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  • Peptide Hormone
  • Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone [hGH or HGH] in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastrin-cholecystokinin family: gastrin and cholecystokinin Secretin family: secretin, glucagon, vasoactive intestinal peptide and gastric inhibitory peptide Somatostatin family Motilin family Substance P. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone released from the stomach and liver and is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" since high levels of it are found in individuals that are fasting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is a short peptide hormone that has been studied in insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The similarity between AKH and RPCH is so significant that injecting insects with RPCH induces an AKH like response and vice versa AKH was first purified by an English group in 1976 and the chemical structure was determined to be a peptide hormone formed from 10 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first instance where an insect peptide hormone had been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • ovaries
  • Androgen excess (male hormone excess), seen in 60-80% of girls and women with PCOS, is a key problem in the disorder and likely comes from ovaries in most women. (hormone.org)
  • The hormones estrogen and progesterone are produced by the ovaries in premenopausal women and by some other tissues, including fat and skin, in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women and men. (cancer.gov)
  • Hormone cells are typically of a specialized cell type, residing within a particular endocrine gland, such as the thyroid gland, ovaries, and testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • male and female horm
  • The psychologist Alan P. Bell and the sociologists Martin S. Weinberg and Sue Kiefer Hammersmith, writing in Sexual Preference (1981), cited Dörner's book as evidence that homosexuality is linked to "the levels of male and female hormones in a person's system. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • Many women with PCOS have decreased sensitivity to insulin, the hormone that regulates glucose (sugar) in the blood. (hormone.org)
  • These are hormones that are very important in regulating our blood glucose levels. (slideshare.net)
  • During resistance exercise there is a cascade of events that leads to an increase in several hormones that very specifically help deliver needed glucose for energy production to the working muscle cells. (unm.edu)
  • GH is a stress hormone that raises the concentration of glucose and free fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose Counterregulation The action of insulin is counterregulated by glucagon, epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), cortisol, and growth hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • These counterregulatory hormones-the term is usually used in the plural-raise the level of glucose in the blood by promoting glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, ketogenesis, and other catabolic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In healthy people, counterregulatory hormones constitute a principal defense against hypoglycemia, and levels are expected to rise as the glucose falls. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an example, the exercise-induced reduction in blood glucose is *counterregulated* by increases in levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, and growth hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin
  • Some hormones are completely active when released into the bloodstream (as is the case for insulin and growth hormones), while others are prohormones that must be activated in specific cells through a series of activation steps that are commonly highly regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • It is unclear whether combining human growth hormone therapy with standard treatment improves the phosphate levels, growth rates and bone mineral density. (cochrane.org)
  • The human growth hormone treatment improved the z score for height and briefly increased the level of phosphates in the blood. (cochrane.org)
  • However, we found no conclusive evidence that favours the use of human growth hormone treatment for this condition. (cochrane.org)
  • Some clinical trials suggest that combining recombinant human growth hormone therapy with conventional treatment improves growth velocity, phosphate retention , and bone mineral density, but some clinical trials suggest that it appears to aggravate the pre-existent disproportionate stature of such children. (cochrane.org)
  • All randomized controlled trials or quasi- randomized controlled trials comparing growth hormone (alone or combined with conventional treatment) with either placebo or conventional treatment alone in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia. (cochrane.org)
  • Yang HM, Mao M, Yang F, Wan C. Recombinant growth hormone therapy for X-linked hypophosphatemia in children. (cochrane.org)
  • Thyroid hormones are clearly necessary for normal growth in children and young animals, as evidenced by the growth-retardation observed in thyroid deficiency. (colostate.edu)
  • Not surprisingly, the growth-promoting effect of thyroid hormones is intimately intertwined with that of growth hormone , a clear indiction that complex physiologic processes like growth depend upon multiple endocrine controls. (colostate.edu)
  • Instances of negative side effects associated with some of these products have already been observed, and recent animal studies suggest that the use of growth hormone could have a life-shortening effect. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Effects of growth hormone in men over 60 years old. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Effects of long-term elevated serum levels of growth hormone on life expectancy of mice: Lessons from transgenic animals. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In the muscular hypertrophy and strength endurance protocol, there was an increase in cortisol and growth hormone levels in four sets of exercise versus two sets. (unm.edu)
  • A recombinant form of hGH called somatropin (INN) is used as a prescription drug to treat children's growth disorders and adult growth hormone deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years in the United States, some doctors have started to prescribe growth hormone in GH-deficient older patients (but not on healthy people) to increase vitality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The names somatotropin (STH) or somatotropic hormone refer to the growth hormone produced naturally in animals and extracted from carcasses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main growth hormone produced by recombinant DNA technology has the approved generic name somatropin (INN) and the brand name Humatrope, and is properly abbreviated rhGH in the scientific literature. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth hormone variant), are localized in the q22-24 region of chromosome 17 and are closely related to human chorionic somatomammotropin (also known as placental lactogen) genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • GH, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin belong to a group of homologous hormones with growth-promoting and lactogenic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite marked structural similarities between growth hormone from different species, only human and Old World monkey growth hormones have significant effects on the human growth hormone receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In insects, JH (formerly called neotenin) refers to a group of hormones, which ensure growth of the larva, while preventing metamorphosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most insect species contain only juvenile growth hormone (JH) III. (wikipedia.org)
  • By influencing the hormones, the cells' growth can be changed along with its function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hormone receptor interacts with different molecules in order to induce a variety of changes, such as the increase or decrease of nutrient sources, growth, and other metabolic functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This hormone stimulates growth hormone release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormones are vital to plant growth, and, lacking them, plants would be mostly a mass of undifferentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • So they are also known as growth factors or growth hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant hormones affect gene expression and transcription levels, cellular division, and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant hormones are not nutrients, but chemicals that in small amounts promote and influence the growth, development, and differentiation of cells and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not all plant cells respond to hormones, but those cells that do are programmed to respond at specific points in their growth cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants need hormones at very specific times during plant growth and at specific locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of hormones occurs very often at sites of active growth within the meristems, before cells have fully differentiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • antidiuretic
  • To date, the only insect for which both diuretic and antidiuretic hormones (acting directly on tubules) have been isolated is a beetle, the mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Tenebrionidae). (wikipedia.org)
  • Functions of diuretic and antidiuretic hormones include: postprandial diuresis, post-eclosion diuresis, excretion of excess metabolic water, clearance of toxic wastes and restricting metabolite loss (Coast et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the similarity of the two hormones, there is cross-reaction: oxytocin has a slight antidiuretic function, and high levels of AVP can cause uterine contractions. (wikipedia.org)
  • human chorionic go
  • If pregnancy occurs, LH levels will decrease, and luteal function will instead be maintained by the action of hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), a hormone very similar to LH but secreted from the new placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • progesterone
  • Artificial rainfall runoff from agricultural test plots where biosolids were applied as fertilizer contained several different hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progesterone). (usgs.gov)
  • bloodstream
  • Hormone - A chemical that is produced in one part of the body and then travels through the bloodstream to another part of the body where it has its effect. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Hormones travel through the bloodstream and set in motion various body functions. (cancer.org)
  • binds
  • Once inside the nucleus, the hormone binds its receptor, and the hormone-receptor complex interacts with specific sequences of DNA in the promoters of responsive genes. (colostate.edu)
  • When a hormone binds to the receptor, it results in the activation of a signal transduction pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hormone receptor is a receptor molecule that binds to a specific hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The effect of the hormone-receptor complex binding to DNA is to modulate gene expression , either by stimulating or inhibiting transcription of specific genes. (colostate.edu)
  • Transcription of some myosin genes is stimulated by thyroid hormones, while transcription of others in inhibited. (colostate.edu)
  • Synthetic
  • Biosolids are created from the sludge generated by the treatment of sewage at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and are known to contain natural and synthetic hormones. (usgs.gov)
  • Today most patients are treated with levothyroxine, or a similar synthetic thyroid hormone. (wikipedia.org)