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  • tumor-specific
  • Significant improvements may result from the selection of the appropriate tumor-specific target antigen (to overcome the peripheral immune tolerance) and/or the development of immunization strategies effective at inducing a protective immune response. (asm.org)
  • In this context, considering the disappointing results up to now, the quest for specific and selective tumor antigens for developing tumor-specific cancer vaccines, optimal delivery systems (i.e., dendritic cell [DC]-based vaccines), adjuvants, and strategies to overcome immune tolerance and regulatory T (Treg) cell responses is the main goal for several research groups and leading health care companies. (asm.org)
  • lymphocyte
  • Among men of predominantly European ethnic origin, 49 with very rapid 2-year declines in CD4+ lymphocyte counts showed significant differences in antigen frequencies from 59 men matched for ethnic background, study centre, and initial CD4+ cell count but with little or no decline in CD4+ cells. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, HIV-1 with Nef138-10(2F) appears to be a cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte escape mutant and has been transmitted frequently by sexual contact among the highly A24-positive Japanese population. (asm.org)
  • T lymphocyte ("T cell") antigen receptors ("TCR") recognize endogenously processed fragments of antigens that are presented to T cells in association with major histocompatibility complex ("MHC") class I or class II molecules. (google.com)
  • 2402
  • Because 70% of the Japanese population expresses HLA-A24 (genotype HLA-A*2402), we wished to assess the effect of the dominant HLA type on the evolution and transmission of HIV-1 among the Japanese population. (asm.org)
  • The Japanese population is less polymorphic than other populations in that 70% express HLA-A24 (genotype HLA-A*2402) ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • All patients serologically typed as A24 positive proved to be positive for HLA-A*2402. (asm.org)
  • A highly restricted T-cell receptor dominates the CD8+ T-cell response to parvovirus B19 infection in HLA-A*2402-positive individuals. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Six of seven HLA-A*2402-positive individuals with acute parvovirus B19 infections made vigorous CD8-positive cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses to the viral epitope FYTPLADQF. (ox.ac.uk)
  • histocompatibility
  • Mutations leading to CTL escape may occur at amino acid residues essential for major histocompatibility complex binding ( 8 ), for T-cell-receptor recognition ( 10 ), or in flanking regions that affect antigen processing ( 3 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Vaccines
  • However, while vaccines have proven to be effective in combating pathogenic microorganisms, based on the immune recognition of these foreign antigens, vaccines aimed at inducing effective antitumor activity are still unsatisfactory. (asm.org)
  • This review aims to describe the vast spectrum of tumor antigens and strategies to develop cancer vaccines. (asm.org)
  • Active immunotherapy is aimed either at eliciting a specific de novo host immune response against selected tumor antigens (Ags) by employing cancer vaccines or at amplifying the existing antitumor immune response by administering nonspecific proinflammatory molecules or adjuvants. (asm.org)
  • protein
  • Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a highly glycosylated cell surface protein which is overexpressed in several malignancies including prostate, pancreas, and urinary bladder cancers. (hindawi.com)
  • An individual's T cells recognize and are activated by protein antigens only if a fragment of the antigen is properly presented on the surface of a target cell. (google.com)
  • Gene
  • Twenty-three out of 25 A24-positive Japanese patients had a Y-to-F substitution at the second position [Nef138-10(2F)] in an immunodominant A24-restricted CTL epitope in their HIV-1 nef gene (Nef138-10). (asm.org)
  • We therefore examined an immunodominant CTL epitope in the nef gene (Nef138-10) in HLA-A24-positive and -negative hemophiliacs and compared the sequence with sequences from those patients infected through USI ( 13 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • These in vitro -induced effector cells showed significant cytotoxicity against a SCCHN cell line expressing both HLA-A2 and the MAGE-3 gene. (nii.ac.jp)
  • mutants
  • We speculated that stable CTL escape mutants from HLA-A24 might be transmitted more frequently in Japan than in other countries where the prevalence of HLA-A24 is much lower. (asm.org)
  • We included Caucasian Australians infected through USI as another control of transmission of CTL escape mutants in a country where HLA-A24 is less prevalent ( 19 ). (asm.org)
  • human
  • 108 seropositive homosexual men were examined for associations between HLA phenotype and progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. (nih.gov)
  • Thirteen children and their 8 HBV carrier mothers (8 families), who were positive for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A24, were enrolled in this study. (springer.com)
  • patients
  • The patients were required to be either HLA-A24 + or HLA-A2 + and had histologically proven glioblastoma multiforme (grade 4 glioma) or anaplastic astrocytoma (grade 3 glioma) according to the WHO criteria. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In selected patients, HLA genotype was determined after written informed consent was obtained. (asm.org)
  • cancers
  • This review focuses on HER2/neu, a tumour-associated antigen that is overexpressed in 10-40% of breast cancers and other carcinomata. (biomedcentral.com)
  • negative
  • All of the 13 children received immunoprophylactic treatment and became negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) after birth. (springer.com)