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  • tissue
  • Because the HLA is a chemical tag that distinguishes "self" from "nonself," the antigen is important in the rejection of transplanted tissue and in the development of certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Defects in the structure of the HLAs is the cause of some diseases where the body's immune system perceives a host antigen as foreign and begins to attack the body's own tissue. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The HLA system is used to assess tissue compatibility. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Furthermore, we provide evidence that HLA-G expressed in this tissue may associate with a subset of insulin-containing granules and may be shuttled to the cell surface in response to secretory stimuli. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, these tissues represent immunologically protected sites (the fetal trophoblast), sites of immune privilege (the anterior chamber of the eye and the testis), or lymphocyte selection (the thymus), suggesting a role for HLA-G in tissue-specific immunoregulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Today, a variety of techniques are applied for HLA tissue typing, providing an important tool to increase the success rate of human transplants. (bio-medicine.org)
  • donor
  • The results will show the degree to which HLA antigens match between you and the donor. (rochester.edu)
  • We analyzed the graft survival according to presence of rejection episode, the result was inferior in patients who had rejection episode, but there was not statistical significance (p=0.102) We compared graft survival of presented patients with standard ABOi KT patients (n=88) and sensitized to donor HLA antigen patients (n=51) performed same period in our institute and there was no statistical significance (p=0.788). (ovid.com)
  • These patterns correlate precisely with the HLA-D phenotype of the HCL donor as determined by reactivity in mixed lymphocyte culture. (pnas.org)
  • loci
  • In contrast, the Class II proteins, which associate with and present exogenous antigens to CD4+ T-cells, are expressed by the HLA DR, -DQ and DP loci. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, the advent of recombinant DNA technology, which paved the way to identifying genetic differences among the HLA loci directly, has led many laboratories to abandon classic serological typing methods. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In general, HLA DNA can be typed either by hybridizing labeled, sequence specific oligonucleotide probes to HLA loci amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or by using PCR to amplify th e HLA DNA directly through differential primer extension. (bio-medicine.org)
  • for example, it is possible to construct PCR primers pre labeled with biotin, and then amplify biotin labeled HLA loci. (bio-medicine.org)
  • For those laboratories with access to Sequencers, it may be the most sensitive, specific and cost effective option to sequence certain HLA loci directly. (bio-medicine.org)
  • assay
  • In fact, this technique was used in the first commercially available PCR test (AmpliType HLA-DQ-alpha Forensic assay system). (bio-medicine.org)
  • Typing
  • Results of HLA typing vary according to a number of factors, including your age, the type of transplant, and your underlying disease. (rochester.edu)
  • The genetics, nomenclature, and typing of HLA, as well as the relationships between HLA and rheumatic disease, are discussed here. (uptodate.com)
  • Typing for HL-A antigens had shown a positive correlation between HL-A 8 and myasthenia gravis which was significantly higher in women than in men. (bmj.com)
  • Today, several different types of HLA DNA typing methods exist and are commonly used by clinical laboratories. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Modifications such as this allow the HLA typing to be completed in two steps with high accuracy. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Of course, each HLA DNA typing technique has its advantages and disadvantages, and clinical laboratory personnel must choose the most appropriate test for their needs based on cost, average turnaround time, required resolution, and number of average samples per day. (bio-medicine.org)
  • transplant
  • A) Representative Spearman plots depicting antigen reactivities in two serum samples obtained 12 months apart from a normal volunteer (left panel) and pretransplant and 12 months post-transplant from an individual transplant recipient with stable kidney function (cohort 1, middle panel) and an individual transplant recipient with TG (cohort 2, right panel). (asnjournals.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus phenomenon is referred to as antigen presentation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thus, HLA-G presentation by endocrine cells may be regulated in concert with their secretory activity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The latter feature characterizes the expression of HLA-G. Thus, high levels of HLA-G were described in the blastocyst and the fetal cytotrophoblast during the 1st trimester of pregnancy, the epithelial cells of the anterior chamber of the eye, the testis, and the fetal liver ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It has been suggested that the maternal NK recognition of this downregulation is balanced by the expression of HLA-G, thus preventing damage to the placenta. (rupress.org)
  • hypothesis
  • In support of this hypothesis, it was demonstrated that presentation of HLA-G on target cells downregulates effector functions in NK cells, antigen-specific CD8 + T cells, and monocytes through engagement of inhibitory receptors expressed on effector cells ( 5 - 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • nomenclature
  • As the study of HLA genetics has evolved and expanded, the nomenclature has been continually altered, posing challenges for those attempting to follow the science. (uptodate.com)
  • class
  • Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T Lymphocytes . (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Here, we describe the partial inhibition of NK lysis of the MHC class I negative cell line LCL721.221 upon HLA-G transfection. (rupress.org)
  • variants
  • Six unique electrophoretic variants were observed among 17 HLA-DR4 homozygous cell lines (HCL) analyzed. (pnas.org)
  • conclusion
  • In conclusion, NK inhibition by HLA-G via NKAT3 may contribute to the survival of the fetal semiallograft in the mother during pregnancy. (rupress.org)
  • Caucasian
  • Typically, people of primarily Caucasian heritage have a naturally higher level of HLA-B27, notes MedlinePlus. (reference.com)