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  • Allele
  • Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 Allele Family . (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Reliable allele frequencies are also important in allogeneic unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to determine the likelihood of finding closely HLA matched donors for each patient.The genetic diversity of the HLA loci is responsible for the efficiency of the immune system in eliminating cells carrying foreign antigens. (blogspot.com)
  • A number of observations indicate that strong selection is acting on the HLA region, including its extensive polymorphism with very even allele frequencies, the preferential occurrence of high levels of variability at positions critical to antigen recognition, the great age of alleles and the patterns of linkage disequilibrium among loci. (blogspot.com)
  • Each HLA allele name has a unique number corresponding to up to four sets of digits separated by colons. (blogspot.com)
  • receptors
  • In this report, we studied chemokine receptors (CCR2, CCR5), chemokine (SDF1), and HLA class I and II genotypes in LT-NP and attempted to find out whether any particular pattern of host genetics could be implicated in the LT-NP phenotype. (bloodjournal.org)
  • responses
  • The radiation-induced effects on MHC class I antigen presentation may have important consequences because combining radiotherapy with immunotherapy results in superior antitumor responses. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast, other TAAs, including most antigens of the MAGE family, do not usually elicit spontaneous T cell responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Indeed, in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown T-cell-specific responses against MUC1 in an HLA-restricted and HLA-unrestricted manner, although some animal models have highlighted the possible development of tolerogenic responses against this antigen. (hindawi.com)
  • There is evidence that tumor patients can spontaneously raise T cell responses against tumor antigens. (fu-berlin.de)
  • To improve vaccine strategies, it may help to increase the number of antigens targeted, to increase the magnitude of responses, to target both CD4 and CD8 T cells, and to increase persistence of the immune response through induction of memory. (labome.org)
  • Nonspecific stimulation of CD4 T cells may induce helper T cell responses at the site of vaccination;however, maintaining CD4 T-cell help at sites of tumor may require that they are stimulated more specifically toward melanoma antigens. (labome.org)
  • frequency
  • The frequency of HLA A24 was also significantly higher in rapid than in slow decliners (odds ratio 4.3). (nih.gov)
  • The aim of the study was the analysis of the frequency of HLA class I antigens in the Polish population of children suffering from coeliac disease and their families, as well as the estimation of the relative risk of incidence, etiologic fraction (EF) and preventive fraction (PF) indexes. (medscimonit.com)
  • haplotype
  • Relations of varying strength (odds ratios 6.1-10.3) were seen with several HLA antigens often linked in the A1-Cw7-B8-DR3 haplotype. (nih.gov)
  • antibodies
  • Antibodies have been developed to target externalized antigens, have also been engineered to enter into cells or may be expressed intracellularly with the aim of binding intracellular antigens. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review will summarize multiple approaches to targeting intracellular antigens with therapeutic antibodies, in particular describing the production and characterization of TCRm antibodies, the factors influencing their target identification, their advantages and disadvantages in the context of TCR therapies, and the potential to advance TCRm-based therapies into the clinic. (frontiersin.org)
  • More recently, there are three broad approaches whereby antibodies have been used to target intracellular antigens. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1) It is possible for antibodies (or their derivatives) to target antigens that are normally intracellular but become externalized (for example, during disease). (frontiersin.org)
  • Antigens of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells defined by murine monoclonal antibodies. (atcc.org)
  • TAAs
  • With the availability of sensitive methods, naturally occurring T cells directed against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) can be frequently detected in cancer patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Antibody
  • Historically the consensus in the immunotherapy field has been that antibody therapy is amenable to targeting only extracellular antigens that are accessible for antibody binding. (frontiersin.org)
  • Consistent with this train of thought, the targets of approved antibody therapies are predominantly extracellular antigens ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • tumor cell
  • These data suggest that, with appropriate manipulation of the immune system, tumor cell destruction in situ may provide a polyvalent tumor vaccine without a requirement for knowledge of the targeted antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • locus
  • There is a need to develop a measure of this genetic diversity in order to assess how different populations are equipped to respond to foreign-antigen exposure, and to evaluate the contribution of each HLA locus. (blogspot.com)
  • clinical trial
  • performed a pionnering clinical trial demonstrating the rapid generation of T cell immunity against recall antigens and Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin in normal volunteers [ 4 ] and Schüler-Thurner et al. (biomedcentral.com)