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  • Inhibitor
  • double mutant did not complement its growth in YPD medium containing the respiration inhibitor antimycin A, suggesting that Hxs1 may not function as a glucose sensor. (jove.com)
  • efflux transporter
  • Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. (jove.com)
  • T2DM
  • Despite the wide range of antihyperglycemic drugs available, current therapeutic strategies fall short of optimal glycemic control, especially in patients with long-standing T2DM with complications and/or multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors ( 2 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Fatty
  • This study compared the anti-diabetic durability of empagliflozin treatment (10 mg/kg, p.o.) against glibenclamide (3 mg/kg, p.o.) and liraglutide (0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) on deficient glucose homeostasis and β-cell function in Zucker diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the hypertrophied human heart, fatty acid metabolism is decreased and glucose utilisation is increased. (jove.com)
  • In conclusion, coordinated downregulation of sequential steps involved in fatty acid and oxidative metabolism occur in the human heart, accompanied by upregulation of the glucose transporters. (jove.com)
  • genes
  • Failure to regulate zinc homeostasis thus leads to the development of a variety of pathologies, and mutations in several zinc transporter genes are linked to diseases in man. (springer.com)
  • In silico identification and expression of SLC30 family genes: an expressed sequence tag data mining strategy for the characterization of zinc transporters' tissue expression. (springer.com)
  • As a result, determination both of (a) the identity of the likely transcript(s) involved and (b) the mechanisms of actions on disease risk, require the use of genetically tractable organisms where the expression of candidate genes can be manipulated at will in a cell type-specific manner. (hindawi.com)
  • Cryptococcus contains more than 50 genes sharing high sequence homology with hexose transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (jove.com)
  • canagliflozin
  • and (2) distinct glucose-lowering pathways may exist with canagliflozin, reducing insulin resistance in those who lose weight and enhancing β-cell function, as well as reducing insulin resistance, possibly via the decreased FFA levels, in those who do not lose weight. (springer.com)
  • Canagliflozin may possess distinct, dual glucose-lowering mechanisms depending on body weight changes as follows. (springer.com)
  • regulate
  • A healthy lifestyle such as diet, exercise and weight control can provide the foundation for managing of T 2 DM, however anti-diabetic agents are required to regulate blood glucose levels in the serious conditions. (ijbs.com)
  • obesity
  • 1,2 This has been attributed to a general worldwide increase in prevalence of obesity and similar risk factors such as family history, ethnicity, and sedentary lifestyle may be contributory. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • cells
  • SLC30A3 responds to glucose- and zinc variations in beta-cells and is critical for insulin production and in vivo glucose-metabolism during beta-cell stress. (springer.com)
  • This review discusses the Zn 2+ homeostasis in β-cells with emphasis on the potential signaling role of Zn 2+ to islet biology. (springer.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori Cag type IV secretion system (Cag-T4SS) is a multi-component transporter of oncoprotein CagA across the bacterial membranes into the host epithelial cells. (jove.com)
  • Cells also generate ATP through glycolysis, i.e.: the conversion of glucose to lactate, independent of oxygen. (jove.com)
  • All of the glucose transports were present in the ovarian oocyte, granulosa cells and theca cells in different stage follicles. (jove.com)
  • These pulses reset the natural gap junction, helping the cells to restore homeostasis. (science20.com)
  • regulates
  • The zinc transporter ZIP12 regulates the pulmonary vascular response to chronic hypoxia," Nature , vol. 524, no. 7565, pp. 356-360, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • C. Troche, T. Beker Aydemir, and R. J. Cousins, "Zinc transporter Slc39a14 regulates inflammatory signaling associated with hypertrophic adiposity," American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism , vol. 310, no. 4, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • Glycemic
  • However, despite significant advances in the availability of more physiological insulin preparations, insulin delivery devices including continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) pumps and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems, most patients fail to achieve glycemic targets. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • Efficacy
  • While this study cannot be used to dissociate the absolute anti-diabetic efficacy among those different mechanisms of action, the study demonstrates that empagliflozin exerts a more sustained improvement of glucose homeostasis and β-cell protection ZDF rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • tissues
  • Finally, an implant where different areas can accommodate different cell types, as this is necessary for many multicellular tissues, can be obtained. (jove.com)
  • The GLUT family of glucose transporters consists of thirteen members distributed on different tissues throughout the body 1 . (jove.com)
  • Titration
  • Titration of glucose continues until stable glucose readings are achieved. (jove.com)
  • As an example of this technique, we describe here the titration of glycogen in two cell lines, Chinese hamster lung fibroblast CCL39 and human colon carcinoma LS174, incubated in normoxia (21% O 2 ) versus hypoxia (1% O 2 ). (jove.com)
  • cellular
  • By, this way cellular movement in different directions by different cell types can be controlled. (jove.com)
  • Within the cell, type III effectors subvert host cellular processes to suppress immune responses and promote pathogen growth. (jove.com)
  • Glycogen is the main energetic polymer of glucose in vertebrate animals and plays a crucial role in whole body metabolism as well as in cellular metabolism. (jove.com)
  • concentration
  • Blood glucose concentration throughout the study for all experimental groups: Eu, 1XH, 5XH, Eu-V, 1XH-V, 5XH-V, 5XH-N. The x-axis indicates the day and time points of the study (with insulin or saline injected at time 0, and for the 5XH-N group, naloxone was injected 15 min prior). (nih.gov)
  • Statistically higher insulin concentration but similar zinc release after a glucose challenge was observed from splenic vein samples, as compared to the ones from the portal vein. (hindawi.com)
  • Glucose is the main source of energy for the body, requiring constant regulation of its blood concentration. (jove.com)
  • receptors
  • In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors. (jove.com)
  • blood
  • T 2 DM affects several major organs, including heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys leading to disabling or even life-threatening complications such as cardiac dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and nephropathy [ 7 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • 5 There are periods of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia with marked daily fluctuations in blood glucose. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • Safety was assessed through daily monitoring, veterinary examination, and the measurement of fasting blood glucose, biochemistry and haematology. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, we examined the rat ovary for the presence of Glut1-4 and blood glucose level after eCG (equine chorionic gonadotropin) and anti-eCG antiserum treatment. (jove.com)
  • Characterized by either inadequate insulin production or the inability to utilize insulin produced, T2D results in elevated blood glucose levels. (jove.com)
  • In this procedure, insulin is infused at a constant rate resulting in a drop in blood glucose. (jove.com)
  • To match the drop in blood glucose, D50 is infused. (jove.com)
  • Working in unison, they help maintain normal blood glucose (sugar) and salt levels in the body. (science20.com)
  • baseline
  • Baseline glucose is assessed from the arterial line and used a benchmark throughout the experiment (euglycemia). (jove.com)
  • virulence
  • Its virulence depends on the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system (T4SS), which is essential to establish a replication permissive vacuole known as the Legionella containing vacuole (LCV). (jove.com)
  • Glucose, an important signal molecule and the preferred carbon source for Cryptococcus, plays a critical role in fungal development and virulence. (jove.com)
  • Taken together, our results demonstrate that Hxs1 is a high-affinity glucose transporter and required for fungal virulence. (jove.com)
  • significantly higher
  • In additional, the level of serum glucose in eCG treatment group was significantly higher than others, which is similar with glut expression pattern. (jove.com)
  • levels
  • however, these subjects had similar glucose-lowering levels in comparison with those who lost weight with this drug. (springer.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to examine the association of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2-h PG) and HbA(1)c levels with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and determine the associated cutoff levels in a Chinese population. (jove.com)
  • Studies that provided chromium to human subjects in documented deficiency states noted improved glucose levels. (springer.com)
  • emphasis
  • Hence, T 2 DM is a global problem which needs to a greater emphasis on its prevention and therapeutic strategies in the health system. (ijbs.com)
  • Moreover, we highlighted the anti-diabetic effects of the flavonoids in the management of T 2 DM, through modulating glucose transporters, with particular emphasis on the investigations and recent findings. (ijbs.com)