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  • type of receptor
  • Depending upon the type of receptor, they are either located in the cytosol and move to the cell nucleus upon activation, or remain in the nucleus waiting for the steroid hormone to enter and activate them. (wn.com)
  • estrogen receptor
  • Leung YK, Lee MT, Lam HM, Tarapore P, Ho SM (2012) Estrogen receptor-beta and breast cancer: translating biology into clinical practice. (springer.com)
  • Smith L, Coleman LJ, Cummings M, Satheesha S, Shaw SO, Speirs V, Hughes TA (2010) Expression of estrogen receptor β isoforms is regulated by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • androgen
  • Peter MB, Shaaban AM, Rajan SS, Maraqa L, Horgan K, Speirs V (2011) Investigating and critically appraising the expression and potential role of androgen receptor in breast carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • University of Miami Miller School of Medicine researchers have found that apart from estrogen receptors, androgen and vitamin D receptors can also be targeted when treating breast cancer. (medindia.net)
  • Since at least 50 percent of patients with breast cancer express all three receptors estrogen, androgen and vitamin D in their tumor cells, this may allow clinicians to consider triple hormone treatments, which is a new concept, as opposed to treating patients by targeting only estrogen receptors. (medindia.net)
  • For instance, early data suggest that targeting androgen and vitamin D receptors in addition to standard chemotherapy may increase effectiveness, and may allow for lower doses of chemotherapy with the same effect. (medindia.net)
  • The study results suggest that two-thirds of these patients may be candidates for androgen and vitamin D-targeted hormone therapy. (medindia.net)
  • characterization
  • The melanin-concentrating hormone system of the rat brain: an immuno- and hybridization histochemical characterization. (springer.com)
  • announce the accomplishment of what has been an elusive goal--the identification and characterization of a GA receptor. (sciencemag.org)
  • Molecular
  • Assessing the clinical and molecular diagnosis of inherited forms of impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormone from a single tertiary center. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular structures of glycoprotein hormones and functions of their carbohydrate components. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • structurally
  • CRF 2 receptors are activated by two structurally similar peptides, urocortin II , and urocortin III , as well as CRH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the auxin receptor and GID1 are structurally distinct, both seem to be modulating targeted destruction of transcriptional regulators by the proteasome. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cancer
  • Breast cancer cells that have ER and PR receptors need these hormones to grow and divide. (cancer.ca)
  • Hormone receptor testing is done at the time of diagnosis for breast cancer or when breast cancer comes back after treatment (recurs). (cancer.ca)
  • Hormone receptor status also affects prognosis and survival for breast cancer. (cancer.ca)
  • The tissue is examined using i mmunohistochemistry tests to identify the number of hormone receptors in the breast cancer cells. (cancer.ca)
  • Skliris GP, Carder PJ, Lansdown MRJ, Speirs V (2001) Immunohistochemical detection of ERβ in breast cancer: towards more detailed receptor profiling? (springer.com)
  • Current breast cancer treatments focus on using drugs to block estrogens from attaching to estrogen receptors on tumor cells. (medindia.net)
  • The findings offer the possibility of expanding the ways patients with breast cancer are treated with hormone therapy. (medindia.net)
  • These hormones can cause cancer to not survive in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathways
  • Upon hormone binding, the receptor can initiate multiple signaling pathways which ultimately lead to changes in the behaviour of the target cells. (wn.com)
  • transcriptional
  • This mechanism is reminiscent of the mechanism by which auxin, another plant hormone, was recently shown to prompt degradation of a different transcriptional suppressor. (sciencemag.org)
  • signal
  • Binding of growth hormone to the receptor leads to receptor dimerization (the receptor may however also exist as a pre-assembled non-functional dimer ) and the activation of an intra- and intercellular signal transduction pathway leading to growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a signaling pathway ends with the increase in production of a nutrient, that nutrient is then a signal back to the receptor that acts as a competitive inhibitor to prevent further production. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatments
  • Moreover, the patients had different survival rates and responses to hormone treatments depending on whether the cell types were in the HR 0, 1, 2, or 3 sub-group. (medindia.net)
  • Moreover, the findings open the door to the option of triple hormone treatments, which may be more effective than single hormone treatments and may help patients who are resistant to anti-estrogen treatments. (medindia.net)