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  • molecules
  • Rather, class II molecules are on the surface of immune cells such as macrophages and B-lymphocytes that are designed to process cells and present the antigens from these cells to T lymphocytes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Antibody
  • Advances in desensitization therapy and immunosuppressants made kidney transplantation possible in a recipient who had incompatible blood type with donor or preformed antibody against donor human leukocyte antigen (HLA). (ovid.com)
  • A recipient who had combined immunologic risk of blood type incompatibility and preformed antibody against donor HLA antigen presented comparable outcome to a patient who had one of these risk factors. (ovid.com)
  • Epitope analysis of HLA-DQ antigens: what does the antibody see? (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ has emerged as the alloantibody most frequently associated with the generation of de novo donor-specific antibody (DSA), antibody-mediated-rejection, and unfavorable transplantation outcome. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The serotype is determined by the antibody recognition of α11 subset of HLA-A α-chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • DQ8 is determined by the antibody recognition of β8 and is complicated by the fact that DQ8 recognizes some HLA-DQB1*03 encoded isoforms well, partially or not well at all (See serology) DQ β3.2 and β3.5 are best recognized as DQ8. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Because the HLA is a chemical tag that distinguishes "self" from "nonself," the antigen is important in the rejection of transplanted tissue and in the development of certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Defects in the structure of the HLAs is the cause of some diseases where the body's immune system perceives a host antigen as foreign and begins to attack the body's own tissue. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The HLA system is used to assess tissue compatibility. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tissue Antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • The results will show the degree to which HLA antigens match between you and the donor. (rochester.edu)
  • We analyzed the graft survival according to presence of rejection episode, the result was inferior in patients who had rejection episode, but there was not statistical significance (p=0.102) We compared graft survival of presented patients with standard ABOi KT patients (n=88) and sensitized to donor HLA antigen patients (n=51) performed same period in our institute and there was no statistical significance (p=0.788). (ovid.com)
  • nomenclature
  • As the study of HLA genetics has evolved and expanded, the nomenclature has been continually altered, posing challenges for those attempting to follow the science. (uptodate.com)
  • The genetics, nomenclature, and typing of HLA, as well as the relationships between HLA and rheumatic disease, are discussed here. (uptodate.com)
  • http://hla.alleles.org/nomenclature/ (Accessed on November 29, 2017). (uptodate.com)
  • The current nomenclature system does not reflect the true nature of HLA-DQ polymorphism. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • linkage
  • The results do not support a linkage between HLA and schizophrenia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Linkage studies indicate a factor in the HLA-class I region is more greatly associated, with HLA-B38 so far the only linked allele Marsh SG, Albert ED, Bodmer WF, et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Results of HLA typing vary according to a number of factors, including your age, the type of transplant, and your underlying disease. (rochester.edu)
  • However, A3 and A11 can process and load antigens even when proteosome activity is diminished suggesting an alternative mechanism for loading which may benefit in recovery from some disease but impair recovery of others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early in the study of HLA an association was found between HL A1,B8 in allergic disease, these are found to link to extended HLA A1-B8 region. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA-B51 is found more frequently in disease that has an eye involvement. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymorphism
  • We have studied the HLA-class I and class II antigen distribution in a sample of 75 Spanish Gypsies and 74 Spanish non-Gypsies by serology, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and protein chain reaction and hybridization with allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • genetic
  • 5. In view of a previous report of HLA antigens in a Spanish diabetic population, this study does not support the suggestion of a genetic and possibly HLA-linked connection between essential hypertension and diabetes mellitus among the Spanish population. (clinsci.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Macrophages are directly involved in the fight against invading micro-organisms as well as being antigen-presenting cells which activate lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • 2. The prevalence of HLA B8 was 16.4% in hypertensive patients and 8.9% in controls ( P = 0.07). (clinsci.org)
  • 3. The prevalence of HLA B12 was 34.5% in hypertensive patients and 26.9% in the control group (N.S.). In WHO stage III hypertension HLA B12 was found in six out of 10 patients. (clinsci.org)
  • 6. A positive family history of hypertension tended to be more common in those patients with essential hypertension associated with HLA B8. (clinsci.org)
  • The serum of 100 patients with myasthenia gravis and 441 of their first-degree relatives was studied for the presence of autoantibodies against several antigens. (bmj.com)
  • transplant
  • A) Representative Spearman plots depicting antigen reactivities in two serum samples obtained 12 months apart from a normal volunteer (left panel) and pretransplant and 12 months post-transplant from an individual transplant recipient with stable kidney function (cohort 1, middle panel) and an individual transplant recipient with TG (cohort 2, right panel). (asnjournals.org)
  • The generation of HLA-DQ de novo DSA was interrogated in 40 transplant recipients who were immunologically naive before their failed transplantation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • complex
  • Indeed much of the early knowledge of the antigen complex came from work on mice in the early decades of the twentieth century. (encyclopedia.com)
  • alleles
  • Supertypes are groups of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles which bind overlapping sets of peptides due to sharing specific residues at the anchor positions-the B and F pockets-of the peptide-binding region (PBR). (springer.com)
  • HLA alleles within the same supertype are expected to be functionally similar, while those from different supertypes are expected to be functionally distinct, presenting different sets of peptides. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, at HLA-B, the reassignment of alleles into random groups does not reproduce the patterns of population differentiation observed with supertypes. (springer.com)
  • The first comprehensive Class I cross-reactive screening assay containing a panel of 120 Class I HLA alleles on a Luminex platform. (pureproteinllc.com)
  • allelic
  • In this study, we applied the supertype classification to the HLA-A and HLA-B data of 55 worldwide populations in order to investigate the effect of natural selection on supertype rather than allelic variation at these loci. (springer.com)
  • We thus conclude that differently from HLA-A, for which supertype and allelic variation show similar patterns of nucleotide diversity within and between populations, HLA-B has likely evolved through specific adaptations of its B pocket to local pathogens. (springer.com)
  • 1992). "Serologic cross-reactivities poorly reflect allelic relationships in the HLA-B12 and HLA-B21 groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • DQB1*0301 the DQ7 gene, is detailed on HLA-DQ7 DQB1*0302 the DQ8 gene, is detailed on HLA-DQ8 DQB1*0303 the DQ9 gene, is detailed on HLA-DQ9 DQB1*0304 is similar in structure and function to DQB1*0301 generally considered to be HLA-DQ7 DQB1*0305 is similar in structure and function to DQB1*0302 generally considered to be HLA-DQ8 Goyert SM, Silver J (1983). (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily A member 3 (LILR-A3) also known as CD85 antigen-like family member E (CD85e), immunoglobulin-like transcript 6 (ILT-6), and leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor 4 (LIR-4) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LILRA3 gene located within the eukocyte receptor complex on chromosome 19q13.4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the downstream melanoma antigen family A, 5 (MAGEA5) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • Once released into the blood and lymph, these antibody molecules bind to the target antigen (foreign substance) and initiate its neutralization or destruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • however it is highly homologous to other LILR genes, and can bind human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Therefore, if secreted, the LILRA3 might impair interactions of membrane-bound LILRs (such as LILRB1, an inhibitory receptor expressed on effector and memory CD8 T cells) with their HLA ligands, thus modulating immune reactions and influencing susceptibility to disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • diversity
  • Further supporting this hypothesis, several studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between the diversity level of some HLA genes and the richness of environmental pathogens (Prugnolle et al. (springer.com)
  • antibody
  • Unlike their precursors, they cannot switch antibody classes , cannot act as antigen-presenting cells because they no longer display MHC-II, and do not take up antigen because they no longer display significant quantities of immunoglobulin on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The serotype is determined by the antibody recognition of α36 subset of HLA-A α-chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • At HLA-A, low levels of variation are observed at B and F pockets and randomized He and G ST do not differ from the observed data. (springer.com)
  • However, continued exposure to antigen through those low levels of immunoglobulin is important, as it partly determines the cell's lifespan. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, cross-reactivities (or the lack of them) between hantaviruses should be taken into consideration when choosing the right antigen in a given geographical area, or when interpreting the exact infecting agent. (springer.com)
  • high
  • By contrast, HLA-B concentrates most of the differences between supertypes, the B pocket showing a particularly high level of variation. (springer.com)
  • cell
  • After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which are taken up by the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis and processed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we based the route of immunization on our observations in murine models of enhanced antigen-specific T-cell proliferation and IFNγ production using intranodal injections when compared with subcutaneous or intravenous routes of immunization ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • association
  • We show that the MHC association is conferred by HLA-A*29:02 with unusually large effect size. (uu.nl)