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  • pathogens
  • For many pathogens, and certainly for most commensal microbes, the molecular basis of how host and microbial factors contribute to a beneficial outcome for us, is poorly understood. (duke.edu)
  • genetic
  • Finally, genetic ablation of LDs negatively affected generation of C. trachomatis infectious progeny, consistent with a role for LD biogenesis in optimal chlamydial growth. (duke.edu)
  • cells
  • We determined that LDs isolated from C. trachomatis-infected cells were enriched in proteins related to lipid metabolism, biosynthesis and LD-specific functions. (duke.edu)
  • chlamydial
  • Acquisition of lipids (and other nutrients) from the host cell is a critical step in chlamydial replication. (duke.edu)
  • Pathogen
  • The variations between and within species suggest a high rate of evolutionary change for this particular element of host pathogen interaction and highlight the importance of understanding the limitations of using model systems to study human immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effectiveness of a microbe as a pathogen is largely dependent on its ability to subvert the host defense mechanism. (frontiersin.org)
  • As with other pathogenic organisms, membrane surface molecules of C. jejuni are considered the major mediators of the pathogen-host interactions. (asm.org)
  • The small (∼0.3 µm) elementary body (EB) is the infectious form of the pathogen, which attaches to the host cell and undergoes endocytosis. (rupress.org)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis , the most common human pathogen that causes trachoma and sexually transmitted disease, has developed various strategies for inhibiting host cell apoptosis. (springer.com)
  • Byrne GI, Ojcius DM (2004) Chlamydia and apoptosis: life and death decisions of an intracellular pathogen. (springer.com)
  • pathway
  • The cell lysis pathway involves the activation of cysteine protease, which kills the host cell in the process ( 22 ). (asm.org)
  • In the extrusion pathway, the Chlamydia inclusion pinches off as a vacuole, taking some or all of the bacteria from the current host, leaving the host cell intact ( 2 , 22 ). (asm.org)
  • By identifying key components of this broadly conserved membrane traffic pathway, yeast geneticists generated tools for microbiologists and immunologists to explore whether autophagy contributes to host defenses. (jimmunol.org)
  • The evolution of inflammatory pathway appears to be driven by viruses as the host cell incorporates multiple means of inducing IFN-β to limit viral replication. (asmscience.org)
  • However, the precise upstream mechanisms by which C. trachomatis activates this pathway have not been adequately investigated. (springer.com)
  • bacteria
  • The Chlamydia inclusion is a vacuolar structure in which the bacteria reside and replicate within the host cell, and it can continue to grow until it occupies most of the cell volume ( 48 ). (asm.org)
  • pathogenic
  • Characterisation of receptors of the human-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus - How does the fungus communicate with the environment and the host? (uni-jena.de)
  • genome
  • HHV-6 has unique tendency to integrate its genome into the host genome at subtelomeric regions and achieve a state of latency. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Sanger sequencing confirmed the non-telomeric integration of viral DR sequences in the host genome. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • proteins
  • The asymmetrical distribution of signaling proteins is caused by the physical presence of the Chlamydia inclusion at the cell equator. (asm.org)
  • protein
  • The major outer membrane protein (MOMP), a putative porin and a multifunction surface protein of Campylobacter jejuni , may play an important role in the adaptation of the organism to various host environments. (asm.org)
  • Chlamydiae also share a group-specific lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen and utilize host adenosine triphosphate for the synthesis of chlamydial protein. (asmscience.org)
  • cellular
  • This chapter reviews the various PRRs that recognize chlamydiae and the ensuing cellular signaling pathways that result in cytokine induction. (asmscience.org)
  • microRNAs
  • The mechanism of the polymerase β downregulation was found to be associated with the changes in the host microRNAs and downregulation of tumor suppressor, p53. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • studies
  • The study design of this Phase III trial will address major limitations of prior chlamydia efficacy studies and the findings will reveal both the true efficacy of azithromycin and doxycycline in uncomplicated chlamydia in female adolescents and the factors that predict treatment failure. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that C. trachomatis can reactivate latent HHV-6. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Disease
  • The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends either azithromycin 1 gram (gm) by mouth (PO) once or doxycycline 100 milligrams (mg) PO twice daily (BID) for 7 days as co-equal therapies for uncomplicated chlamydia. (bioportfolio.com)
  • study
  • Study procedures will include collection of at least 3 urine samples to test for chlamydia. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Both drugs are Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for use in the U.S. Females age 12-21 years in good health (based on vital signs and provider's clinical evaluation documented in medical records) who are residing in long-term female-segregated (not co-ed) youth correctional facilities (YCFs) (usual stay >3 weeks) and who are identified as chlamydia-infected would comprise the study population. (bioportfolio.com)
  • If a subject who's GP AC2 from the enrollment treatment visit returns negative for C. trachomatis, they will be categorized as unevaluable and will be removed from the study, then the site investigator will determine whether the subject will complete this treatment or will receive other therapy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Subjects whose GP AC2 at the enrollment treatment visit is positive for C. trachomatis will then be asked to provide a first-void urine sample for repeat chlamydia testing with GP AC2 at 28- and 67-days after study drug initiation [corresponding to the first follow-up visit (study visit 2) and second follow-up visit (study visit 3), respectively]. (bioportfolio.com)