources of income streams. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thus
  • Humans expend energy, and thus consume calories from nutrition, as a function of living. (startingstrength.com)
  • Thus, a human must consume more calories than are being expended to promote muscle growth. (startingstrength.com)
  • These problems were also related to the impact of the East Asian financial turmoil in the late 1990s, at the same time as China was in the process of joining the World Trade Organization, and thus becoming increasingly integrated into the world competition of financial capital. (monthlyreview.org)
  • These improvements in quality are the product of investment and thus are forms of capital. (encyclopedia.com)
  • income
  • A conventional investment-driven growth, Panama stands to benefit from shifting to a knowledge-driven growth and a more diversified economic structure so as to expand the benefits of the Canal to other sectors and regions, and ultimately reach its target of becoming a high-income economy by 2021. (oecd.org)
  • This concept treats all sources of income streams as forms of capital. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Another is the mistaken inference that the real capital-income ratio is necessarily declining over time when the observed ratio of material capital to income falls. (encyclopedia.com)
  • important
  • Taken together, their results underline the important role played by unmeasured heterogeneity, but nonetheless suggest that teenage childbearing is associated with a substantial cost in terms of reduced human capital. (ldsindex.org)
  • An important aspect of the globalisation process (Rodrik 2011) is foreign direct investment (FDI), which underlies the fragmentation of supply chains (Baldwin 2016) and the emergence of global companies (Navaretti et al. (voxeu.org)
  • relationship
  • Panel DOLS and FMOLS panel cointegrated regression models are exploited to detect the magnitude and sign of the cointegration relationship and compare the effect of these physical and human capital variables according to these two different country groups. (hindawi.com)
  • policy
  • Comment by Ross Levine -- Big answers for big questions : the presumption of growth policy / Abhijit Vinayak Banerjee. (worldcat.org)
  • skills
  • Many businesses use continuous learning strategy, encouraging employees to learn new skills continually to be innovative and to try new processes and work in order to achieve a competitive advantage and superior business results. (igi-global.com)
  • education
  • He emphasizes that the main reason of wage differentials between workers is the human capital differentials which are gained by means of education and health. (hindawi.com)
  • firms
  • According to him, technology is a product acquired by these types of firms by means of "learning by doing" process. (hindawi.com)
  • We show that when growth accelerates, a larger share of unskilled workers seeks training, increasing firms' incentives to update job-specific technology (rather than destroying it). (repec.org)
  • political
  • The Political Rights indicator is based on a 10 question checklist grouped into the three subcategories: Electoral Process (3 questions), Political Pluralism and Participation (4 questions), and Functioning of Government (3 questions). (mcc.gov)
  • 2003. The Political Economy of Growth: Democracy and Human Capital. (mcc.gov)
  • O'Connor's eco-Marxism centers on "what is arguably the basic contradiction of world capitalism at the end of the 20th century," that between the multiplication of "environmental and social problems" on the one hand, and the breakdown of "older forms of political, economic, and social regulation of capital" on the other. (monthlyreview.org)