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  • Antibodies
  • In contrast, lysis of DR2 targets was inhibited only by anti-class II and anti-DR monomorphic antibodies, but not by anti-class I, anti-DQw1, or anti-DP antibodies. (rupress.org)
  • This signal results in the generation of B-cell clones that produce antibodies against antigens located at the basement membrane zone (BMZ), initiating a type II Gell and Coombs hypersensitivity reaction. (medscape.com)
  • The antibodies of immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), and/or immunoglobulin M (IgM) bind to the antigen and initiate complement activation. (medscape.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies employed were commercial ones and peptides were synthesized based on the known sequences of 16 and 38 kDa antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (bestreferat.ru)
  • The primary function of HLA-DR is to present peptide antigens, potentially foreign in origin, to the immune system for the purpose of eliciting or suppressing T-(helper)-cell responses that eventually lead to the production of antibodies against the same peptide antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • These particular antigens stimulate the multiplication of T-helper cells (also called CD4 positive T cells), which in turn stimulate antibody-producing B-cells to produce antibodies to that specific antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, T cells help B cells make antibodies to the same foreign antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autoimmune
  • More recently it has become accepted that autoimmune responses are an integral part of vertebrate immune systems (sometimes termed "natural autoimmunity"), normally prevented from causing disease by the phenomenon of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA-DR is also involved in several autoimmune conditions, disease susceptibility and disease resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk factors for developing antiphospholipid syndrome include:[citation needed] Primary APS genetic marker HLA-DR7 Secondary APS SLE or other autoimmune disorders Genetic markers: HLA-B8, HLA-DR2, HLA-DR3 Race: Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans There is an additional elevated risk of adrenal gland bleeds leading to Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (Neisseria meningitidis caused primary adrenal insufficiency). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in HLA may be linked to autoimmune disease (examples: type I diabetes, coeliac disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptors
  • We have developed a cellular immunotherapy that uses chimeric receptors to selectively redirect therapeutic T cells against myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific T lymphocytes implicated in MS. We generated two heterodimeric receptors that genetically link the human MBP84-102 epitope to HLA-DR2 and either incorporate or lack a TCRzeta signaling domain. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These results provide support for the further development of redirected therapeutic T cells able to counteract pathologic, self-specific T lymphocytes, and specifically validate humanized MBP-DR2-zeta chimeric receptors as a potential therapeutic in MS. (ox.ac.uk)
  • leprosy
  • There are many studies that evaluated both the HLA and immunological mechanisms in tuberculosis and leprosy. (bestreferat.ru)
  • lymphocytes
  • Redirecting therapeutic T cells against myelin-specific T lymphocytes using a humanized myelin basic protein-HLA-DR2-zeta chimeric receptor. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Finally, the chimeric receptor-modified CTL ameliorated or blocked experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) disease mediated by MBP84-102/DR2-specific T lymphocytes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Mϕ play a crucial role in human host defense by secreting cytokines and chemokines, presenting antigen to T lymphocytes and clearing infectious agents. (pnas.org)
  • HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (DP, DM, DOA, DOB, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell to T-lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptide
  • DR2 trangenic mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55 peptide in CFA containing 400 µg of M. tuberculosis s.c. (arvojournals.org)
  • Naive CD4+ T cells (those that have not encountered any antigens before) recovered from these mice 36 hours post-anti-MHC administration showed decreased responsiveness to the antigen pigeon cytochrome C peptide, as determined by Zap-70 phosphorylation, proliferation, and Interleukin-2 production. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complex of HLA-DR (Human Leukocyte Antigen - antigen D Related) and its ligand, a peptide of 9 amino acids in length or longer, constitutes a ligand for the T-cell receptor (TCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • The image off to the side shows a piece of a poisonous bacterial protein (SEI peptide) bound within the binding cleft portion of the HLA-DR1 molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • specificity
  • In addition, they also lysed homozygous DR2 targets with various degrees of efficiency, depending on the Dw specificity of the target cell. (rupress.org)
  • The major function of the T-cell receptor is to confer antigen specificity to T cells. (begellhouse.com)
  • class
  • The data support a stabilizing role of CD8 through its binding to the same class I (but not class II) molecule on the target cell bound by the T cell antigen receptor. (rupress.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC class I proteins associate with β2-microglobulin, which unlike the HLA proteins is encoded by a gene on chromosome 15. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergoes
  • On the molecular level, the initial trigger may be a process by which the OCP antigen undergoes a conformational change that provides antigenic stimulation. (medscape.com)